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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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tLit?{-  e- 17 D 












K  OF  TH 








VOL.  XV. 


;  FEOITBD  FOR  1.  MICHOLS   AMD   BOM ;     F.   C.   AND  J.  MTINOTON ;  «T.    PAYNE  | 

»  OtSlDGB   AND  SON  j    O.  AND  W.  NICOL  ;   WILKIB  AND  S0B1N80N  }   J.  WALXBR  | 

\  m.    L£A;     W.    LOWNDBSj      WHITB,     COCHBANBy    AND   CO.;    T.   EGBBTON  | 


[  OBMB,  AND  BBOWN  j  CADBLL  AND  DAVIBS  ;  C.  LAW  {  J.  BOOKBR  ;  J.  CUTHBLL  ;  j 

CLABKE  AND  SONS  ;  J.  AMD  A.  ABCH  }  J.  HABRI8  |   BLACB»  PARRY,  AND  CO. ;  1 

J.    BOOTH;     J.    MAWMAN;     OALX,     CUBTIS»     AND    FBNNBB;     B.    H.    BYANS ;  J 




I  1814. 

1    I  • 

•  t 




FoUGEROUX  DE  BONDAROY  (Augustus  Dennis); 
a  learned  Frenchman^-  and  member  of  the  academy  of 
sciences,  was  born  at  Paris  Oct.  10,  1732.  He  was  th^ 
nephew  of  the  celebrated  Duhamel,  and  acquired  a  skniiai^ 
taste  for  those  studies  that  end  iij^^jeqts  of  real  utility.  He 
travelled  over  Anjou  and  Britt^^^^rtrivj^tigate  the  nature 
of  the  slate-quarries,  and  then  \ve.i1 1  to  tuples  to  make  ob» 
servations  on  the  alum  mines  and  other  paturai  productions; 
On  his  return  he  had  the  n^^fortuiie  to  4^e  his  tutor  and 
«ncle  Duhamely  to.  whose  es^;|^'4s<e  succeeded^  and  on 
which  he  carried  on  very  extensW  agricultural  improve* 
fnents  and  experiments,  and  acquired  by  his  amiable  pri* 
•vate  character  the  esteem  of  every  one  who  knew  him. 
He  died  Dec.  28,  1789,  leaving  the  following  valuable 
j>i»blicattons :  1.  <*  Memoires  sur  la  formation  des  Os,*^' 
1760,  8vo,  in  which,  with  some  discoveries  of  his  own, 
he  ably  defends  his  uticle^s  theory  on  that  part  of  physio- 
Jogy.  a.  "  Uart  de  PArdoisier,"  1762.  2.  «  L'art  de 
travailler  les  cuirs  dor^s."  4.  "  L'art  de  Tonnelier," 
1752.  5,  "  L'art  de.  Coutelier,'*  /  All  these  form  part  of 
the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences.  6.  '*  Rechercfaes 
aur  les  mines  d' Herculeuieum,  et  sur  les  lumieres  qm 
peuvent  en  resulter  ;  av^c  un  trait6  sur  la  fabrication  des 
mosaiques,''  1769,  8vo:  7.  "  Observations  faites.  snr  les 
^otes  de  Normandie,"  1773,  4to.  He  was  the  author  also 
of  a  great  number  of  miscellaneous  papers  in  the  Memoirs 
-of  the  Academy.^  /, 

1  Elogcs  del  Aeademici«S8,  vol.  V.— Diet  Hist. 

Vol.  XV.  B 

i  fOUlLLOU. 

FOUILLOU  (James),  a  celebrated  licentiate  of  the 
Sorbonne,  was  born  in  1670  at  Rochelle,  where  he  studied 
ethics  in  the  Jesuits*  college.  .  He  went  afterwards  to 
Paris,  and  continued  his  studiesjip,  the  community  of  M. 
Giliot,  at  the  coUeg^e  of  St  Barbe^  including  the  time  of 
his  being  licentiate,  and  was  immediately  nominated  theo- 
logal  of  Rocbelle ;  this  office,  however,  he  declined,  nor 
had  he  ever  any  benefice,  but  the  commendatory  priory 
of  Stp  Martin  de  Pronieres,  in  th^  diocese  of  Mende.  M. 
Foaillon  having  engaged  in  the  aflair  of  the  '*  Case  of  Coo- 
science,"  was  obliged  to  conc6ai  himself  in  1703,  and  to 
retire  into  Holland  about  1705 ;  but  the  air  of  that  country 
not  agreeing  with  him,  he  was  seized  with  an  asthma,  which 
proved  incurable^  He  returned  to  Paris  about  1720,  and 
died  there  September  21,  1736,  aged  sixty-six,  leaving 
several  thedogicat  works,  all  anooyoious,  and  all  discoH 
Tering  great  opposttiod  to  the  b^U  Unigeniius.  Thm 
principal  are,  1.  ^*  Considerations  aur  la  Censure  (of  the 
Cas  de  Conscience)  de  M.  Tfiveque  d'Apt,''  2.  <<  Defense 
des  Theologtens  centre  M.  de  Cbartres,''  12mo.  3*  <<  Traitt 
aur  le  Silence  respectueux,"  3  vol&.  12mo.  ^  **  ha  Chi»> 
mere  du  Jansenisme,  et  le  Renversepoent  de  la  Doctrine 
de  St.  Augustin,  par  rOrdonnance  de  Lu^on,  et  de  la 
Rocbelle,"  12mo.  $.  '<  Traite  de  TEquilibre,"  a  smati 
piece  containing  observations  on  the  101  propositions  .cen* 
sured  by  the  bull  Unigeniius,  FouiUou  bad  also  a  great 
ahare  in  the  first  edition  of  ^^  L'Aotioa  de  Dieu  sur  lea 
Creatures,*'  4to,  or  6  vols.  I2mQ;  ^^  GemissemenssurPer^ 
Bo'iaV  12mo;  **  Grands  Hexaples,"  1721,  7  vx>ls.  4tG^ 
and  <<  THistoire  du  Cas  de  Comcience,"  1705,  a  voliu 

FOULIS  (Robert  and  Andssw),  two  learned  oriiiten 
^t  Sc6dand,  were,  it  is  supposed,  natives  of  Glasgow^ 
and  passed  their  early  days  in  obscurity*  Ingenuity  and 
perseverance,  however,  enabled  tbeaa  to  establish  a.  press 
from  which  have  issued  some  of  the  finest  specimMa  of 
correct  and  elegant  printing  which  the  eighteenth  cen* 
tury  has  produced.  Even  Bodoni  of  Parma,  or  Barbou  of 
Paris,  have  not  gone  beyond  some  of  the  productions  from 
the  press  of  Robert  and  Andrew  Foulis.  It  would  ba 
highly  agreeable  to  trace  the  progress  of  these  ingenious 
men,  but  their  history  has  been  neglected  by  their  coiiti*' 

)  ]«orerL->L'Avocal't  DUt  Hfst^ 

*  0  tJ  L  I  ^.  .  ^ 

tfymen,  and  at  thh  distai^ce  little  cati  Ibe  recovered.  Ro- 
bert Foiilis  began  printing  about  1 740,  iarrd  one  of  hlS  first 
e^sayft  iiras  a  good  edition  of  Detnetriiis  Pbalereus,  in  4to. 
In  1^44  be  brought  out  bis  celebrated  immaculate  edition 
6f  Horace,  12mo,  and  soon  aft<ir#ard«  was  In  partnership 
with  his  brother  Andrew.  '  Of  this  edition  of  Horace,  the 
sheets,  as  they  were  printed,  were  hung  up  in  the  dolleg^ 
of  Glasgow,  and  a  reward  Ifas  offered  to  those  who  should 
discover  an  inaccuracy.  It  has  been  several  times  re- 
printed at  Glasgow,  but  not  probably  with  the  same  fidelity. 
The  two  brothers  then  proceeded  ki  producing,  for  thir^ 
y^rs,  a  series  of  correct  and  well  printed  books,  particu- 
larly classics,  which,  either  id  Greek  or  Latin,  are  as  re- 
markable for  their  beauty  and  exactness  as  any  in  the 
Aldine  series.  Among  those  classics  we  may  enumerate 
1.  "  Homer,"  4  vols.  fol.  Gr.  2.  "  Herodotus,"  9  vols. 
12mo.  3.  *•  Thucydides,"  8  vols.  12mo.  4.  "  Xeno- 
pbon,"  8  vols;.  12mo.  5.  "  Epictetus,"  12mo.  6.  **  Lon- 
ginns,"  i2mo.  7.  "  Ciceronis  Opera,'*  20  vols.  12mo. 
«.*<  Horace,**  I2mo  and  4to.  9.  "Virgil,"  i2mo.  10. 
**  TibuUus  and  Propertius,"  12mo.  li.  "Cornelius  Ne- 
pos,"  3  vols.  12mo.  12.  **  Tacitus,"  4  vols.  12mo.  13; 
'*  Juvenal  and  Persius,"  12mo.  14.  "Lucretius,'*  12mo. 
To  these  may  be  added  a  beautiful  edition  of  the  Greek 
Testament,  small  4to  ;  Gray*s  Poems  ;  Pope's  Works ; 
Hales  of  Eton,  &c:  &c.  &c. 

'  It  is  a  melancholy  reflection  that  the  taste  of  these 
Worthy  men  for  the  fine  arts  at  last  brought  about  their 
ruin ;  for  having  engaged  in  the  establishment  of  an  aca- 
demy for  the  instruction  of  youth  in  painting  and  sculpture 
in  Scotland,  llie  enormous  expence  of  sending  pupils  to 
Italy,  to  study  and  copy  the  ancients,  gradually  brought 
on  their  decline  in  the  printing  business  j  and  they  found 
the  city  of  Glasgow  no  fit  soil  to  transplant  the  imitative 
arts^into,  although  the  literary  genius  of  Greece  and  Rome 
had  already  produced  them  ample  fortunes.  Unsuccessful 
as  they  were,  however,  in  this  prcgect,  it  ought  not  to  be 
forgot  that  Robert  Foulis,  with  whom  it  originated,,  was 
the  iirst  who  endeavoured  to  establish  a  school  *of  the  li- 
bera) arts  in  Great  Britain.  Andrew  Foulis  died  in  1774  ; 
and  Robert  in  1776  exhibited  and  sold  at  Christie's  iri 
Pall  Mall,  the  remainder  of  his  paintings.'  The  catalogue 
forms  3  vols. ;  and  tbe  result  of  the  sale  was,  that  after  ail 
the  concomitant  ezpences  were  defrayed^  the  balance  ia 

B  2 

F  O  U  LiJL 

1%    tB 

Be<£sctf  taeiaae  jcav  *<*  *^  recam  to 
FOL'LON  or  FOLLLOX    Joax  Eu&s  , 

tfce  cr^er  of  :::e  JcM».aL     Hb  taany  obscrn 

pm  '■■^ny  a.a>ptcd  to  ts^  csr^es  cf  » 
;  took  care  to  iasCrBct  feiai  in  t^  reqKisiss  for 
m^denjk^^  rue^  iyikce,  aad  he  hrriir  celedcaicd  km  his 

e  tiuji  c&iTtT  jean^  as  ve^  aa  ior 
!edge,  wbicb  es^JMacea  eroy  bcxacb  of 
He  ms  tocccwTcij  appoiBted  lector  of  tue  ool* 
leges  at  H:nr  ar«d  Tootb^,  aod  iLed  of  a  podlental  dis- 
orier  vb  ti:«e  i^ttgy  citT,  ia  l6od.  He  b  koOTii  as  aa  aurhnc 
hf  watnr  tjaec4ogkal  pieces  pankra^^r.j  ^  CoauBentara 
liMoncA  et  Morales  ad  libcos  L  et  IL  Macmtiwrocmm, 
ac^iius  l/rxxioru^os  Excoisibvu,'*  io  2  Tois.  foiio;  ai^d  b j 
Ills  '^  UHtoria  Lecdicfli^tSy  per  Epbcopormn  et  Piiocipma 
Serieai  «i«zc9ta  ab  otigioe  popoli  oKjue  ad  Feidinaodi  Ba- 
tari  temport,^  &c  in  3  toU.  fcH.  Tkb  wock,  tiioogh 
not  verf  aSlj  executed,  is  nid  to  tbrov  nmcfa  light  oo  the 
hiitofy  *A  tbe  Lotr  Coantiie».* 

tOiSUyS  ^WiLLL&3f),  a  Doteh  Latin  po^  stvled  by 
himself^  in  aL  jsion  a>  hb  teal  name,  Gulieimus  GnaphKos, 
was  bom  in  1 495,  at  the  Hagoe,  aod  became  master  of  a 
school  in  that  place.  He  wrote  several  comedies  io  Latin, 
which  sometimes  have  been  souobt  br  foreign  collector^ 
Other  as  rare  than  for  their  inuindc  merit;  jet  the  "  Aco- 
lastos*^  is  comrooo  and  cheap  in  thb  coouixy.  We  know 
pf  three  of  these  comedies:  1.  ^  Martvriom  Johaimis 
Pistorijy**  Lejden.  2.  *'  Uypocrisis,"  a  tragi>comedy, 
1554.  3.  '^  Acohstnsy  de  filio  prodigo,''  a  comedy:  ail 
in  Hro.  He  died  at  Horden  in  Friezeiandy  where  he  had 
arri?ed  to  the  rank  of  a  burgomaster,  in  1 5  58.  Many  criti<:$ 
woold  say  that  nothing  rery  lively  conld  be  expected  ia 
the  comcxlies  of  a  Dutch  buigomaster.  His  <^  Acolastus'* 
was  reprinted  at  Pans,  in  1554,  with  elaborate  notes  by 
Gabriel  Prateolns  ;  aod  is  said,  in  the  title,  to  be  form^ 
•o  diligently  of  sentences  from  Plautus  and  Terence,  that 
to  interpret  it  might  serve  as  an  extensive  comment  oa 
both  those  authors.^ 

>  !f  icbo!«*f  Bowyer.— Lemoine'i  Hist,  of  Primtii^. 
*  yiunru^l'oppm  Bibt  Udg .  >  Ibid. 

F  O  U  N  T  A  I  N  E.  S 

FOOIJTAINE   (Slit  Andrew),   knt.  whose   ancestors 
wer4^  ^ated  at  Narford^  in  Norfolk/  so  early  as  the  reign 
of  Henry  II L  was  c^jfcated  as  a  commoner  of  Christ- 
churchy  Oxford,  under  the  care  of  that  eminent  encou- 
rager  of  literature,  Dr.  Aldrich.     He  at  the  same  time 
studied  under  Dr.  Hickes  the  Anglo-Saxon  language,  and 
its    antiquities ;   of  which  he   published  a  specimen   in 
Hickes's  *'  Thesaurus,**  under  the  title  of  *^  Numismata 
Anglo-*Sa;xonica  et  Anglo^Danica,  breviter  illustrataab  An* 
dreiPountaine,  eq.  aur.  &  aedis  Christi  Oxon.  ahimno.  Oxon; 
170V'  in  which  year  Mr.  Heame  dedicated  to  him  his 
edition  cK  Justin  the  historian.     He  received  the  honour  of 
knighthood  from  king  WiHiam  ;  and  .travelled  over  most 
parts  pf  Europe,  where  he  made  a  large  and  valuable  coU 
lection  of  pictures,  ancient  statues,  medals,  and  inscrip- 
tions; and,  while  in  Italy,  acquired  such  a  knowledge  of 
virtitf  that  the  dealers  in  antiquities  were  not  able  to  im- 
pose oa  him.     In  1709  bis  judgment  and  iabcy  were  ex- 
erted  jn  embellishing  the  <'  Tale  of  a  Tub**  with  designs 
almost  equal  to  the  excellent  satire  they  illustrate.     At 
this  period  he  enjoyed  the  friendship  of  the  most  distini 
goished  wits,  and  of  Swift  in  particular,  who  repeatedly 
mentions  him  in  the  Journal  fa  Stella  in  terms  of  high  re- 
gard.    In   December,   1710,  when  sir  Andrew  was  given^ 
over  by  bis  physicians, 'Swift  Tisited  him,  foretold  his  re- 
covery, and  ^rejoiced  at  it ;  though  he  humourously  says^' 
"  I  have  lost  a  legacy  by  bis  living ;  for  he  told  ine  he  had' 
left  me  a  picture  and  some  books,**  &c.     Sir  Andrew  was^ 
vice*chadiberlatn    to    queen   Caroline  while   princess   of 
Wales,  and  after  she  was  queen.  ^  He  was  also  tutor  to^ 
prince  William,    for  whom   he   was' installed' (as  proxy)', 
knight  of  the  Bath,  and  had  on   that  occasion  a  patent  • 
granted  ^him,  dated  Jan.  14,   1725,  for  lidding  supporters' 
to  his  arms.     Elisabeth  his  sister,  married  colonel  Clent- 
of  Knightwick,  in  Worcestershire.     Of  bis  skill  and  judg- 
ment in  medals  ancient  and  modern,  he  made  no  trifling' 
profit,  by  furnishing  the  most  considerable  cabinets  of  this' 
kingdom;  but  if,  as  Dr.  Warton  tells  us,  Annius  in  the 
^<  Donciad*''  was  meant  for  him,  bis  traffic  was  not  always' 
of  the  most  honourable  kind.'    In  1727  be  was  appointed' 
wardea  of  tbe^ttiint,  an  office  which  he  held  tillnis  death,' 
which  happened  Sept.  4,   1753.     He  was  buried  at  Nar- 
ford,  in  Norfolk,  wnere  he  had  erected  an  elegant  s^fity. 
and  formed  a  fine  collection  of  old  china  ware,  a  yaluable 


^brary,  an  excellent  collection  of  pictareB,  t<At%f  ind 
maoy  curious  pieces  of  antiquity.  Sir  Andrew  lost  many 
miniatures  by  a  fire  |it  White's  original  chocolate^house^ 
in  St*  James's-street,  where  he  had  hired  two  rooms  for  bis 
jcoUections.  A  portrait  of  him,  by  Mr.  Hoare  of  Badi,  is 
fxi  the  collection  at  Wilton  house ;  and  two  medals  of  him 
fire  engraved  in  Snelling's  "  English  Medals/'  1776.  Mont* 
/^ucoui  in  the  preface  to  ^^  L'Aptiquit^  Expliqu^e/'  calls 
§ir  Andrew  Fountaine  an  able  antiquary,  and  says  that, 
during  bis  stay  at  Paris,  that  gentleman  furnished  him  with 
every  piece  of  antiquity  that  he  bad  collected,  which  conid 
t>e  of  use  to  his  work  ;  several  were  accordingly  engraved 
^id  described,  as  appears  by  sir  Andrew's  name  on  the 
plates*  * 

FQUQUIERES  (James),  a  Flemish  painter  of  the  17th 
century,  born  at  Antwerp  in  1 5S6^  was  one  of  the  most 
learned  and  jcelebrated  of  landscape  painters.  Some  have 
pJlaced  him  so  near  Titian,  as  to  make  the  difielrence  of 
their  p^ctjures  consist^  rather  in  the  countries  ifepresented^ 
tbaii  in  the  goodness  of  the  pieces.  The  principles  tbcy 
went  upon  are  the  same>  and  their  colouring  alike  goad 
and  regular*  He  painted  for  Rubens,  of  whom  he  learned 
the  esstentials.  of  his  art  The  elector  palatine  employed 
him  at  Heidelberg,  and  frpqi  thence  he  went  to  Paris,  where^ 
t})QugU  he  worked  a  long  time,  and  was  well  paid,  yet  be 
i;rew  pQor  for  want  of  conduct,  and  died  :1Q^9,  m  the 
iQUse,.of  an  ordinary  painter  called  Silvain,  who  lived  in 
\e,  suburbs  of  St.  Jaques.' 
FOURCllOY  (Anthony  Francis),  an  eminent  French 
c^'bemist,  was  born  at  Paris  June  15,  1755,  where  bis  fa« 
tber  was  an  apothecary,  of  the  same  family  with  the  sub- 
ject of  the  succeeding  article.  In  bis  ninth  year  he  was 
sent  tol  the  coljlege  of  Hai^court,  and  at  fourteen  he  com- 
pleted the  studies  which  were  at  that  time  thought  neces-* 
spgry.  fl^yipg  an  early  attachment  to  music  and  lively 
poetry,;  he  attempted  to  write  for  the  theatre^  and  had  no 
hi^er  ambitiop  tbap  to  becon>e  a  player,  bnt  the  bad 
success  of  one  of  his  Mends  who  had  encoUitaged  t;his  taste, 
cured  him  of  it,  and  for  two  years  he  directed  his  atten- 
tion to  commerce  At  the  end  of  this  time  an  intimate 
friend  of  bis  fatheir  persuaded  him  to  study  medicine,  and 

1  KiehoVf  Bowyer^r-Sowles's  edit  of  Pope,. vol.  V.  p.  302.'«*Swift>«  Wotrki; ' 
tMtaO^x.  s  D'ArgeoYille.— PilkiQgtoD,  and  StrutU 


AlseorSiogly  fae  deTioted  bia  talents  to  aDatokny^  bolatij%. 
ctettii^ry^  and  nataral  history.  About  two  years  after,  in 
1776y.  ha  pQUifihed  a  ticai|3lation  of  Ramazzini,  ^^  on  tke 
diaewes  of  artisans/'  whidi  \^e  enriched  with  notes  and 
iUustratiotis  derived  from  chemiQal  theories  which  were 
then  ^  quite  new^  In  17B0»  be  .received  the  degree  of 
IM.  D.  and  regent  of  that  fiaouky,  in.  spite  of  a  very  oon» 
sideiable  oppoeition  from  bis  brethren,  and.  from  this  time 
bis  cfaeoilcai  opinions  aild  dtsooveries,  i^endered  him  uni** 
vaersally  known  mad  .respeeted.  The  fertility  of  his  in>agi« 
nation,  joined  to  a  style*  dcpiaiiy  easy  and  elegant,,  witk 
gsefllt  precisioil,  attraeibd  the  attention  of  a  numerous 
8elU>ol.  In  17^4,  on*  ^be  death  of  Macquer,  he  obtained 
the  profcBsorsbip  of  chttmistry  in  the  Royal  Gardens,  and 
the  y^eav  following  be  was  admitted  intO'  the  aoadtoiyof 
aeieaeds,  of  the  section  of  anatomy,  but  was  afterwarda 
admired  to  that  of  chemdstryy  -for  which  he  was  more  emt* 
nently  .tpialified.  In  1787,  he  in  conjunction  with  his 
aMtatrynsen  De  Morv^eau,  Lawadsier,  and  Bertbollet,  pro- 
posed the  Qdw  chemical  nomenclature,  which  after  somw 
oppoaition^.  eSeoted>  a  revolation  in  chemical  'Studies.^ 
(See  LAVOiainRi)  AUtbough  ooostahtly  .oocapied  in .  seien^ 
tific  cxpferimciits,  and  in  publishing  various  works,  on  snb-«( 
jeotB  of  vlediciae,  cbemistiiy^  rand  natural  history^  be  felt 
into  the  popular  delasionaboot  thi^  tiaie  of  the  revolutsooy^ 
and  in  1792  waaiappoiated  elisctor  oi  the  tity'  of  Paris,  and 
s^erwards  provisionsi  iiepnty  to.  ithe  (national  convention^ 
whieh,  however,  he  did  not  enter  until  after  the  death  of 
tiie  ksB^ 

'  lo  Sqst  1793,  lie  dbtaioad  the  adciptian  'Of  a  project  hi 
the  regulatimi  of  weights  and  aseaaums^  was  chosen  .se** 
M0tary  in  Octob^r^  and  in. Deiceaiber- following  pnssideni 
of  the  Jabobins^^ who.  denounced  biai  for  his  silence  in  the 
ooovention.  This  be  answered  by. pleading;  his  avdcationk 
and  chemical  labours,  .by  whicb,  he  wh6  had  been  bom  w^th-* 
out  any  fonaiae,  had  been  aUe,  to  maiatain  his  father  and 
sistets.  In  Sept»  17:04,  lie  bsniame  a  mariiber  ^  the  com^ 
jnittee,  of  ^public  :safialiyy  aiyl  was  againv  exacted  to  dt  in 
Be\^,  ll96*.    Besides  proposing  «o&ie  ,  thd 

Suipment.  of  the  arnifies,  jv^ick  )were  Jtben  ooi|l?endiog 
tball  the  powers  of  I^urape,  he^  waa  partioularly  engaged 
i»sohoote  and.asiabiisfametUa'fOr'edutation,  to  wbich^^tieti^ 
RiiaeB^  as  polytecfeaki  nMnal^  £ccl;  wer^  gt^eii^  tbait  ibey 
arif^aons^'  to  oblivaoul^  aaiBnudb  as^jpfbsAbk  tte  anewii 

9  F  O  U  R  C  R  O  Y. 

iostitdtions  of  France:  The  re^'election  of  two  thirds  o^i 
the  convention  removed  him  to  the  council  of  elders^ » 
one>  of  Che  fantastical  modes  of  gov^roment  estabUshad  ini 
179^5,  where,  in  November,  be  had  to  refute  several'^ 
charges  levelled  against  him  respecting  the  murder  of  La-i 
voisier.  He  was  afterwards  nx)miniated  professor  o£  che*; 
mistry,  and  a  member  of  the 'institute;  and  in:May  1791^ 
left  the  council.  During  the  time  he  could  spare  from:  his.^ 
public  employments,  he  continued  ito  cultivate  his  more. 
boooAirable  studies,  and  had  attained  the  highest  rank/ 
aibong,  the  men  of  science  whom  the  revolutionary  tri-: 
btmals  had  spared,  when  Jie  died  Dec.  16,  .1809,  At.tbisi 
period  be  was  a  counsellor  of  state  for.  life^  a:  count  of  theK 
empire,  a  commander  of  .the  ilegion  of  honour,  divectorr? 
general,  of  public  instructionVs^ member  of  the.  nationalr 
institute,  professor  of  chemistry  in  the  medial  ^nd  poly-> 
techtitc  schools,  and  in  the  museuni  of  natuia]t  h-istbry,  and> 
a  niember  of  most  of  the  learned  societies  of  Eiicope.  .  .i 
■  Fourcroy's  works  rank  among  the  most:  cousideraUe* 
which  France  has. produced  iu.chemistry,.  Bod  .must  be,al«; 
lowed  in  a  great  measure  to:  confirm  tbe:higb  e;iieoimtt9i8> 
which  his  countrymen  have  bestowed  on  him,  not  only  as* 
a. profound,  but  a  pleasing  and  elegant  writer.  He  puh<t 
lished,  1.^^  The  translation  jo£.Bama2zini,''  be£ore-men> 
tiozfecd.  2«  ^^  Lemons  elementaires  d'histoire  naturella  et 
decbimie,^  17S2,  12.  vols.  8v6,  of  which  there  have;  been^ 
many  editions,  the  <last  in  1794,.  5  vols.  Evo.-  3.:  ^^  Me^;  observations  pour  servir  doisuite  aux  elemens  dar 
chimie,^'  1784,  Svo.  4.  *^  Principes  de  chimie  a  Tun^e  :der 
yecoleVeterinaire,"  2  vols.  Ifimol  ;  '5i  ".  L!^tvde  connoitre 
€t  d'employer  les  medicameas:  dans  les  maladies  qui  ati«: 
taquent  le  corps  humain,'*  1785,.  2  vols.  8vo.  6.  ^<  EntOH* 
mologia  ParisiensisV  by  Geoffrey,,  an.  improved  edition^' 
1785,  2  vols.  12mo;  7.  ^' Methodede  nbikienclature.ebi«> 
mique  proposer  par  M0rvea%:&c;?'  system .'o£; 
chemical  characters,  1787,  8Vo.  8.  ^^  Essai'surle  phlo«« 
gistique,  et  sur  la  constitution  des  acides,V  from  the  £ngl« 
}ish  of  Kir  wan,  •  with  notes  by  Morveau,-  Lavoisier,  Bec^. 
thole€,.and  Fourcroy,  1788,  8 vo;  9.  ^<  Analyse  chimiqud 
de  I'eau  sulpbureuse  d'Engbein,  pour 'servir' a  Phistoim 
de»  eaux  sulpbureuse  en  *  geaeral,^^  by  Fourcroy  &^  Lm 
Porte,  1788, 'Svo.  10.  f^Ajoaales  de  Chimie,"  by  Four-» 
cv^  and  aji  4he  French  chemiats^  published  pariocticallg^ 
frAm  i789j  to  1794,  jlfi  vol^,  Svo;     U*  **I-a  Medicine 

F  O  U  R  C  RO  Y-  » 

ecXditie  par-  Ics  -  sciences  pWysiques,"  1 79 1 ,"  i  792,  1 2  vbli. 
m^  ^''Philosophie  cbimique^'*  1792.  Fourcroy  wrote  also 
]R  tbe  *^  Magastn  encyclope'clique/'  ai)d  the  **  Journal  de 
T-^cole  polytechnique,"  and  drew  up  several  r^orts  for 
the  national  convention,  whioh  were  published  in  the  Mo- 
tiiteur,  &c/  His  last  publications  were,  I  ^.  '^  Tableaux  pour 
servir  de  resume  aux  lemons  de-  cbimie  faites  a  Tecole  de 
medicine  de  Paris  pendant  1799  et  1800.  14.  <'  Systeme 
des'connoissan^es  cbimiques,  'et  de  leiirs  applications  aux 
f^l^omenes  deia  nature  et  de  I'art,"  1800^  10  vols.  Svo, 
and  5  vtris.  4to.  To  these  exMdstve  labours  may  be  added 
the  'cbemichU  articles  dn  the  Eneydoptedia.  Fourcroy  left 
aPH^E^^aluilblelibraiy;  wbith  was  sold  by  auction  at  Paris, 
in  1810,  and -of  which  Messrs,  Tilliard,  the  booksdilersy-^ 
j^iiMisHed  a  welUatrttiged  catalogue;  -  Several  of  his  wo^ks 
ha^e  been  ti^^tated  into  English.*  ^ 

-^POURClROY  (Charles  Ren^*  de),  cansp,^ 
j^alkl  drbto^of 'the  order  of  St.  Louis,  director  of  the  royal; 
cjcnrps  6f*enginfeersv  member  of  the  eoaticil  at  war  and  of 
thev^sikiL -council,  and  free  associaite  of 'the  academy  of' 
0^i6n^s;  was'  bbtn  at  Paris  Jan.  19,  1715.  ^    He  was  the^ 
son  of  Cbitfle^'de  Fourcroy,  an  emrnenC  deun^ilor  at  lawy 
0nA  Elizabeth  L^Heritier*    Destined  to  the  bar  as-  an  he- 
reditary profession,  bis incUilaf ion  impelled  him  into  the* 
'  pittbs  of  science,  and  accident  led ->  him  into  t)ie  corps  of 
engineers.     An  officer  of •  tha&corps  wa»  involved  in  an 
important  law-suit,   which  he  chose  M*.de  Fourcroy  to 
ccnn^aet     M.  de  Fourcroy  directed  his  son  to  converse 
witb^^be  officer  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  every  infor« 
mation  ile^esdary  to'  the  success  of  Uscaude;  but  the  youth,  * 
whose  thirst  of-  science  was  already  conspicuous^  shewed 
less  attention^ to  the  particulars  of  tiieiawsuit,  than  desire 
eo'be  acqiiaitited  with* what  concerned '''tbe  service  of  an' 
engineer;  and  being  informed  of  the  preliniinary  studies 
i^quisite  to  an  admission  into  that  body,  he  was  soon  ena* 
bled  to  offer  himself  for  examination. 

^  >in'1736  he  was  admitted  into  the  corps,  ^nd  was  era-* 
ployed  ^n(ier  marshal^  d'Asi^d.  >  His  activity,  2eal,  and 
kiM^e^e 'above  bis  years,.'pcocnred -him  the  confidence 
^^bis  comm^hder ;  but,  remairking  an  error  in  a  project 
which  the  niarshal  communicated  to  Hmy  he  informed  him 

.1  1  .   J  • 

1 1 

*  ^  Jiki^&aL'rT'I^f^;»Mo^^riK^*'''^9''^Mtvi^  prefixed  .to||ftlofq«  qf- 
k|sLH>?ary.  • 


qC  it  For  this  sit  first'  be  received  tbooks ;  but'  uoloeUljr 
be  was  iinprudeiit  enough  to  entrust  this  little  secr^of  bii^ 
iwiity  to  his  mother,  and  her  maternal  tendemesa  wsm 
equaUy  indiscreet.  The  marshal  had  not  greatoesli  of 
mind  enough  to  be  indulgent^  or  ability  enough  not  to  be 
afraid  of  avowing  that  be  w^  liable  to.  mistime ;  and  it  ivm. 
long  evident  that  be  had  not  forgiven  M.  de  Fouroroy^ 
bolb  (roai  the  commissions  which  he  gave .  bim»  and  bia 
gcffiieral  regulations,  which  always  tended  to  prevent  bia 
promotion.  From  this  treatment  .M.  de  Fourcroy  learnt*  at; 
at^  early  period  to  expect  aotbing  but  from  bis  aeri^icQs  ; 
amd  he  was  destined  to  prove  by  bis  exampie,  th?t  virtue 
19  one  of  the  roads  to  fortunei  and  perhaps  not  the  least 

£i%aged  in  every  campaign  of  the  war  of  IHO^  be  Waa 
charged,  though  young,  with  some  importafit  commisMOM ;. 
1^  fais  application  during  the  peace  ^prpcored  hitia  eii* 
ployment  m  the .  sacceeding  war^  He  mad^  three  can* 
paigna  in  Germany,  and  in  1761  was  commander  of  the. 
eaigineer^  on  the  coast  of  Brittany^  when  the  Siiglisb  took 
BeUeisle.  In  1 762  be  made  a  campaign  in  Portu|^^  where 
hfi.  was  present  at  the  siege  of  Aimeyda.  Every  day  ML 
de  Fourcroy  worked  fourteen  hours  in  bia  closet,  when  the 
duties  of  the  service  did  not  compel  him  to  quit  it.  Ao 
itresistible  propensity  to  the  study  of  natural  pbilosophir; 
would  have  led  biai  far,  bad  be  not  been  incessantly  called, 
from  it  to  the  duties  of  his  stajtioa.  From  these  be  some* 
times  stole  time  for  making  observations ;  but,  guarding, 
against  the  illusions  of  self-love,  he  communicated  xoosi 
qf  bia  researches  to  meo  of  learning,  who  have  iniierted 
them  in  their  works.  The  microscopical  obsarvatioua  ia 
the  ^  Tfeatiseoo  the  Heart,' '  which,  does  so  much  honour 
tp  Mn  Seoac,  are  almost  all  by  M.  de  Fouicroy.  Many 
(rf  bis  remarks  and  observationa  make  a  part  of  M.  I>u-^ 
hamel'S  ^<  Treatise  .on  flsbing,"  in  which  we  find  tbe  Ant 
traces  of  Spallanzani's  experiments  on  hybridous  ftsb*- 
M.  de  FAUrcroy  bad  seen  these  experiments  in  a  fisb^-pond 
in  Germany,  and  gave  an  .account  of  them  to  Mr.  Dubam 
9ael«  To  bim  M.  Dubamel  was  indebted  alfio  for .  aoma 
wperimenta  with  which  he  baa  enriched  bis  ^^  Treatise  om 
Foresia/'  M.  de  Ja  Laode,  too,  baa  acknowledged  that  h% 
owes  bim  many  facts  and  reflections,  of  which  he  baa 
#MM  Ittroself  in  bis  wdrk  on  Tides.  Amongst  the  ewaya 
that  M.  de  Fourcroy  published  separately^  is  one  in  wtdch 

F  O  U  R  C  R  O  Y.  II 

lie  examines  how  we  may  judge  of  the  hei^t  to  #hich 
certain  birds  of  passage  raise  themselves,  by  knowing  that 
of  the  point  at  which  they  cease  to  be  visible.  He  pub<« 
lished  the  '*  Arc  of  Brick-making,'*  which  forms  a  part  of 
ibe  collection  of  the  academy,  to.  which  he  also  sent  se** 
veral  essays  that  were  approved  and  inserted  in  their  works. 
The  margin  of  his  Collection  of  the  Academy  relative  to 
the  Arts  he  has  filled  with  notes>  as  it  was  his  practice 
when  he  read  it  to  examine  the  calculations,  and  correct 
them  if  they  were  not  accurate. 

M*  de  Fourcroy  was  employed  successively  in  yarioos 
parts  of  the  kingdom ;  prinoipallyy  indeed,  at  Calais^  at 
]^usillon^  and  in  Corsiica.  Everywhere  he  served  with 
diligence,  and  everywhere  he  acquired  esteem  and  venera^ 
tion.  Of  this  conduct  be  received  the  reward  in  the  most 
flattering  manner.  M^  de  St  Germain  being  appointed 
minister  at  war,  wished  to  avail  himself  in  his  oflSce  of  the- 
abilities  of  some  superior  officer  in  the  corps  of  engineers* 
On  thi»  he  consulted  the  directors  of  that  corps,  then  as- 
sembled at  Versailles.  All  with  an'unanimous  voice  pointed 
out  M.  de  Fourciroy,  as  the  most  c^>able  of  fulfilling  the 
intentions  of  the  minister.  M.  de  St.  Getmain,  who  was 
scarcely  acquainted  with  M*  de  Fourcroy,  wrote  to  him 
to  come  to  Perpignan,  where  he  resided.  When  the 
mi||ltter  told  this  gentleman  that  be  had  sent  for  brim 
wi^ut  knowing  him,  to  fill  a  post  near  himself,  and  that 
he  was  recommended  by  the  officers  of  his  corps,  his  as*" 
tooishment  inay  easily  be  conceived.  Of  the  opiliion 
given  of  him  he  shewed  himself  worthy ;  and  his  conduct' 
both  public  and  private,  made  him  honoured  and  respected. 

A  life  thus  busy  was  rendered  more  happy  by  a  senti* 
ment,  which,  born  at  'an  early  period,  expired  but  with 
his  life.  The  daughter  of  M.  Le  Maistre,  the  neighbour 
and  friend  of  his  father,  and  like  bimi  famous  at  the  bar, 
wa&  the  companion  of  his  youthful  qM>rta,  and  ibsensiblj 
chosen  by  him  as  the  partner  of  his  future  days.  Whilst 
M.  de  Fourcroy  was  studying  under  able  masters  to  render 
himself  useful  to  bis  country  by  bis  talents  and  acquire- 
ments,  miss  Le  Maistre  learned  fifom  a  pious  and  charitable 
mother  to  succour  and  console  the  suffeilings  of  her  fellow* 
creatures.  The  vacations  of  each  year  l^rought  together 
the  two  yojung  friends,  whose  minds  were  so  attuned  to 
each  other,  as  if  they  had  never  been  separated.  At  that 
s^e,  wimthe  hdart  experiences  the  want  of  a  nolore  Uvely 

12  F  O  U  R  C  R  O  Y. 

aerithneAt,  the  tender  friendship  ^hich  umted  them  left 
thela  at  liberty  for  no  other  choice.  Both  without  fortune; 
they;  contented  themselves  with  loving  each  other  always; 
and  seeing  each  other  sometimes,  till  prudence  shotild  per- 
mit them  a  closer  union.  -  Both  sure  of  themselves,  as  of 
the  objects  of  their  affedtion,  fourteen  years  passed  with- 
oat  any  inquietude  but  what  absence  occasioned.  After 
marriage,  enjoyment  weakened  not  their  passion,  as  the 
sacrifice  tb'^y.  had  made  of  it  to  reason  had  not  disturbed 
their  tranquillity.  Similar  in  opinion,  their  thoughts  arid 
their  sentiments  were  common.  Separated  from  the  world 
equally  by  the  simplicity  of  their  tastes,  and  the  pUrity  of 
their  principles,  they  reciprocally  found  in  the  esteeni  of 
each  other  the  sole  support,  thie  sole  reward,  of  which 
their  virtue* bdd  need.  Every  day  they  tasted  the  pleasure 
of  that  intimate  union  of  souls,  which  every  day  saw  re-» 
newed.  The  difference  of  their  characters,  which  offered 
the.  striking  contrast  of  gentleness  and  inflexibility,  served- 
only 'to  show  them  the  power  of  the  sympathy  of  theiic^ 
hearts..  Different  from  most  both  in  their  love  and  in  their" 
rirtues,  time,  which  almost  always  seemis  ib  approach  vts* 
to  happiness  only  to  carry  us  the'farther  froni  it  afterwards,- 
seemed  to  have  fixed  it  with  then^.  Perhaps  we  have  not 
another  instance  of  a  passion  continuing  seventy  years,  al*' 
wayis  tender,":  always  the  chief  (nay  the  sole,  rin'ce  Aat 
they  bore  for  an  only  daughter  constituted  a  part  of  it),' 
which!  la^sted  uniformly  from  itifaitcy  to  old  age^  flot  weak^- 
ened,  i^ibtonce  obscured  by  the  leswt  cloud,  not  dnce  dis** 
turbed  by  the, slightest  coldness  or  negligence.'  ' 

.  Employed  to  his  la&t  moment  irt  *  his  country^s  service,  * 
M.  de.  Fourcroy  died  January  12,   1791,  regretted  by  his 
family;  his  friends,  and  his  country.^    •        ^*' 

FOURMONT  (Stephen),  professor  of  the  Arabic  arid 
Qhiriese  languages  at vParis,  was  the  son  of  a  surgeon,  and* 
born  at  Herbelki,  near  Paris,  iii  1683.-  He  learned  the 
elements  of  Latin  from  the  curate  of  the'  place ;  but  losing  * 
his  father  when  very  young,  he  came  under  the  cafe  6i 
an  uncle,  who  removed  him. to  his  bouse  at  Paris,  and  su-  ^ 
p>erintended  his  studies.     He  went  -through  the  corirses  of 
logic,  rhetoric,  and  philosophy,  in  different  colleges;  and-  meet  with  -the  abb6  Sevin,  i«*o  loved  study  * 
^  well  'as  himself,  tliey  formed  a  scheme  of  reading  ^ 

>      f  £>o^  des  Acadenucieni,  v(d«  V,«-fDiot.  I^t.^^'Evropean  M«rt 

f  p  V  R  M  Q  N  T.  03 

Jthe  Greek  axtd  Latin  poets  together.  But  astb^  ezerdi^eft 
.of  the  society  employed  most  of  tbeir  hours  by  day^  they 
found  means  to  continue  this  task  ^  secretly  by  nightj  and 
this  being  considered  as  a  breach  of  discipline,  the  supe- 
.rior  thought  fit  to  ex(;lude  them  fro oi  the  comununity. 
Fourmon^  retired  to  the  college  of  Montaigq,  and  ha.d  the 
.very  chambers  which  formerly  belonged  to  Erasmus  ;  and 
here  the  abb^  Sevin  continued  to  yisit  him,  wb^n  they  wqut 
on  with  their  work  without  interruption.  Fourinont  joined 
to  this  pursuit  the  study  of  the  oriental  languages^  in 
.which  he  made  a  very  uncommon  progress.  ^ 

He  afterwards  was  employed  in  reading  lectures  :  he 
explained  the  Greek  fathers  to  some,  and  the  Hebrew  and 
Syiiac  languages  to  others.  After  that^  he  undertook  .the 
education  of  the  sons  of  the  duke  d'An^in,  who  w^re  com- 
^naitted  to  his  care,  and  studied  in  the  college  of  Harcou((. 
He  was  at  the  same  time  received  an  advocate ;  but  the 
law  not  being  suited  to  his  taste,  he  returned  to  his  former 
studies.  He  then  contracted  an  acquaintance  with  the 
ixbhi  Bignon,  at  whose  instigation  he  applied  himself  ,to 
jthe  Chinese  tongue,  and  succeeded  beyond  his.expepta- 
tions,  for  he  had  a  prodigious  n^em(^ry,  and  a  particular 
turn  for  languages.  He  now  became  very  famous.  He 
held  conferences  at  his  own  house,  once  or  twice  a  w«ek, 
upon  subjects  of  literature ;  at  which  foreigners,  a^  i^ell 
^svVench,  were  admitted  and  assisted.  Hence  he  becai^^ 
known  to  the  count  de  Toledo,  who  was  infinitely  pleas^ed 
with  his  cpnversation^  and  made  him  great  offers,  if  be 
would  go  ir^to  Spain;  but  Fourmont  refused.  In  1715  h^ 
succeeded  M.  Galland  to  the  Arabic  chair  in  the  royal  coU 
lege.  The  same  year  be  was  admitted  a  member  of  the 
aca;demy  of  inscriptions ;  of  the  royal  society  at  Lon* 
idon  in,17S8 ;  and  of  that  of  Berlin  in  174],.  He  was  often  s 
Consulted  by  the  duke  of  Orleans,  who  had  a  particabf 
(esteem  for  him,  and  made  him  one  of  his  secretaries.  He 
died  at  Paris  in  1743.  • 

His  mo^t  considerable  works  are,  I.  "  The  Roots  of  tji^^ 
Latin  tongue  in. metre.*'  2.  ^^  Critical  Reflections  upon 
-  Ancient  History,  ,tp  the  time  of  Cyrus,"  2  vols.  .4tp. 
3.  "  Meditationes  Sinicae,"  fol.  4.  **  A  Cliine^e  Graip- 
mar,  in  Latin,"  fol.  5.  "Several  Dissenations,  primed 
iri  the  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Inscription*,'^  &c. 
He  left  several  works  in  manuscript.  In  1 731  he  published 
in  12mo,  a  catalogue  of  all  his  works^  printed  and  mauu* 

14  t  OV  KMOift. 

script^  with  ndtes,  some  particulars  of  bis  fife,  and  unM 
lettern  pretended  to  be  addressed  to  him  requesting  hith 
to  publbb  such  a  work,  and  others  which  were  so  in  re- 
-ality*  Fourmont  appears  to  have  been  a  scholar  of  vast 
industry  and  merits  but  perfectly  conscious  of  the  rank  he 
held.  H^  had  a  younger  brother,  Michael  Fourmont, 
who  was  an  ecclesiastic,  a  professor  of  the  Syriac  tongpu^ 
in  the  royal  college,  and  a  meniber  also  of  the  acadasiy  of 
inscriptions,  who  died  in  1746.'  ' 

FOURNIER  (Peter  Simon),  a  French  engraver  anA 
letter-founder,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1712,  and  excelled  ih 
his  profession.  His  letters  not  onIy«embelli8faed  the  ty-* 
pographical  art,  but  his  genius  illostrated  and  enlarged  it. 
He  published  in  1737  a  table  of  proportions  to  be  observed 
between  letters,  in  order  to  determine  their  height  and 
relations  to  each  other.  This  ingenious  artist  ascended  to 
the  yery  origin  of  printing,  for  the  sake  of  knowing  it 
thoroughly*  He  produced  at  different  times  several  his* 
torical  and  critical  dissertations  upon  the  rise  and  progress 
of  the  typographical  art,  which  have  since  been  collected 
and  published  in  i  vol.  8vo,  divided  into  three  parts ;  the 
last  including  a  curious  history  of  the  engravers  in  wood. 
Bat  the  most  important  work  of  Fournier,  is  his  *^  Manuel 
Typographique,  utile  aux  gens  de  Lettres,  et  a  ceux  qui 
•zercent  les  differents  parties  de  PArt  de  PImprimerie,** 
in  2  vols.  8vo.  The  author  meant  to  have  siidded  two 
Miore,  but  was  prevented  by  his  death,  which  happened 
in  1768.  In  this  **  Manuel*^  are  specimens  of  all  the  dif- 
ferent  characters  he  invented.  He  was  of  the  most  pleasmg 
manners,  and  a  man  of  virtue  and  piety.* 

FOWLER  (Christopher),  a  clergyman  originally  of 
the  church  of  England,  was  the  son  of  John  Fowler  of 
Mariborough,  in  Wiltshire,  where- he  was  born  in  1610  ot 
1611,  In  1627  he  was  admitted  a  servitor  at  Magdalen^* 
eirflege,  Oxford,  and  continued  there  until  be  took  hi^ 
hachelor^s  degree;  and  then  went  to  Edonind-hall,  and 
look  that  of  master.  Having  entered  into  holy  orders,  he 
preached,  some  time  in  and  near  Oxford  ;  and  afterward$ 
St  West-Woodhay,  iiear  Donnington  casthe,  in  Berkshire.- 
In  1641  he  took 'the  covenant,  and  joined  the 'presbyte- 
rians ;  being  then,  as  Wood  imagines,  miotster  of  Mar** 

.  1  Moreri,  from  ht«  Life  pttbTii^ed  in  1747. 

'  Diet.  Hi«t.«— Dibdin's  Biblieoaaiuii. 

F  O  W  L  E  H.  14 

:gBtet?iB^  Lolfat»iu7»  bftt  bis  name  does  not  ocetfr  in  the 
registers  until  1652.  In  1641  he  became  vicar  of  St. 
Mary^s,  Readings,  and  an  assislianc  to  the  comniisiiouerB 
of  Berkshire,  for  the  ejection  of  sueh  as  were  then  styled 
^*  scandalous,  ignorant,  and  insufficient  ministers  and 
schoolmasters.'^  He  was  at  length,  a  fellow  of  Eton  isA^ 
'cfge^  though  he  had  refused  the  engagement,  as  it  was 
caUed.  After  the  restoration,  he  lost  his  fellowship  of 
Eton,  and,  being  deprived  of  the  vicarage  of  St.  Mary^i 
for  non-conformity,  be  retired  to  London,  and  afterwards 
to  Kennington,  in  Surrey,  where  he  continued  to  preach, 
although  privately.  JFor  some  time  before  his  d^ath,  he 
was  much  disordered  in  his  understanding,  and  died  lit 
Sottthwark,  Jan.  15,  1676,  and  was  buried' within  thepre^ 
eincts  of  SL  John  Baptist's  church,  near  Dowgate.  He  it 
said  by  Wood  to  have  used  odd  gesture^  and  antic  be« 
haviour  in  the  pulpit,  unbecoming  the  serious  gravity  of 
the  place,  but  which  made  him  popular  in  those  times; 
His  character  by  Mr.  Cooper,  who  preached  his  funeral 
lermon,  is  more  favourable,  being  celebrated  **  as  an  able,* 
holyi  faithful,  indefatigable  servant  of  Christ.  He  wai 
^uick  in  apprehension,  solid  in  his  notions,  clear  in  his 
conceptions,  sound  in  the  faith,  strong  and  demonstrative 
in  arguing,  mighty  in  convincing,  and  zealous  for  the 
truth  against  all  errors."  We  are  told,  likewise,  that  *^  he 
had  a  singular  gift  in  chronology,  not  for  curious  specula-* 
tion  or  ostentation,  but  as  a  key  and  measure  to  know  the 
signs  of  the  times,"  &c. 

His  works  are,  1.  ^'  Daemonium  meridianum,  or  Satan  at 
noon ;  being  a  sincere  and  impartial  relation  of  the  pro* 
eeedings  of  the  eommissioners  of  the  countj  of  Berks,  au« 
ihorized  by  the  ordinance  for  ejection,  against  John  Por* 
di|ge,  late  minister  of  ^radfield,  in  the  name  county,** 
Lend.  1655,  4to.  This  Pordage  appeared  to  these  com^* 
missioners  to  be  unsound  in  the  doctrine  of  the  IVtnity^ 
JK*  *^  DsBmonium  meridianum,  the  second  part,  disco-* 
f:ering  the  slandersi  and  calumnies  cast  upon  some  corpo- 
iwtions^  with  forged  and  false  articles  upon  the  author,  in . 
H  jpampblet  entitled  ^  The  case  of  Reading  rightly  stated,^ 
by  the  adherenta  and  abettort  of  the  said  J.  Pordage,'*" 
Lpiidi  l*56>.4tOi  To  this  is  subjomed  "  A  Word  to  In- 
fetnt  Baptism,"  fco,  Fowler  likewise  pubftshed  a  few  oc^^^ 
casional  Sermoni^;  and  **  A  sober  answer  to  an  angry 
^istle  directed  to  all  public  teachers  in  this  nation,"  pre^ 

16  FOWLER. 

fixed  ta  a  book-  called  *^  Christ's  innoc^ncy  pleaded  agaioft^ 
the  cry  of  the  Chief  Priests,"  by  Thomas  Speed,  quakeVg 
^c.  Lond.  1656.  In  tt^  he  was  assisted  by  Simon  Ford^ 
vicar  of  St.  Lauren  ce,  Reading,  and  it,  was  apimadvertod 
on  by  George  Fox,  J  in  one  of  his  pubUcations.V 

FOWLER  (Edwahi?),  a  le?irned  English  prelate,  was 
born  in  1632,  at  Westerleigh,  in  Gloucestershire;  of 
mrhich  place  his  father  was  minister,  but  ejected  for  non- 
conformity after  the  restoration*  He  was  sent  to  tbe^ 
College-school  in  Gloucester,  where  be  was  educated 
tinder  William  Russel,  who  had  married  bis  sister.  In  tbe 
beginning  of  1650  he  became  clerk  of  Carpus  Christie  cpl- 
\^S^>  Oxford,  and  being  looked  upon,  says  Wood,  ^f  bs 
a  young  man  well  endowed  with  the  spirit,  ,and  gifted  with 
extemporary  prayer,  he  was  admitted  one  of  the  chaplains 
thereof  in  1653,  and  the  same  year  took  a  bachelor  of  art$ 
degree,'*  Afterwards  removing  to  Can^ridge,  he  took 
his  master^s  degree  as  a  member  of  Trinity  college,  and 
returning  to  Oxford,  was  incorporated  in  the  same  degree 
July  5,  1656.  About  the  same  time  he  became  cbaplaiii 
to  Arabella,  countess  dowager  of  Kent,  who  presented  him 
to  the  rectory  of  Northill,  in  Bedfordshire.  Having  been, 
educated  a  presbyterian,  he  scrupled  about  conformity  at 
the  restoration,  but  conformed  afterwards,  and  became^a 
great  ornament  to  the  church.  His  excellent  moral  writings 
gendered  him  so  considerable,  that  archbishop  Sheldon,^ 
in  order  to  introduce  him  into  the  metropolis,  poUated  him 
in  August  1673,  ,to  the  rectory  of  All-hallows,  Bread** 
street.  In  February  1675-6,  he  was -made  prebendary  of 
Gloucester;  and  in  March  1681,  vicar  of  St.  Giles's,  Crip*;? 
plegate,  on  which  he  resigned  the  living  of  Allhallows* 
The  same  year,  he  accumulated  the  degrees  of  bachelor 
and  doctor  of  divinity.  During  the  struggle  between  pro- 
testantism and  popery  in  this  kingdom,  he  appeared  to 
ereat  advantage  in  defence  of  the  former ;  but  this  ren- 
dered him  obnoxious  to  the  court,  and  in  all  probabilitjr 
yfSLS  the  secret  cause  of  a  prosecution  against  hiin,  in  1685, 
by  some  of  his  parishioners,  who  alledged  that  he  was 
guilty  of  Whiggism,  that  he  admitted  to  the  commuoioa. 
excommunicated  persons  before  they  were  absolved,  &p. 
We  are  told  this  matter  was  carried  so  far,  that,  after-  a 
Ijial  at  Doctors'-commons,  he  was  suspended,  under  tha 
...  .  .  •        '      .       •      • 

,  .    >  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.-r~CalaBay.<— Coatefi's  m$L  of  Reading. 

.#  S)  W/L  I  B.  5iI7 

-|irbtdicfe  ofqbftMn^aetfeiKL''iB  ie^emloivtpessts  pditiUy  no 

the  cabons  tifi  lbe)c[hUlrcbi  This.aflVobt^JgKHine«er^  ilid-  noftdb- 

tiitiitlaie  hiiiiifrQiodohig|wbaitiMil1ioaghtln$:duty  *  forhewM 

iiae  s^ocmd^fwlfoiU  16A8^.'|i^ed.  theiresoluijhpn  of  tbe  L<ni- 

4oji  ^iergjy  irait  to  ,i<eaiA>kiag-..Jafne9?9  n«tw  declarauon  for 

liberty  (^f  cooftoiax^t  v  He.wlis  revvArdbd  for  this  and  otif^c 

;aervic^  at  .^tte:  .rtvoJtii^o  i  for  in  IB^hi  be  ,wa»  preferxed 

'^o  theseie  of 'GiQiii^es^r^  .  and  contiotied;  tbere)  till  bis 

'-deatb^iwfaioh  happened  at  Chelsea,  A^g.  Sfiiiill]  4,  iii  his 

etgbtyt;f«f;ond[year.  •  Hi$^,widow  surrviyed.biiiijSottiejyears, 

dyilig.  A|Hril^^»  1732»    She  was  bis  second-  wife»  tbe  'widow 

ohi^ibir^Y't  JDFw.£aek!iel  iBurton,  and .dai%b2^  of i^Ralph 

Trt^of^  oi  London, .iiiie^c)»&nt*     His  firjt  -wtCe^  by  whom 

he.hMialkrge  familyi;  w$»  daughter  of  Arth«iW'Barnardi»- 

^n,  oo^o^f^e-  notasteciniix  chapcej:y.     She  died. De6.  I9, 

1^9^,'  and.was  boriediraft  well  as  the  bishop,  in  Hendon 

d^i^h-j^jftrd,  :Middl6seai^i  ii>.the{  chaiicel  of  whioh  cfauroh  is 

r«  »^»W«i^to  his  oiemcpry.jj?    .'    ^  '  ' 

.r  fi^e^wiai^hf^iatitbQr  of  n]iany)e^QiJl0ntworks^  as,'  1.  "The 

-P|^j{<i»ipJ€^:;^ild(  Practices  i^)  a/^irjtain  moderate,  divines  ctf 

the  Cburtcrh.  ^  ^England,.  aj><i9ive)y  called.  Latitudinarians, 

greatly  .Qii3updersitood>  truly  fepresented  ^ai^d  defe«ded>!^ 

r6^70^:3¥o.  jtThis  is.wriiitieR:,in- the  way  of : dialog^e^  [  2. 

ff^The  D«sigi^fof  iChrUtiani^^y^f^or,  a  pl^n;  defnonsitratioli 

.and  impiVivitintnt.of  this  proposition,  .vi^;:.^|^, the  enduing 

Hieu  wit)h,ij|Wfiir4,iseal  rigbt^pflsfi^sd.a.Qd  ttrii e* holiness,^  hi«^ 

the^^^^lioii^tViend  of  Our  Savi^or^s  cpniing  anto  the'worli^ 

and iis,(EhQrg^at*  ii^t^ndtni^t of  his  blessoU  Gospel,-'  167i, 

'Syo.  t.^J[<4|n.Bniiyan,  the  author  of  the  Pilgrim's  P/qgress, 

,ba¥i{)gj'>$t%ck«d.  this  l^ok,  the  author  vindicated  it  in.^ 

j>e^mpj^'|twHb.  a  yeiy  c.oarse  title  ;  3.  ^',  Dirt  wiped  out<; 

(O;?)   at  rrlt^ai^ifi^il^  disQOvejry  of  the  :gro6s  ignorance,  erro- 

^eou^iess;'  Ar^  most  unchristian  and  wicked  spirit  of  one 

John  B^fiyan}  Lay-pi!eacher  in  Bedford,  &q."  1672,  4to,  4. 

;^'  ^b)^ta3  £vfM;»gelica;  or,:a  Discourse  of  Christian  Liibertjjf. 

3oing  ^  fjiirther  pursuauc^  of  The  Design  of  Christianity^ 

JL680)  8vo.  ^4  Some  piec^  against |>opery ;  as,  "  The  Re^- 

•i^pl|it^0n4»f  thisc^kseof  conscience,  whether  the  Church  of 

^England's  sypiboji^ingy  so  far  as  it  doth  with  the  Church 

9f  Rome,  makes'  it  lawful  to  hold  communion  with  the 

Church  of  Rome  ?"   1683,  4to,     "  A  Defence  of  the  Re^ 

solution,    &c."    1684,    4to.      "  Examination  of  Cardinal  ^ 

Bellar miners  fburth  note  of  the  Church,  viz.  Amplitude^ 

or  Multitude  and  Varleiy  of  Believers.'*      "  The  texta 

Vol.  XV.  C, 

V18  .^.OW/LdA. 

j«rbidi'  Baapi^KitMiotit of  the  iBibte,^  fpr  ictei  ptoof  ^  4«ir 
dbetritie  c0iii(reniiii^  the  obsbiiKtyitof  dbe^fibly  Soriflumi, 
^examhii^d,''  l«8i7<, (4ito;  TMirmibatftore  printed 911^ ^^^Tbe 
'Frdserviitire  4i^aioit  I^e»3^^''  foltki:.  :  Hie -pttblUlMsdv  aiMy 
i6;  T)fM!pieoes^ovi  i^e>dootni»e'olf  the'Tri;ifuyi  ^{iertttin 
JRfbpostcidbt^  by  kvhieh  iJie*  dectiiikie  of  «be  Holy  iTniMty  is 
'w>  expttfiMd/^«cQdidi»g  to  the  ani^ieint'fetber^^  «s«(»  ftpisik 
'it  not  cdtitvidicvory  to  niatural  rMionv  Togeeber  with- % 
^^feticse  <or  ttie;^;^c/?  l^S^^  4lo.  <<  A  S<^ond<D«feOlie 
.of  the  f^ropcuitioDH,  &e."  169^5,  4to. ''-  7.  EighttM' Oeita* 
siitodfl 'J3€^raiofi«r ;  one  <if  which  Was  on  <<  The  greiM^wixtheA* 
'tiet^iaWd  '4Sii<9chi€ftou^  effctets  of  Skftd^riiig,  prauibcid  in 
^thepattisU^btrrcli  of  St.  Gito»'«)  Nov.  13,  16£5»  oft^Ptiilm 
-cL  5^  witte  i*  Jut^e  pi^face  of  %he  a\sitbor^  «Bd  coikdu^ieii 
in  b}&  Wn^rtdioatioth*'  1686/  4to.'  S.  ^^Ati  >Atfl^er  lb 
the  Papey*  dcftivered  by  Mr.  Afl(h«dti€tth»ex»c«tiotH''*t^i90, 
^to.  ^.  ^<  A  Discourse  cmr^hegr^tdisiingenMiy^ainfd' wry- 
reasonableness  of  repining  at  'dieting  PMvMMim^  ttUd 
«f  the ihguence  wbit^k'ith^J^  (^u^bt  to  baireupM  m6;  ipub- 
itsbed'ttpon  odoa^on  of-  ib&  dt^th  of  queen  M(ai<y  ^  with  k 
<preftioe  c6iitiuning  dome  dbt^efvations  toucMng  her  «xee)* 
lent  ^ntl^meiffts  and  'excmpUry  life,"  16^5^,  ^'Svo. 

InJ^be'rtgisitcfs  of  48t.  ©ilea's,  Ortpj^egate,-  whioh  Mr. 
M^)<^Mai  app«iii%  to  bave>ek^i>i%ed  with  t'Hre,  tre  find  no 
|paefli%i(>n'tli(id^'0faf)ylitigi6iM&  proceedings  l^e  pariri»- 
««l4eris'aga¥iMt  Dr.  f'-Owle)*;!  b«it  on  the  <son4ir»ry,^4}here  sxte 
4be  fblk>Wit)g  elitries,  \tbieh  'ufaow  how  mueh  -he  wtts'v^ 
^pectecl  by  them  aPberthe'^teit^tetion  :  *^  FA.  '7,  1700. 
Ordered,  that -ill  considertftidn  the  bishop  4f -Gloucester 
iiAls  a  Idng  time,  at  his  ^^v/rt  charge^  provided  |[f>l^ttir^r  iti 
khh  ^thky  und  been  otherwise  kind  af)d>bo«irttiAlt^k>  >tfafe 
-tMime,  thiat  th^  chancel  of  thii  p^tish  ^bui^dh  be  Ibrftwkk 
put  m  good  repair  at  the  charge  «f -the  ^parieh.'?  4ti'rrot 
ie  represented  to  the  ve?s«ty  that  he  wai 'g|ioL#tt<^-80ex«- 
^emely  i'nfinjn  and  old,  he  co«ld  no  longer  pifeaiStr'iii  a 
mbrniiig ;  and  havings  targe  family,  with  botsoiaH^ofils 
ftoiri  the  vicarage,  jfcogether  wkh  having  pr&viderf  d  Ipe^ 
<:cirer  for  twenty^fifveyerirs  past  at  his  own  cibarge,'*he'fiO# 
4e*it*reated  them  to  'ctect  Ofte  themselves,  whitsh-  ibl^y  iKd, 
^ith  many  acknowledgments  for  his  lordsbip^^fatheriy  colsv 
^et towards  them. V         .'       .  «       ..>  i.  . 

Vimea.^BircK*5  Life  f/ Tillotson.— Atb.  Ox,  toI.  II,-Ht3ent  Mae.  ▼<>)•  ^t  W^9 
€^«<curi^  anecdote  iffott  blslM]^,  n/lko  i^fts  ft  Miev^r  M  gItMitli, 

F  O  W  L  S  S.  I> 

mited  CrikMT  of  New  coUeg?,  in  0](fpnl»  in  i  ssSj  afMr 
iir0  j€9m  of  probtti^n,  wb«r^  also  be  took  bU  mai^^ 
id#gfM»  PiH  leftimg  fo  e^qnply  witb  ^  tains  of  pipr 
-tavuint  «Miforiii«iy  ift  qpeao  £1^^  beicsigned 

M»  iMomAip,  nfto'  bol^ing^  il  abom  four  yei^^  and» 
laa^g  Engiandt  took  «poa  bim  tba  trade  if  priatiog^ 
iabicb  be  eaenriaod  fviXy  U  Antveip,-  and  partly  at  Lou- 
ma;  and  tbii«  <Ud  sigml  «erviee  to  tfie papUts,  in  printing 
tb^r  ibofka  agaioat  the  proieitant  wrker9.  Wood  $aya 
.that  be  wa«  w^  •killed  in  Greek  and  I^atin,  a  tolerable 
l»oet  mid  eratofy  a  tbeologift  net  to  be  contemned ;  and  ae 
irersed  abio  im  oriticism  and  otber  polke  literature,  that  be 
Wgbt  bare  passed  for  aaotber  Koben  or  Henry  Ste|rfiens. 
.Be  redaeed  imo  a  eeaipendtnni  tbe  '*  Summa  TbeglogisB^^ 
of  Tbovas  Aqninas,  nnder  tbe  title  of  ^  Lqc9^  Commnnia 
Tbeniogica,'*  and  wrote  ''  Additiones  in  Cbrofiica  Gene- 
biancU ;''.  a  *'  Psalter  |br  Cadiolic$»'*  wbicb  was  answered 
i>y  Sampson  Dean,  of  CbiistHebarcb*  Oxford,  157S;  also 
epsgvMNy  and  other  Teieses.  He  also  ttaasbuod  from  Latin 
into  Englii^),  *^  Tbe  Epistle  of  Osorins,"  and  «'  Tbe  Oia>. 
tioo  of  Bei,  Frariny  of  Antwerp,  against  the  unlawful  in«- 
anrr^etian  of  the  protestwts,  under  pretence  to  reform 
leligien/'  Aatwerp,  156e.  This  was  answered  by  Wil*- 
liaos  Falke»  diHoity-professor  in  Cambridge.  Foa^  died 
at  Newmsrfc,  in  Oeraany,  Feb.  IS,  1579.^ 

FOWUCR  {Tfi^QUAs),  m  En^iili  physiciao,  was  born 
ait  Yorb,  'Jan.  %2f  I73(p,  and,  after  baviog  gone  throngh  a 
0E>ar«e  #f  alassical  and  medical  edneatioa,  set  up  as  an 
apotheeary  in  bis.naiife  city,  iq  1760.  In  1774,  bowever, 
itts  selfiaqni^ted  this  briMuth  of  pfactice,  in  order  to  apply 
iiiinself  mom  etesely  to. the  stady  of  medical  science ;  and 
far  this  fsityiesebe  went  no  Edinboigb,  where  be  graduated 
an  U%9^  He  Cben  settled  ait  S^flbrd,  and  was  soon  aftar 
elected  pbysioiao  to  the  infirmary  at  that  phee,  a4iece  he 
faactaaed  with  conaideraUe  repatatioo  and  success  nntil 
If  J!49  wbea  he  returned  to  York.  Hare  he  met  with  the 
AlOPt  flattodng  enoonragement ;  but  his  ardent  attention 
t»b»s  prefcssamal  duties  and  studies  was  considerably  in> 
tenttpted  in  July  17S3>,  by  an  attack  of  a  painful  aaocpa^ 
Ims  diaease  of  .the  eh(nl,  whiflh  he  described  as  ^'  &ts  oC 
apasmodic  asthnuiy   attended  with  most  of  the  pain&d 

*  Ath.  Ox.  fol,  L— >Fiiq«p^^  WoiUm<s^^9^UI'b  Church  Hist.  tol.  I. 

C  2 

50  FOWLER. 

Symptoms  of  the  angina  pectoris.'*  After  consulting  many 
eminent  physicians,  and  trying  a  variety  of  me^icities^ 
*with  partial-  anil  transient  relief,  for  twoyear9>  be  was 
agreeably  surprised  by  a  spontaneous  and  gradual  decline 
of  the  symptoms,  and  was  at  length  totally  free  from  them; 
Notwithstanding  the  check  to  his  exertions  which  he  re* 
ceived  from  this  complaint,  his  professional  emolumeols 
and  reputation  continued  to  increase  ;  and  in  1796  he  was 
appointed,  'withotit  solicitation,  and  even  whhout  his 
knowledge,  physician  to  the  lunatic  asylum,  near  York^ 
called  the  "  Retreat,"  'established  by  the  society  of  qua- 
kers,  for  the  relief  of  the  insane  members  of  their  cotxi^ 
munity.  He  was  a  member  of  the  medical  societies  of 
Edinburgh,  of  the  medical  society  of  London,  and  of  the 
Bristol  medical  society.  Dr.  Fowler  contpinued  his  useful 
career,  active  in  every  duty  that  benevolence  could  dic- 
tate, or  friendship  demand,  and,  in  the  exereise  of  his 
profession,  an  example  of  generosity,  unwearied  diligencie 
and  humanity^  until  1801,  when  he  died,  on  July  32d^ 
while  upon  a  visit  to  some  friends  in  London* 

In  the  course  of  his  studies  and  practice,  he  exemplified 
the  method  recommended  by  lord  Bacon  for  the  improve* 
ment  of  medicine,  perhaps  moi^  than  any  of  his  predecies* 
sors  or  contemporaries  ;  and  some  idea  of  bis  indefatigable 
labours  may  be  conceived,  when  we  mention  that  he  left 
in  man'uscnpt  the  history  of  more  than  six  thousand  cases, 
which  fell  under  his  own  inspection  and  treatment  From 
this' store  of  experimental  knowledge  he  published  several 
works.  The  first  of  these  was  entitled  **  Medical  Reports 
on  the  effects  of  Tobacco,"  which  was  puWtsbed  in  17S5; 
and  in  the  year  following  bis  second  treatise  .appeared, 
underithe  title  of  "Medical  Reports  on  the  Effects  of 
Arsenic."  Both  works  tended  in  a  <jiotisiderable  degree  16 
instruct  the  prdfession  in  the  nieansof  rendering  these  me- 
dicines safe  and  m&nageccble,  and  accordingly  they  ard 
now,  especially  the  latter,  in  daily  and  familiar  use^  and 
rank  among  the  valuable  articles  of  the  materia  medioai 
In  1795  he  dedicated  to  the  medical  professors  of  Sdih- 
burgh  a  i^olume  of '^  Medical  Reports  on  the  acute  and 
chronic'Rheumatism,"  and  was  the  author  of  ^  severed 
papers!jprinted  in  differeklt  vdnmes  of  <  the  Medical  Q^tti*' 
^entaries,  and  Aniials  6fiMediciiie,  edfMd  'by  D»s.  DiUt^ 

ican  ofEditibai^gk*   *    •  .        f.       ^      s     i     -«    ;, 

}■  ■  .  i  ■. 

FOX  21 

'  FOX  (Edward),  an  emioeot  statesman,  almoDer  to 
fienty  VIII.  and  bi^op  of  Hereford^  was  born  at  Dursley^ 
in  Gloucestershire ;  but  it  is  not  mentioned  in  what  year*. 
After  passing  through  Eton  school  he. was  admitted  of 
ling's  college  in  Cambridge,  1512,  where  he  was  elected 
provost  in  152S,  and  continued  in  thatoiEce  till  his  death. 
Being  reoommeiided  to  cardinal  Wolsey  as  a  man  of  an 
acute  spirit  and  political  turn,  he  was  taken  into  his'ser- 
Tic'e;.  and,  according  to  Lloyd,  was  the  person  who  encou- 
n^ed  the  carding  to  aspire  to  the  papacy.  In  1528  he 
was  sent  ambassador  to  Rome,  jointly  with  Stephen  Gar«- 
diner,  afterwards  bidiop  of  Winchester,  in  order  to  obtaiu 
bulls  from  Clement  VII.  for  (ienry's  divorce  from  Cathe-* 
line  of  Arragon.  He  was  then  almoner  to  the  king; 
and  reputed,  as  Burnet  says,  one  pf  the  best  divines  ia 
England.  He  was  afterwards  employed  in  embassies  bpth 
in  France  and  Qermany  ;  during  wbich^  as  he  was  one  day 
discoursing  upon  terms  of  peace,  he  said,  ^^  honourable 
ones  last  long,  but  the  dishonourable,  no  longer  than  till 
kings  have  power  to  break  them :  the  surest  way,  there fore» 
to  peace,  is  a  constant  preparedness  for  war.^' — ^Two  things, 
be.would  say,  must  support  a  government,  V  gold  and  iron : 
gold,  to  reward  its  friends ;  ai)d  iron,  to  keep  under  its 
enemies."  It  was  to  him  that  Cranmer  owed  his 
troduction  to  court,  with  all  its  important  results. 

In  1530  he  wa^  employed  with  Stephen  Carding  at 
Cambridge,  to  obtain  the  university's  determination  in  the 
matter  of  Henry  VIII.'s  divorce.  In  1531  he  was  promoted 
to  the  archdeaconry  of  (^eicester,  and,  in  15.33  to.  that  of 
Dorset,  It  was  he  that  apprized  tU^  clergy  of  their  having 
fallen  into  a  pranmnw€f  and  advised  them  to  make  their 
submission  to  the  king,  by  acknowledging  him  supreme 
head  of  the  cburph,  and  making  him  a  present  of  100,000/. 
In  1535  he  was  promoted  to  the  bishopric  of  Hereford. 
He  was  the  principal  pillar  of  the  reformation,  as  to  the 
politic  and  prndential.par^  of  it;  being  of  more  activity^ 
and  no  less  abi^ty,  than,Cranm^r  himself:  but  he  acted 
more  secretly  than  Cranmer,  and  therefore  did  not  bring 
himself  into  danger  of  suffering  on  that  account.  A  few 
months  after  his  consecration  he.  was  sent  ambassador  to 
the- protestant  princes  in  Germany,  then  assembled  at 
Smalcald;  whom  he  exhorted  to  unite,  in  point  of  doc- 
trine, with  the  church  of  England.  He  spent  the  winter 
at  Wirtembergi  and  held  several  conferences  with  some  of 

«*i  FOX.  ^^ 

t)»9^  fblkMriik|K  mgbt  be  wad^  partiM^ted' ihaif  «Jdivitl6  cmr-^* 
iaifti](ic»tioni\vas  mad^to  him,  urging  bim  to  fofMike'aHi  a^^ 
devote  «bis^ Hfe^lio.  the  duties  of  wligion.--    H«''>fib#>  oiiilted^ 
hii.  Detatioils,  xlpessed*  bifloseKan  ^  iaftthem  doubldty  aivd^ 
wandered  aibrdui  fmui  pla^e  to^  plaoe^    |Bf in?  discovered  i\9 
tbei  metr^polb^i  hisifriendd.  perMlaMlhiav  to*^i*etut4i,'>arid' 
^pttleiin  some 'Tegular  einpptpy(»ent;i'  But  'he  di4  not  )^-»^ 
ijgciiniwitb  them* many  iKionths  ;  determining  to  embrace  W 
itinerant  mode  of  life.     He  fasted 'mwcli  and'oiften,rwalked' 
aba^oad  in  ri^ved  places,,  with  no  other^compaMOfibut  ihe^ 
hible,.  «ad  somietimes  sat  in  tbe  hollow  :of  -a  tre^^for  aday; 
together,.. and^^alked  in  the  fields  by  Bigtft,  as  if  in>a  stale* 
QficLeep  melancholj.^    He  occasioiiaUya^t;endied^uppn  pttb* 
bb  teachers,  bat  did^iiQt  derive  diat  benefitifrom  them  iddat 
belooked  for:  and  hearing,  as  besapposed^  tf  vbieee^. 
elaiming,^^  There  is   one,  eveti    Christ  Jleaus,  that- can 
speak  .to  thy  condition,"   he  foisook  tbe<  usual  oucwal'd* 
means -x>f  religion ^'Contenduig,  that  as, God  did  not^ dwell 
ip.  trmpies  made  with  handSs,  so  tbe  people 'shcmld'4i«eeirve 
the  ihivard  diviqe  teaching  ^.  the; Lord, 'and  takeitbatfor 
(heirruleof  life. .  >About  1648  hefi^t  bimself  cfldled^/iltpoti' 
to'.pjropagate.  the  .opinions,  which  he.  had  embrac^d^  and 
coimiiienced  public  teacher  jin  Manchester,  and  some- of 
(beneighbouriofg towns  and  villages,  insisting ;on  the «^r-> 
tainty  and  efficaey-of  experiencing  the  coming  o£  Christ  in 
this  heart,  as  a  light  to-  discover  error,  and  the  icnowledge 
el  oo^'s  duty.  <  He  no^  made  more  extensive  journeys^  a»dl 
tiraveited  through  the  counties  of  Derby,  Leicesusr,  furni 
Noribampton,  addressing  Jlie  people  in  the  nparket^plaoes, 
and  inveighing  strongly  against  injustice,  drunkenness^  amd^ 
the  other  prevalent  vices  of  the  age.     About  this:  time  h^ 
apprehendefl  that,  the  Lord  bad  forbidden  him  to  take4>ff 
.lus  bat  to  any*  one;. and  required  him  to  speak «to.  the 
people  ^n  the  language  of  Shou^f^  thee ;,th9X  he.  xxmBte 
apt  bend  his  ^koef  to  earthly,  authorities ;.  and  that,  be  must 
0n'  BO  'aao6«uit  ^take.  an:  oatli»     His  peculiaijittes*  exposed 
]iim  :to  piuqb'uhjustirfiable  treatment,  although,  it  m^st  be 
allowed  that Jae  sometimes  provoked  .harsh  usage  by  bis 
injUunpeijaAeizeal.     At  Derby  the  followers  of  Fox  were 
fiirst  denomiilated/^  quakers,*'  as  a>term  x>f  reproaeh,  eithdr 
pa  account  6i  tbe  itrembiing^  accent  used  in  ^the  idelivjery  ef 
their  spjeeches,    or,,  because,  when  broc^bt  before /the 
higher  powers,  they  exhorted  the  magistrates  and  other 
persons  present  <^  to  tremble  at  the  ns^me  of  the  Liord.-^ 

FOX.-  n 

In;  1655  Fox  was  sent  prisoner  to  Cromwell,  wlio  cdi^^ 
tented  httnself  with  obtaining  a  written  promise  that  i^ 
would  not  take  up  arms  against  him  or  the  existing  govern* 
Aient ;  and  having  discussed  various  topics  with  mildness 
and  candour,  he  ordered  him  to  be  set  at  liberty.  Fox 
probably  now  felt  himself  bold  in  the  cause,  re-commenced 
his  ministerial  labours  at  London,  and  spent  some  time  in 
ttndicating  his  principles  by  means  of  the  press,  and  in 
Anawering  the  books  circulated  against  the  society  which 
be  had  founded,  and  which  began  to  attract  public  notice 
in  many  parts  of  the  kingdom.  Notwithstanding  the  ino« 
deration  of  Cromwell  towards  Fox,  he  was  perpetually 
subject  to  abuse  and  insult,  and  was  frequently  imprisoned 
9LtiA  hardly  used  by  magistrates  in  the  country  whither  he 
Mt  himself  bound  to  travel ;  and  nfore  than  once  he  was 
obhged  to  solicit  the  interference  of  the  Protector,  to  free 
bim  from  the  persecutions  of  subordinate  officers.  Once 
he  wrote  to  Cromwell,  soliciting  his  attention  to  the  suf-*' 
ferings  of  his  friends ;  and  on  hearing  a  rumour  that  be 
was  about  to  assume  the  title  of  king.  Fox  solicited*  an 
audience,  and  remonstrated  with  him  very  freely  upon  the 
measure,  as  what  must  bring  shame  and'  ruin  on  himself  and 
bis  posterity.  He  also  addressed  a  paper  tothe  heads  and 
governors  of  the  nation,  on  occasion  of  a  fast  appointed  oiX 
account  of  the  persecutions  of  the  protestants  abroad,  in 
whicb  he  embraced  the  opportunity  that  such  appointment 
ofiered,  of  holding  vp,  in  proper  colours,  the  impropriety 
and  iniquity  of  persecution'  at  home.  The  history  <^ 
Fox,  for  several  years  previously  to  1666,  consists  of 
'details  of  his  missions,  and  accounts  of  bis  repeated  im-^ 
prisonments«  In  this  last-mentioned  year  he  was  liberated 
by  order  of  the  king,  and  he  immediately  set  about  form* 
ing  the  people  who  had  embraced  his  doctrines  into  a  coni& 
pact  and  tinited  body :  monthly  meetings  were  established, 
and  odier  m^ns  adopted  to  provide  for  the  various  e&i^ 
geo<S68  tor  which  they  might  be  liable. 
'.  About  1669  he  married  Margaret,  the  widow  of  jtidge 
Fell,,  at  whose  house  he  bad  been  en1;ertained  in^hisprou 
grcKs  through  Lancashire.  'The  ceremony ,  on  this  occa- 
sion, was  according  to  that  simple  farm  wb'ioh  is  practised 
to  this  day  among  the  people  of : his  persuasion.  He  only 
acquainted  their  common  friends  of* their  intention;  and 
having  received  their  approbation,  they  took  each  other  in 
marriage,  by  rnqtiial  public  declarations  to  that  intent^  at 



S«  F  O  X. 

a  meetiilg  appointed  for  the  porpose  at  S^sloL  After  d|i4 
}if.  ¥qx  sailed  for  Amema^  where  be  ^petit  two  yctara  w 
Biafc^ng  proselyies^  and  in  con  Arming  the  faiii^  and  prac«r 
lice  of  those  who  bad  already  joined  in  bi9  onuse.  :S«>ei^ 
itusr  bi»  return  to  England  be  was  tat^eo  intd  custody,  slnd 
t|browR  into  Worcester  gaol  under  tb^  qbarge.of  baying 
'i^hekl  a<  meeting  from  ail  parts  of  the  dati<H)t  fov  lerrt<^ 
fying  the  king^s  subject^/'  After  being  aeqaiiit^edi  lie 
iHetU'to  HoUandy  and  on  his  return  a  suit  v^ks  ioalitiited 
againat  bind  for  refusing  to  pay  tiibes ;  bis  opp^neott  were! 
taceessful^  and  be  was  obliged  to  submit  to'ihe  cense<rf 
^aieneesw  In  1684  Fqx  again  yisited  the  <ioniineiit,  aaA 
upon  bis  return  be  found  bis  health  and  spirits  toot  much 
impaired  by  incessant  fatigues>  and  almost  perpetoal  per<K 
aecutions^  to  oontend^any  more  with  his  enemies:  be  ae^ 
aordiogly  Jived  more  retired  ;  and  in  1690  be  died,  in  the 
lixty^sevemb  year  of  bis  age )  having,  however,  performed 
Ibe  duties  ef  a  preacher  titU  within  a  few  day»o£  biade^ 
eea«e«  His  writings,  exclusive  of  a  few  sepatale  pieces; 
wbitk  were  boI  printed  a  second  tiaae,  were  ceUedted  in 
%  vols,  folio  i  the  first  contains  his  *^' Journal  ;^'  the  seoDod 
t  ooUection  of  bis  ^^  Epistles;*'  the  third,  his  ^^  Doctrinal 
Pieces."'  Fox  was  a  man  of  good  tiatural .  talents,  and 
thototighly  conversant  in  the  scriptures*  The  incessant 
pHl^  which  he  exhibited  through  life,  alibrds  abundaol 
^idence  of  bis  piety^  sincerity,  and  purity  61  intension } 
and  bis  -sufferings  bear  testimony  to  his  fortitude,  patience^ 
and  resigaalion  to  .the  Divine  will.  William  Penn,.spebk^ 
Ing.ef  biro,  says  that  ^*  he  bad  an  extraordinary  gift  in 
opening  the  scriptures,  but  that,  above  ail,  he  eistoelled  in 
]>rayer«.  Tbe  reverence  and  solemnity  of  bis  address  atid 
behaviour,  and  the  ferventness  and  fullness  of  his  words^ 
ofibe»  struck  strangers  with  admiration.'V  He  also  mei»<i^ 
Uons,  iti  terms  of  high  commendation,  his  meeknest,  h«i* 
mUkyf  aad  moderation ;  and  he  adds,  that  he  was,  civil 
beyond  all  forms  of  breeding;  in  his  bebaviour  very  teoH 
petate,  eating  little^  and  sleeping  less,  ihougfa  a  bulky 

fOX  (iomt),  an  eminent  English  dtvine  and  ehttffcfa^ 
kistorian,  was  born  at  Boston  in  Lieoolnsbite,  •£  honest 
and  reputable  parents  id  1517,  the  very  year  that  Luther 
began  to  oppose  the  etrocs  of  the  cbiurch  of  Bmne.  Hia 
•     .      '  •  ... 

^  Sewsl'i  Hist  of  Qnskers*— deal's  PtuatSBf 4— Bcei's  Cyelopvaia. 

Mier  dying  Wben  lii  was  ycraog)  and  bi«  modMir  UMhryiVi^ 
agaio,  be  Ml  viider  the  totelage  of  a  father-m-law^  wi^ 
whmii  he  renuuned  till  the  age  of  rixteen.  He  wae  theft 
teteied  of  Brazen  Nose  eoHege  in  Oxford,  where  he  had 
for  his  chanber-fdlow,  the  celebrated  dean  N<mell,  and 
jKihapB  Uie  same  tutor,  Mr.  John  Hawarden  or  Harding^ 
who  was  aftorwaids  principal  of  the  college,  and  tk>  whodft 
Fbx  dedicated  his  work  on  the  Eueharist.  In  May  I53S,' 
he  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts.  He  was  soon  dir«^ 
tieguished  for  his  uncommon  abilities  and  learning ;  wai 
ebosen  fellow  of  Magdalen  college,  and  became  master  of 
arts  in  1  MS*  He  discovered  in  his  younger  years  a  gentoi 
finr  poetry^  and  wrote  in  an  elegant  style  several  Latini 
eonedies,  the  subjeeu  of  which  were  taken  from  the 
scriptures,.  We  have  a  comedy  of  hi^  entitled,  <'De 
Ghristo  Triutophante,'*  printed  in  15SI,  and  at  Basil  in 
1556,  Svo;  which  was  translated  into  English  by  Richard 
I>ay,  son  of  John  Day,  the  famous  printer  in  the  reign  of 
^een  Elisabeth,  and  pabitshed'  with  this  title,  '*  Christ 
Jesils  Tksamphaiit,  wherein  is  described  the  glorious  tris< 
aii^|di  and  conquest  of  Chrr&t  over  sin,  death,  and  the  law,** 
tic,  1579;  and  in  1607,  in  Svo.  It  was  again  pablished 
in  the  original  in  1672^  and  dedicated  to  all  schoolmasters^ 
in  order  that  it  might  be  admitted  into  their  respective; 
schools,  for  the  peculiar  elegance  of  its  style,  by  T.  Ci 
M.  A;  of  Sidney^eoUegei  in  Cambridge*  The  date  of  the 
'first  edition  (1551),  i^ows  that  Anthony  Wood  was  vtA%^ 
taken  in  asserting  that  Fox  wrote  it  at  Basil,  to  which  p\^t6 
he. did  not  go  until  after  the  accession  of  queen  Mary  id 
\S5%.  '-  ■         •  .     '-^ 

Mn  Fm,  for  seme  time  after  his  going  to  the  unitersity; 
wa*  attached  to  the  popish  leligitin,  ia  which  he  had  beerii 
braught  ^p,  but  afterwards  applied  himself  to  divinit^^ 
with  setn^vfaat  more  feWi^ncy  than  circumspection ;  aild 
discovered  himself  in  favour  of  the  reformation  tb^n  going 
Ota)  before  he  was  known  to  those  who  maintained  tbd 
calisi^  or  those  who  were  of  ability  to  protect  the  main* 
tainei^  of  it  •  In  order  to  judge  of  the  controversies  whlctt 
then  divided  the  church,  his  first  care  was  to  search  dfll^ 
gently  into  the  ancient  and  modern  history  of  it ;  to  leartf 
its  beginning,  by  what  arts  it  flourished,  and  by  wha$ 
errors  it  began  to  decline ;  to  consider  the  causes  of  those 
Controversies  and  dissensions  which  had  arisen  in  the 
church,  and  to  weigh  attentively  of  wfaa^  moment  and  eon« 

M  F  o  X; 

sequence  tbey  were  to  religion.  To  tfafis  etid  he  appli^ 
^im$elfwith  such  zeal  and  industry,  that  before. lie  was 
thirty  years  of  age,  he  bad  read  over  all  the  Greek  and 
l^atin  fatberSy  the  schoolmen,  the  councils,  &c. ;  and  bad 
<lso  acquired  a  competent  skill  in  the  Hebrew  language 
But  from  this  strict  application  by  day  and  by  night  while 
^l  Oxford,  from  forsaking  his  friends  for  the  most-solitary 
retirement,  which  >be  enjoyed  in  .Magdalen  grore,  from 
tbo  great  and  Tisible^distractions  of  bis  mind,  and  above 
^11,  from  absenting  himself  from  the  public  worship,  arose 
suspicions  of  his  ajiienation  from  the  church  ;  in  which  his 
fnemies  being  soon  confirmed,  he.  was  accused  and  con^ 
demned  of  l>eresy,  expelled  his  college,  and  thought  to 
ha;ve  <been  favourably  dealt  with,  that  he  escaped  with  .his 
life. .  *  This  was  i  n  1 5  45,  •  Wood  represents  this  affair  some* 
what  differently  ;  he  says  in  one  pl^ce,  that  Fox  resigned 
his  fellowsbip  to  avoid  expulsion,  and  in  another  that  he 
wa$  "  in  a  OHLuner  obliged  to  resign  his  fellowship." .  The 
ftigma,^ however,  appears  to  have  been  the  same,  for  his 
relations  were  greatly  displeased  at  bin),  and  afraid  td 
eouutenance  or  protect  one  condemned  for  a  capi^ 
offence;  and  his  father-iin-law  basely  took  advantage,  of  it 
to  withhold  bis  paternal  estate  from  him,  thinking  proba- 
t>ly  that  he^  who  stood  in  danger  of  the  law  himself,  woukl 
with  difficulty  6nd  relief  from  it.  Being  thus  forsaken  by 
bis  friends,  be  was  reduced  to  great  distress ;  when  he  waft 
l^ken  into  the  house  of  sir  Thomas  Lucy  of  Warwickshire, 
to  be  tutor  to  bis  children.  Here  be  married  a  citizen's 
daughter  of  Coventry,  and  continued,  in  sir  Thomas's 
family,  till  his  children  were  grown  up;  after  which, he 
spent  some  time  with  his  wife's  father  at  Coventry.  He 
temoved  to  London  a  few  years  before  king  Henry's  death; 
where  having  neither  employnxent  nor  preferment,  he  was 
^gain  driven  to  great  necessities  and  distress,  but  was,re«> 
lieved,  according  to  his  son's  account,  in  a  very  remark- 
f\>\e  manner.  He  was  sitting  one  day,  he  says,  in  St. 
Paul's  church,  almost  spent  with  long  fasting,  his  counte- 
pance  wan  and  pale,  and  his  eyes  hollow,  when ,  there 
came  to  him  a  person,  whom  he  never  remembered  to  have 

Jeen  before,  who,  sitting  down  by  him,  accosted  him  very 
iamiliarly,  and  put  into  bis  hands  an  untold  sum  of  money ; 
Jjidding  to  be  of  good  cheer,  to  be  <jareful  of  himself, 
^nd  to  use  all  means  to  prolong  his  life,  for  that  in. a  few 
jlays  u^w  hopes  were  nt  hand,  and  new  means  of  subsist-- 



eii€e.-  Fox  tried  all  'methods  to  find  out  the  person-  bj^ 
whom  he  was  so  seasonably  relieved^  but  in  vain^  th^  preu 
diction,  hb\i«erer^  was 'fulfilled,  for  within  three  days' ImI 
was  taken  into  the  service  of  the  ducbe$s  of  Richmoiid,  t^ 
be  tutor  to  the  children  of  her  nephew,  the  .celebrated 
earl  of  Surrey.'  Upon  the  cominitinent  of  this  amiabM 
nobleman  and  his  father  the  duke  of  Norfolk  to  the  Tower} 
these  children  were  sent  to  be  educated  under  the  >carev 
and  inspection  of  their  unnatural  aunt  the' duohess/of 
Richmond.  ,  ..  -      t    t  :     - 

In^  this -family  be  lived,  at  Ryegate  in  Surrey^  during  the 
latter  part  of  Henry^s  reign,  the  five  years  reign»  of  Edward^ 
and  part  of  Mary^s ;  being  at  this  time  protected .  by.  the 
duke/of  Norfolk,  and  Wood  says  he  was  restored  to  •his 
ieilowsfaipof  Magdalen  college,  under  Edward  VL*  '  Gar* 
diner,  bi^op  of  Winchester,  was,  however,  now  deter^ 
•mined  to  h&ve  htm  seized,  and  laid  many  snares  and  stra- 
tagems for  that  purpose.  The  bishop  was. very  intimate 
with  tbe^duke  of  NoKfoUc,. often  visited  him,  and  fiequenltly 
fiesiiTed  to  see  this  tutor.  The  duke  evaded^the  request^ 
one  while  alleging  his  'absence,  another  that  he  was.  in* 
disposed,!  still  pretending,  reasons  to  pnt.him  off.  .At 
length  it  happened,  that  Fox,  not  knowing  the  bishop  te 
be  within  the  house,  entered  the  room,  where  the  duki^ 
and  he  were  in^ discourse;- and  seeing  the  bishop,  .with ^ a 
shew  of  bttshfulness,  withdrew  himself.  The  bishop^atkiag 
who  he  was,  the  duke  answered,  his  physician,  who:.iral 
somewhat 'unoourtiy,  being  newly  .come  from  the  univer* 
iiity«  ^  I  like  his  countenance  and  aspect  very  well,!'  wei 
f^lied  the  bishop,  ^^aod  upon  occasion  wiU  make  use^of 
Jbtmf.!*  The  duke,  percdving  from  hence  that  dauge^^  was 
at  hand,  thought  it  time  for  Fox  to  repre,  andaccc^ngly 
furnished  him  with  the  means  to  go. abroad.  .He  ieund^ 
before  he  could  put  to  sea,  that  Gardiner  had  issued  out.a 
waraant  for  apprehending  him,  and  was  causing  the  most 
diligent  search  to  be  made  for  him^  nevertheless,  he<at 

^  F«x's  btographeri  have  all  con- 
curred ia  ftaying  that  he  was  protected 
hf  ''"ona  of.bifr  pMpitt  tfaeo  dako  of 
Nprfolk»?'  mfffijng  T^ooiat  t|iird  duka 
of  Norfolk  ;  but  as  this  nobleman  did 
bM  dt6  un61  1554,  vbda  Fax  ipaa 
abroad,  it  appears  more  probable  that 
h  was  he  who  demoastrated  bis  friend* 
ibtp  t6  Fok  itt  the  manner  deicribed  ia 
the  text.    Thft  vender  it  to  find  this 


«  , 

liberality  <n  so  bigotted  a  catholic  as 
thedakeofKorfoHc.'  '      ' 

f  it  does  not  aeem  ifersr  ckatk*  tnti 
this  story  whether  the .  bishofy  ^eff 
Fox's  person,  or  whether/ knowing  it, 
be  alSfeeted  to  be  deceived  by  the  duke*i 
exouse,  that  he  laii^ht  lay .  bis :  plana 
against  Fox's  life  with  les*  hazard  of 
haring  theffl  eottnterplattei!. 

9Q  f  OX. 


Itfigtk^^^' escaped;  with  liis  vrife  Ibmi  ibig  wilh:  o&ild;  gnt 
orer  to  Newport  Haveoy  tniteUed  to  Antwerp  »nd:Fffano- 
lort*  Helens  he  wai  involved  in  the  traublfis  exciti^d,  by  Dr; 
43o3s  and  bis  part^r ;  aind  tb«  first  setiters  beaag  itiindn  from 
itmt  place,  be  comoyed  fnaoi  tibenco  to  Baaii,  where  nnmU 
fete  of  English  subjects  resorted  in  those  times  of  perseou^ 
lioii*  In  this  city  be  maintained  himself  and  family^  .hj 
^eoirectiDg  the  press  for  OporimiSy  a  celebrated  printer  $ 
mud  it  was  here,  that  he  laid  the  plan  of  hie  famoeBiworkv 
^*  The  History  of  the  Acts  and  Monuments  of  the  Gfamrcb.'^ 
jlie  bad  pttl^iished  at  Straaborgh^  m  1^54,  rn  Syt,  ^  Gom- 
loefitarii  Rerom  in  Eccksia  gestarairi)  maximanimque  pei- 
ioEtam '  Eurtbpam  persecutionum  a  Wielavi  tempor'ibus  ad 
iiainc usque  astatem  descnptarum,"  in  one  book:  to>wibidh 
lie  added  fire  more  books,  all  printed  together  ai  Baii^ 
iS^y  in  folio. 

\.  After  qeeen  Mary's  deatb^  wbieh  bishop  Aylmer  siys 
fox  foretold  at  Basil  the  day  before  it  happened^  and  Elii^ 
^abeth  was  settled  on  the  throne,  and  the  psotestaat  reli#> 
gioo  established,  Fox  returned  to  bis  native  country^  where 
lie  found  a  very  faithful  friend  in  bis  former  ptipil«  bow 
fourth  duke  of  N^rfiilk;  who  maintained  bioiat  bis  bouse, 
fod  settled 'a  pension  od  biiu,  which  was  afterwards  con>* 
£hned  by-bisson.  fu  1^72,  when  this  unhappy  diike  <tf 
Korfblk':was  behead^  for  his  treasonablo  oonuection  withi 
liary  queen  of  Scotland,  Mr.  Fox  and  dean  'Nowett  ati» 
tended  him  uppu  the  scaffold.  Oecil  also  obtained  for  Fb¥> 
ia  ifi68,  of  the  queen  a  prebend  in  the  cfaureb  of  Salts* 
bury,  though  Fox  himself  would  have  iieclined  accepting 
k;  -and  though  he  had  many  ppwerfal  friends,  is  Walstng*' 
bam,  sir  Francis  Drake,  sir  Thomas  Gresham,  the  bishops 
Crraidal,  Pilkington^  Aylmer,  &c.  wfao  would  ha^  raised 
}nm  to  considerabia  preferments,  he  declined  them :  betn^ 
always  unwilling  to  subscribe  the  canons,  and  distikiug 
•6me  eeremonies<»f  the  churofa.  When  archbishop  Parker 
summoned  the  London  clergy  to  Lambeeh,  and  i«quip^  of 
them  whether  they  would  yield  conformity  to  the  ecclesi- 
asticarhabits,  ana  testify  the  same  by  thi^ir  subsprlptlpnai, 
the  old  man  produced  the  New  Testament  in  Greek,  ^^To 
this  (say;?  he)  will  I  subscribe."  And  when  a  subscriptipn 
to  the  canons  was  required  .of  birp,  he  refused  ity  sayings 
^  I  have  nothing  in  the  church  save  a  prebend  at  Salisbury^ 
ariicf  much  ,g9P4  ro^y  it  do  you,  if  you  will  taJkp  it  ?Mway 

vox*  tl 

4mtfai  ine*.'^  Sudi  Tespect,  faowiBV«r,  did  the  bitho|Mt 
jmutvof  tbem  formerly  his  fellow  exiles,  bear  to. his  age^ 
|MurtBf i aiid  laboors,  that  Jie  eoqtinued  in  it. id  hia^dwdi. 
But  though  Fox  was  a  aoa-^conforintst,  lie  wa»  a  uerymo^ 
dhratefioe,  and  ^  highly  disappi^oved  of  the  intemperanoe 
of  .the  rigid. puritsltis.  He  expnetses  hiin9elf  to  the  fallen^ 
tng  effect  in  a  Laitin  letter,  written  on  the  exfralsion  Mil  his 
^soa  by  i!he  puritans  from  MagdaleniNCoUege,  on  thetgcoeo^ 
less  iaiputation  of  his  having  turned  papist  ;•  i^  wbieh  eee 
the  folLpwiog  passages.  '*  I  oonfessit  has  always  been  mjr 
great  care,  if  I  could  not  be  serTiceaUe  to  inaiiy^  persons^ 
^et  not  knowingly  to  injure,  any  one,  and  least  cvif  all  those 
of  Magdalea  college.  I  cannot  therefore  but  the  more 
wonder  at  the  turbulent  genius,  which  .toapirea  those  fae** 
l^aus  puritans,  so  that  violatiug  the  lawa  of  "gratitude^  de^ 
epising  my  letters  and. prayers,  disregarding  the  interoest 
eiiMi  of  the  president  fainvself  (Dr.  >Humphreys}^  without  any 
prerious  admonition,  or  assigning  any  causey  they;  baM 
exercised  so  great  tyranny  against  me  and  my  soo^;  weref 
tme,  'who  like  them  would  be  violently  potrageous  againit 
bishops  aiid  acohbisbops,  or  join  myself  witb  them,  that  ts^ 
would  become  mad,  as  they  are,  I  had  nee  met  with  dhia 
severe  tr^^men^  Now  becaiise^  qiHie  AffiM^ent  f rom/tbem^ 
i  have  chosen  the  side  of  modes^  and  paUic  ti^anquiUiiyi; 
hesce  the  hatred,  they  have  a^Mg  tisde  conceived  against 
»e,  is  «t  \$sAt  grown  to  this  degree  bf  bittei^ness*  A«  thii 
IS  the  case,  .1  do  not  so  muck  atfk  yoe  what  you  will  'do-oe 
nqr  acoouTit,  as  what  is  to  be  thou^  of  ^  y<^r  sab^c 
yoa  who  are  prelates  of  the  ohuiscQ  iagaiii  and- again  eon^ 
cider.  As  to  myself,  though  the  lurking  ewiay  ibe  faHow^ 
ship  from  my  son  is  a  great  affliedpn  to  me,  yet  becawse^ 
d»is  is  only  aprivate  eonoern,'  i  bear  it)with:mei«  ssedeea^ 
tton;  I  aqi  »ach.  raore^  conciimed  upon  'aeeouhc  ef 'tiie 
chwroh,  which  ispnbUo.  I  petceive  a  certaid  race-of  iiMIl 
rising  4i^  whoi  if  they  «bould  iinerease  and  •gadier  strength 
in  tfaisktiigdoiD,  leth  sorry  te  say  what  disturbance  I  forme^ 
must  follow  from  it.  Y'Our  prudefisce  is  not  ignorant  heir 
much  the  Christian  religion' formerly  sqffered  by  the  diitf* 
meulaition  and  hypoerl^  op  the  <imniks.  At  fitesent  ik 
tbeiemen  I  know  net  ^ what  sort  >of'ne<i^  menfcs  seems  te 
reviire ;  so  fnach  more  pernicious  thao  the  foi^mery  as  with 

'*^^OQe  bf  Fox*»  bio^raphem  seem     Surbam,  but  qvJUed  U  Uie  same  yeiti^ 
fs^aav«Hbew  aware  that  m  1572  be  wai     prababl/  on  account  of  bis'  aowooiiliMr* 


,  sore  subtle  aildiices  of.deceivingi  under  pretence  of:'p«(«r 
^fectioQ)  like  stage-^players  who  only  act  a  pact,  theyJcoQ^ 
.  ceal  a  more  dangerous  poison ;  who  while .  they  reqniinp 
•e^ry  thing,  to  be  .formed  according  to  their  .own  ^strict 
Ldtscipline'  and  consciencey^will  not  desist: until  they  haTe^ 
-hnougbt  alk  things  into.Jewaesh  bondage.!'     Conformably  .tip. 
these  jsentimentSy  he.  expresses  himself  on .  many  ojther  o(> 
castons^  in  which  he  had  no  private  interest,  and  the  X^vfQ 
.succeeding  reigns  provedithat  he  bad  not  judged  rashly  of 
the. violent  tempers  and  designs  of.  some  of  the  puritans.^ 
,Those»  however,  who  detest  their  proceedings  against  tbe^ 
son  of  a  man  wha  had  done  so  much  for  the  reformatioOi . 
twill  be  pleaded  to.  hear  that,  he  was  restored  to  his  fellow?-. , 
-^ip  a  second  time,  by  the  queen's. mandate.   ^     .. 
•    li^  1564  he  sent.  a. Latin  panegyric  to  the  queen,'  upoja^ 
h^  indulgence  to  some  divines,  who  bad  scruples:  respectr , 
ing.a  strLci  confornuty,  and. yet. were  sufFered^to  hold  digr 
niiies  in  the  church.     In  July  iSlp  he  wrote  a  Latin  lettcf, 
tO:  the -queen,  t^.  dissuade,  her  majesty  from  putting  tor, 
jdeath  two .  anabaptists^  who  bad  .been  condemaed  to  be," 
biirnt.    Fuller,  who  transcribed  this  letter  from  the  brigi«; 
«al,  has,  published  it  in  his  .V  Church  jtlistory,"  .and  Cpl- 
iier,.  who  has  too  frequently  joined,  the  popish  cry  agains^^ 
JFor,yet  allows  that  it  is  written  Jo  Jkyery  haudsome.CUristia.i 
Utrain.  .  In  this  let^r,.  Fo«::de»W-<4s,  .*'  that  with- regard  tg 
those  fanatical  sects,,  he  does  not  think  they  ojugbt.  to  b^^.'  a  state,' but.  chastised  in  avprop^n  manner  i^ 
Ixtijb  that  to  punjsbwith  flames  the  bodies  of  ^os.e»  .whoenr, 
xatherfrom  blindness  than  obstitiacy  of  will,  is  cruel,  $n4- 
iBor:e  suitable  to  the  examplje  pf  the  Romish  church,,  than 
4h^  roildnes5i  ,of  the.  gospel ;;  and  in  short,  such  a.drifeadful' 
4»istoiiiy  as  could  never  ha<v^  i^eeo:  intnoduis^d  into  the  meek 
««)d  ^otle  church  of  .Chfktv  exoept  by  ai^  popes,  mi 
partioularly  by  f  nnocent  IJI.^rwbo  6.rst  took  that,  method  .pf; 
jrestraining  heresy.     Hec^iserves  that  he  dQes  not,  write, 
4b|JS  ouj:  of  .an  indulgence  t(^  error,  huit,  as  he  is.^  man^. 
AUtof  regard  tO:  the  liye&*o£  men,  that  they,  may  have- an 
opportunity  of  repenting,  of. their  errors,     He.declares  a. 
lenderness  for  the  liye%  not  only  of  men,  but  even  of  brute 
animals  themselves; -and  affirms,  tbati  he  could  never  pass 
by  1^  sla\ighter-housey  .without,  the  strongest  sense  Qf  pain 
and  regret.     He  entreats  her  majesty,  therefore,  to  spare 
<he  lives  of  these  wretches,'"  &'c.     But  Fuller  tells  us,  that 
though  the  queen  consts^itly  catUed  I^r.  J^ox^^hei. Father/* 

f^  rfiri  gSWhim^  flatdenial  e^  to  the  sating  6(  ^eiif\V^£ 
.ufllesi  th^  r^fttited  tfaeflr  errors,  #bich  they  refused,  an'd 

Wc»^  eiteevit^r 

Fox  wftd  a  ifttYr  6f  ^eki  btfmstlhy  itnd  uncoiitiiidh'  Iibi^; 
iMiey.  fle^  was  a^  dios't  laborious  student,  and*  refma^kdbtjf 
alb«te«rfi6u0 ;  a-  most  learned,  (>it!)us,  and  jtrdi'dtous  diViiie^ 
Md  e^eV  oppbfttd  to  all  trfetbods  6f  Severity  rfi  matters  of 
reflgfon.  Th«  he' vrab  A^t  promoted  wai  Entirety  oWih[ 
i«>  bfe  r^ftiAning  S6iile  opitiion^  adverse  to^'die'  babitd  arl( 
ceremonies  of  the  churchy  which  he  had  imbibed  abroad 
*^  Alehougltl''  rfajri  Fuller,  «*  fte  richest  nritfe'  in*  Knghnd 
Drovilitl  have  eoumed  itself  pfe'ferred  by  "freSri^  plac6d'up6i 
bis  b^ad,' lie^  tdfitMt^d  hiitaself  witlr'a'pi'ebend  of  i^alis- 
bury.  Hkw  feametil^beirrD^,  Ho# t:6rfetati tly  he  preached, 
ho^  pibbfily  b«  lived,  ttttd  l6^  cheifrrdHy'  he  dft^cf,  may  be 
$een  a«  laJirg^iiyth^  life  prefixed  to  hh  book/*  '  Wo6d  and 
Strype  are  ilMfed  iti  thetr  praisesf  of  Mis  ta'fentd  and  persbncil 
ebaracter;  ttve  foritier  orily,  Kketti^'ntuccessor  Collier^  'cat^- 
Atoft  forgii^e  MiA  f^  being  "  a  *sevenfe' Calvitiii^t,  atid  abUie* 
eivenfiy  to  popery.**  Of  his  liberalkjf  many  an^cdot^s  Itjajf 
W  foMd  in  nMt  au^oritjies.  .        :     • 

Thi«  eifcettei^'  AWan'  died  in  t587,  in  the  70tb  yeaV  6t 
hk  dge,'  MA  wfesp  btfri«d  in  tbe^  cfaancdl  of  Sti  Giles,  t/\\S'^ 
pNgate;  of  wbich;'  ie  is  said,*  be'  tras  sotii^time  ric^ar ;  buii!^ 
asfWdod  thfcklf,  if  he  hrt' it  if  all,  hekept  itbVit  a  iWtl^ 
while,  iti  tAte'b^ftWii-n^  of  ■EKi5abet'h''s  reign.  *  He  \kh  t^ti 
aof»,  iSfebiu^'  and  Thon^^.  S^^uefP  b'ekaiMe  demy,  atcd 
aiA^Matttb  M\M  of  Afegdaleu^coll^ge;  irT  O^fbrd:  lii 
Kid,  M  wtme  hh  ftlherV  life,  pfefiied  to^  bfs  «  Afcti 
atld  Mdnaarifetits  of  the^  Churdh!"  ThciWa^  was"  ffifioifr  of 
King's  college,  in'Canibrtdge,  and^'beAme' aftervVafdk  itt 
eminent  physician  at  London. 

-  Besides  what  htts  been  meritiohed,  Fox  wrote,  1."  DA 
CcM^ura^  seu^Excomn^amcatione  Eccl^stastica,  Interpella:- 
do  ad  Afcbtepfsedpuiii  Csntuarlensem,  1*551,*'*  8to:  2\ 
•♦Table#o«6ramrtiar,  ISS^^'  Wood  teBs  us,  that  tliese 
<*Ti*teS  were  subscribed*  in  print  by  eight  lords  of  ihd 
pfi^  councH ;«  but  were  quickly  laid  aside^  a^*  being  fat 
moi^e' top' short,  tWin  king  Henry  the  VIII tb*s  Grammar 
was  too  long.*!*  y.  **^  ArticuK  sivef  Aphoirismi  aliquot  JosiD« 
ma  Wiclevi  sparsim  aut  ex  vafiis  illias  opusculis  excerpt! 
per-  afd^iersartos  Papit!olasj  ac  Concrlie  Constantiensi  ex* 
bibiti***  4.  **'C<>llectBnea  qurtdam  ex  Regxnsddi^PecocId 
£p9s(;dpi^C4i:e#€riei>sis  opusculis  exustir  ctotisetvata,  er  et 

Vol.  XV.  '  D 

tmtiqtkv.  psegmate '  transcripts.**      5.  *^  OpiitograpbUi  wA 
Ozonieiises*"    The  three  last  are  printed  with  his  **  Com« 
mentarii  reruns  in  Ecclesia  gestarum/'  at  Strasburg,  1554y 
in  8vo»  mentioned  above.     6.  *' Concerning  Man's  Elec'-^ 
tk>n  to  .Salvation,    I58i;'   8vo.     7.  ^  Certain  Notes  of 
£leiction,    added  to  Beza's  Tr^tise   of  Predestination^ 
)  58 1/*  8vo.;    8.  '<  The  Four  Ev^ngeliits  in  the  old  Saxott 
Tongue,  witb.tbe  English  thereunto  adjoined,  1571/*  4tO| 
tad  many  other,  .pieces,  which  were  levelled  againtl  the 
iPapists.  ......  < 

None  of  these,  however,  are  likely  to  add  nnicb  to  bis 
itame,  whicb  is  now  exclusively  founded  on  bis  ^*  Acts  ami 
iMonumedts,*'  /qiore  familiarly  known  as  **  Fox*s  Book  of 
Marty  ra,!'     Of  this  vast  undertaking,  some  brief  account 
cannot  beiminteresting.    We  hi^ve  Inefons  noticed  tbat  he 
conceived  the  plan,  and  executed  some  part  of  it  wheif 
he  was  at,  Basil,  hut  f^eserved  the  greiitest  part,  of  it  until 
his  return, home,:  when  he  slight  avail  himself  of  livingl 
audiorities.     It  appears  by  his  notes  that  the  oompletiaii^ 
pf  it  occupied  him  for  eleven  years,  during  which  his  U^ 
hour  must  have  been  incessant.     His  assistants)  however,- 
were  numerous.    Among  those  who  pointed,  oot  sources  of 
information,  or  contributed  materials,  was  Grindal>  aftet'-r 
wards  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who,  when  an  exile  for 
his  religion,  cstablisbed  a  correspondenoe  in  England  for' 
tbis  purpose,  and  received  accotmts  of  most  of  the  acts  ami 
sufferings  of.the  martyrs  in  queen  Mary's  reign.    It  is  saidf 
also  to  have  been  owing  to  Orindal*s  strict  regard  totirnth^* 
that  the  publication  of  the  work  was  so  long  delayed,  as 
he:  rejected  all  common  -reports'  that  were  brought  ovari 
unlets  con  firjned  by  the  most  satisfactory  evidence.     It 
was-  ^is  scrupulous  fidelity  which  induced  him  to  advise 
Fox  at  iirst  only  to  print  separately,  such  memoirs  of  cer^ 
tain  individuals,  as  could  be  authenticated,  which  accord^ 
i|)giy  was  done,  although  these  separate  publications  am 
how  seldom  to  be  met  with.    At  length  after  a.  residence 
of  some  years  in  i^ngland,  employed  in  collecting  written 
.a«d.  oral  information,.. the  6rst  edition  was  pufajished  at 
London  in  i363j(  in  one  thick  vol.  fslio,  With  the. title 
V  Acts  and  Monuments  of  these  latter  and  |^rillous  <biys 
touching  matters  of  the  Churche,  -wherein  are  compre» 
•headed  and  described  the  great  persecutions  and  boirible 
trQublefi,  that  have  be^en  wnaught  and  practised  by  the 
Romish  prelates,,  speciallye  in  this  reaboe  of  Engiafid  dxid 

ro  X  Si 

Sttotlandy  fiiom  tbe  year  of  cmr  Lordb  a  thocnnd  imlo  the 
tune  now  ^leieiit,  &c. .  Gatheaed  and  eoUected  according 
10  the  trae  oepies.  and  wsytiogca  certificatorie,  as  well  of 
tho  parties  tbemeKes  that  suffered,  as  out  of  the  bisbopa 
iegbsers>  wfaicb  were  the  doers  thereof.'*  *  Mr.  JPox  fne' 
Rented  a  copy  of  this  edition  to  M«||^alen«*coUege,  Oxford*, 
and  at  tbe  same*  time  wrote  a  Latin  letter  to  Dr«  Lawrence 
liamphreys*  printed  by  Heame  in  his  Appendix,  No.  V* 
Iftbispr^Esce  tb'^  Adaan  de  Domersham  Hist,  de  cebus 
gtestis  Glastonensibns,"  Oxon.  1727.  This  volunie,  which 
sahitas  principaUy  to  the  Maierycof  martyrdoai  in  England, 
antt  a&nhirards  enlarged^  first  to  two,  and  at  length  to  three- 
toluines,  iblio^  embnetng  a  history  of  the  Christian  church 
fcoiD  tbe.^earliest  times,  and  in  eirery  part  of  the  world. 
Tbe,  ninth  edition  appeared  in  1684|  with  copper-plates, 
those  in  tbe  former  cKlitkms  being  in  wood,  which*  last, 
however,  are  prefened  by  ooUecton^  some  of  them  con* 
iMting.real  portsaitSb  .The  publishers  of  the  last  edition 
bad  alflHMt  obtained  a  promise  from  Charles  IL  to  revive  tbe 
ocdermade  in  queen  Elizabetb'a  time  for  placing  the  work 
i^'the  common  hails  of  arcbfaishops,  bishops,  deans,  col* 
legesf  obnrcbea.  But,  if  we  look  at  the  date,  1684,  and 
MsoUect .  the  hqiies  .then  entertained,  of  re-establishing 
popery,:  weshaU  .not  be  much  surprized  that  this  order 
wos  aofi^reoewed,  nor  zperb^ps,  from  the  improved  atate  of 
ttiepijess^:  and  of.  education^ .  was  it  necessary.  Since  that 
iMBe,  .however,  :tbere  has  •been  no  xepnblication  of  the 
Oiim^ete.wedB>*aithoogbtfae  English  part  continues  to  this 
day  aHstaodard  book  among  tbe  publishers  of  works  in  the 
pesiodscal  way,,  who  bave  also  furnished  their  readers  with 
innumerable  abridgments  in  every  form.  Yet  as  tbc^ri^ 
gihal  has  long  been  rising  in  price,  we  may  hope  that  the 
liberal  spirit  of  enterprise  which  has  lately  produced  new 
^iKtionspf  the. English  Chronicles,  will  soon  add^to  that 
mefol  .eollectioa  a  reprint  of.  Fox,  with  notes,  corrections^ 
and.a  coUation>  of  the  state'pap.ers  and  records. 
.  The  effect  of  J*'Oi(*s  work,  in/^promotiiig,  or  rather  con^* 
firming  the  principles  of  the  reformation,  to  which  we  owe 
all.that  distinguishes  us  as  a.  nation,  is  acknowledged  with 
universal  .conviction.-  It  is  proved  even  by  the  antipathy 
of  tbir.enemies,  .who  would  not  have  taken  such  pains  tcl 
exposethis'errors,>and  inveigh  against  the  work  at  large; 
iftb^had  not :ielt  that  it  created  ini  the  public  mind  aa 
abboxretice  of  ^^e  persecuting  spirit  of  popery^  which  hat 

/  D  2 

it  E  O  X. 

suflRsred  lit^  dittifntiitiQii,  wen  to  di«  |irea6DC  day.  Alt 
tbe  endearoun  of  the  popish  writersi  however^  from  Harps*^: 
field. to  Mihier^  ^  bare  not  ptavedy  aad  it  iieviev  will  b® 
proved,  that  John « Fox  n.  not  one  of.  tbe  ncHMt  failhful  anii* 
auiiDeatiG  of  alt  historians."  Ami  in  the'  wotfd»  o£  thei 
.writer  fi-om  whom  we  borrow  thk  assertion,,  we  add^  al«^ 
though  with  sonie  reluctance  from  respect  to  tbegentle-^ 
man^S'hanie^  *^  We  htiow  too  nmcb  of  the  strength  of  Fox  s 
book,  and  of  tbe  weakness  of  thoie  of  his  adrersairiesi  to  beb 
&rther  moired  by  Vir.  John  Milner^s  ceosotes,  timn  to  eharge 
them  with  falsehood*  All  the  many  reseafchesi  land  dis^ 
cov^eries  of  later  times,  inregatd  to  historical  doetimenta,)^ 
have  only  contributed  to  place  the  genend  fidelity  and  tnurhr 
of  Foxes'  melancholy  narrative  on  a  rook  whtoh  emmob  ber 


FOX  (Richard),  an  eminent  prelate,  and  the  muiiifi** 

cent  founder  of  Corpus  Christi  oollege,  Oatfonl,  was  thet 
son  of  Thomas  Fox^  and  born'*  at  Rop^l^,  near' Grants-: 
ham,  in  Lincolnshire,  about  the  latter  end  of  th»Teign  of 
Henry  VI.  His  pai^nts  are  said  to  have  beea  in  mean' 
circttinstances,  but  tbey  must  at  least  have;  been  able  to  t 
afford  him  school  education,  since  the  only  dispute'  on' 
this  subject  between  his  bio^pfaers,  is,;  whether  he  was- 
educated  in  grammar  learning  at  Boston,  or  at  Winches- 
ter. They  all  agree  that  at  a  propor  age.  be  was  -  sent  tx^ 
Magdalen-college,  Oxford,  where  he  was*  atoqairing- dis^- 
tinetion  for  his  extraordinary  proficiency,  when  tber plague,* 
wbitb  happened  tn  break  out  about  that  time,  obliged  him> 
to  go  to  Cambridge,  and  eontinne  bis  studies  at  Pembnpk'e-^^ 
ball..  After  remaining  some  time/ at  Cambridge,  he  re*' 
paired  to  the  university  at  Paris,  and  studied,  divinity  and 

^  \AooerdiDg  to  Wood,  who  availed  of  lox,  Mr*  Williafl^  BaUnao.  a  scho-. 

hiiDjieif  of  8om»  MS  ac'coqnts.  of  Ffix  ]ar  of  Corpus,  and  an, able  antiquary^ 

preserved  in  this  college,  written  by  made  many  addition*;  iK-ith  a  iriew  ttf 

IVe^identGreeiiway,  "the  Founder Ws  pnbllentieii,  wbicll' ft*  did  09t:4ifet«r 

briro  in  afi  anciciit  bouf^e  knoi^   to  oomp}«te.     HisMS3.  Sre  pmrdy  in  tke 

some  by  the  name  of  Piillock's  Manor."  library  of  lhi>j  coll<^»  and  partly  in 

"This  ho(ise»"  he 'adds,  "  was  veil'  the  Asbmolean  M  iW(»uto,     Mr.  Gottgh 

kiyt»wo  for  m^any  years  to  th«  feilow«  uf  drew  iip  ik  very  aoeiirate<  slLetfeb-  ol 

'tiorpjus,  ^ho  rcvereytly  visited  it  when  Fox's  Life,   for    ibe   Vetusta   Mouu« 

tbcy  went  lo  keep  courtj*  at  their  ma-  lOelitA. 
nors."    To  tf hat  was  before  reci[>rd^ 

Jt  Life  preBxed  to  .\m  Act»and  Monnneiiti,  written  by  ht«  9imw-*»Strype^«  An^^ 
naU»  Aud   Live:;  ot!  the  Archbishops,  passim.--*Fuilej*8  Worthies. -->i^tK.   Ox./ 
vol.  I. —  ri>x'«  MS  OolttiCtions,  amon*:  tbe  Harle/ian  MSS.  in  Brit.  Mt>s. — Biog;^ 
Brit.— Ft)l!er'(;  A ^>e\  fiefltvivos.— Cbttrton'ff  Life  ^  Mbwellrf— >^ordsiv«Mtli's  fioOS 
Swgiayhy,  pfefaee,  Sic. 

T  O  X.  IT 

fte  euoA  H^i  and  hfere,  ptobably,  lie  received  iris^doo* 
^i''«  degree. .   Tbw  visit  g«ve  a  new  and  important  :(arn«to 
l)if  Itfo,  and  imrodiiced  him  to  that  eminence  which  be 
preserved  ibr  many  years  as  a  sutesman.     In  Paris  he  >be# 
pame  acquainted  with  Dr.  Morton,  bishop  of  Ely,  ivAioini 
Jiichaxd  Hi*  had  compelled  to  quit  bis  naliv,e  coantry^* 
and  by  this  prelate  he  was  recommended  to  the  earl  of 
ilidiinond,  afterwards  Henry  VII.  wiio  was  then  providing 
for  a  descent  upon  England.     Ricbmond^  to  whom  he  de« 
yoted  biubseir,  conceived  suck  an  opinien  of  his  talents 
and  fidelity,  that  he  entrusted  to  liis  care  -a  negotiatiear 
with.  Fntnoe  for  sopplies  of  men  and  money,  the  i^siae  of 
which  he  was  not  able  himself  to  await;  and  Fox  sue*' 
eeeded  to  the  utmost  of  his  wishes.    After  the  defeat  of 
.  the  usurper  at  the  battle  (^  Bos  worth,  in  1485,  and  the 
establishment  of  Henry  on  the  throne,  the  latter  imoie-' 
diately  appointed  Fox  to  be  one  of  his  privy-council,  and 
ftboiit-  the  same  time  bestowed  on  him  the  {jrebends  of 
Bishopston  and  South  Grantham,  in  the  church  of  Salis-^ 
bury.    In  1487,  he  was  promoted  to  the  see  of  Exeter^ 
and  appoiiUed  keeper  of  the  privy  seal,  'With  a  pension  of 
twenty  sbilUngs  a  day.     He  was  also  made  principal  set  > 
eiretary  of^tate,  and.master  of  St.  Cross,,  near  Winchesten^ 
.    His  employments  in  afiairs  of  state  both  at  home  and« 
abroad»  were  very  frequent,  as  he  shared  the  king*s  cob« 
fidenoe  with  hia  early  friend  Dr.  Morton,  who  was  now: 
advanced  to  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbury.    In   1487, 
Ff>x  was  seat  ambassador,  with  sir  Richard  Edgecombe^  - 
comptroller  of  the  honseliold,  to  James  III.  of  Scotland^ 
wbere  he  negociated  a  prolongation  of  the  truce  between : 
England,  and  Scotland,  whieh  was  to  ei^ire  July  3,   1488, 
to  Sept.  1,   1489.     About  the  beginning  of  1491,  he  was 
employed  in  an  eiAbassy  to  the  Jking  of  France,  and  re* 
turned  to  England  in  Noven^ber  following.     In  1494  he 
wient  a'gaitt.aa  ambassador  ta  James  IV.  of  Scotland,  to 
conclude  some  diiferences  respecting  the  Bribery  of  the 
river  Esk,  in  which  he  was  not  successful.     Having  been 
translated  in  1492  from  the  see  of  Exeter  to  that  of  Bath  - 
and  Welk,  he  was  in  1494  removed  to  that  of  Durham. 
In  1497,  Uie  ca^le  of  Norbam  being  threatened  by  the 
king  of:  Scotland,  the  bishop  caused  it  to  be  fortified  and 
supplied  wiiih  troops,  and  bravely  defended  it  in  person, 
until i|  lyas  rejieiied  %  Thomas  IlovvarJj  eail  of  Surrey, , 

38  F  Q  X 

who  compelled  (be  Scots  to  reliire.  Fox  was  theo,  a^tUfli 
time,  appointed  to  oegociate  with  Scotiaiidy  aad  aigoedti 
seven  j^ears  truce  between  the  two  kiagdoms.  Sept  90» 
1497.  He  soon  after  negoctated  a  marriage  betwem 
Jli^mes  IV.  and  Margaret,  king  Henry's  eldest  daugbler, 
which  was,  after  many  delays,  fully  concluded  Jan.  i4, 

-    In  1500,  the  university  of  Cambridge  elected  him  their 
chancellor,  which  he  retained,  till  1502;  and  in  the  sande 
year  (1500)  he  was  promoted  to  the.  see  of  Winchest^. 
In  1507  be  was  chosen  master  of  Pembrokerball,  Cmi« 
bridge,  which  he  retained  until  4519.     In  1507  and  1598 
he  was  employed  at  Calais,  with  other  commissioners,  in 
negociating  a.  treaty  of  marriage  between  Mary,  the  kiog's 
third  daughter,  and  Charles,  archduke  of  Austria,- after- 
wards the  celebrated  Charles  V.     In  1509-10,  he  was  sent 
to  France  with  the  earl  of  Surrey,  and  Ruthal,  bisbop^of 
Durham,  and  concluded  a  new  treaty  of  alUance  with 
Lewis  XII.    In  15 12  be  was  one  of  the  witnesses  to  the 
foundation  charter  of  the  hospital  in  the  Savoy.     In  lvSi3 
he  attended  the  king  (Henry  VIII.)  in  his  expedition  to 
France,  and  was  present  at  the  taking  of  Teroiiane,  andin 
October  following,  jointly  with  Thomas  Grey,  marquirof 
Dorset,  be  concluded  a  treaty  with  the  emperor  Masi* 
milian  against;  France.     In  1514,  he  was  one  of  the  wit* 
nesses  to  the  renunciation  of  the  marriage  wkh  prtece 
Charles  of  Spain  by  the  princess  Mary  ;i  one  of  the  oom^ 
missioners  for  the  treaty  of  peaoe.between  Denry  VilL 
and  Lewis  XII.  of  France ;  and  for  the  marriage  betwieo 
the  said  king  of  France  and  ihe  princess  Mary,  the  sisne 
year.     He  was  also  one  of  the  witnesses'  to  the  marriage 
treaty,  and  to  the  confirmation  of  both  treaties ;  to  the . 
treaty  of  friendship  with  Francis  h  and  to  its  confirmation 
in  the  following  year.  i     • 

This  appears  to  be  the  last  of  his  public  acts*  During 
the  reign  of  Henry.  VIL  he  enjoyed  the  unlimited  favour 
and  confidence  of  bis  sovereign,-  and  bore  a  conspicuous 
.<  share,  not  only  in  the  political  measures,  but  even  in  the 
court  amusements  and  ceremonies  of  that  reign*  Henry 
likewise  appointed. him  one  of  his  executors,  and  recom- 

•  ■  f         « 

*  l^«  succession  of  the  House  of .  tbit  aUUnce,  and  to  the  pradeoce  of 
Stuart,  as  well  as  that  of  Brunswick  to  bishop  Pox  in  the  negociation  of  it^ 
the  British  throne;  is  to  be  referred  to'    SeeLord Bacon's  Hist,  of  HeiktyVII. 

fox.  it 

Winded  bim  strongly  to  his  son  and  sutc^ssor*.'  'But  kU 
though  he  retained  his  seat  in  the  priry •council,  and  eon* 
ttnued  to  botd  tk^  privy- seal,  bis  inBuence  in  the  new* 
reign  gradnally  abated.  Howard,  earl  of  Surrey  and  lonff 
treasurer,  had  been  bis  rival  iii  Htary  the  Seventh's  tim^^ 
and  learned  now  to  acoommodate  himself  to  the  extrava^ 
gant  passions  of  his  new  master,  with  whom  he  Was  for  a 
*coiaiderable  time  a  confidential  favourite ;  and  the  cele- 
brated Wolsey,  who  had  been  introduced  to  the  king  by 
.  FosT,  in  order  to  coonteract  the  influence  of  Surrey,  sopii 
*  became  more  powerftil  than  i^ither.  After  remaining  soole  ^ 
time-  in  office,  under  snany  mortifications,  our  prelate, 
together  with  archbishop  Warham,  retired  from  court  in 
1515*  Such  was  the  political  life  bf  bishop  Fox,  tiistin- 
gnished  by  high  influence  and  talent,  but  embittered.. at 
length,  by  the  common  intrigues  and  vicissitudes  to  which 

statesmen  are  subject 

•    His- retirement  at  Winchester  was  devoted  to  acts  iaf 

charity  and  munificence,  although  he  did  not  now  for  the 
'  first  time  appear  as  a  public  benefactor.    He  had  be* 
stowed  large  sums  on  the  repairs  of  the  episcopal  palate 
at  Durham,  while  bishop  6f  that  see,  and  on  every  occ^a* 
.sioQ  of  this  kind  discovered  a  considerable  taste  fer  archi- 
tecture.   In  1522  he  founded  a  free-school  atTauntdn, 
and  another  at  Gratitham,  and  extended  his  beneficence  . 
to  many  other  foundations  within  the  diocese  of  Winches- 
ter. .  But  the  triumphs-  of  his  munificMce  .and  ;'tasle  lire 
principally  to  be  contemplated  in  the  additions  ^vhicbrhe 
butk  both  within  and  without  the  cathedral  of  Wiitcbes* 
Met:    Of  these  we  shall  borrow  a  character  from  o»e  whose 
fineenthosiasm  cannot  be  easi  iy  surpassed.-^— ^^  Itis  i  mpossible 
to  survey  the  works  of  thia  prelate,  either*  on  thfi  outside . 
of  the  church,  or  in  the  inside,  without  beingVtruck' with 
their  beauty  and  magnificence.    In  both  of  them  we  see 
the  most  exquisite  art  employed  to  execute;the.  most  noble 
and  elegant  designs.    We  cannot  fail  in  particubr.  0f  ad- 
miring  the  vast  but  welUproportionerf  and  ornamented 
arckied  windows  which  surround  this  (the.  eastern)  part, 
and  give  light  to  the  sanctuary ;  the  bold  and.  airy  flying 
■   •• .  .        -••  '      •       .      •      .  .        •  .    ,  .    • 

*  The  Hiitorian  of  Wincheiter  re*  priDoe,  who  wai  afterwarclt  Heory  VT 1 1; 

•nuurkfy   thet  oo  .higher  {iroof  of  the  Dr.  Mtlaer  alio  CffD^^etU  Ms,  Gouglff 

eoosideratlQii  m  which  the  king  held  opinion  Uiat  he  was  not  •ponier^  hot 

•  -him  fwabeaddueedy  than  that  he  was  hapliHii  the  young  princt. 

chosen  to  be  »poDsor  to  the  yoiio(  •    .          •        ^     -'    ■**              ^ 



l^ottsenfes  that,  stf^cfaing  pvfr  the  ^d  ail«H  titpp^Kt  thr 
upper  walls ;  the  rich,  opiea  batjJ^oient  whicli  Mimi^ttnts 
tjft^^fi  M«sil^  I  ai?d  the  elegant  sjve^p  tlyat  eontyaf  u  them  to 
i|)^^  8fjz^  of  tl^e  girett  ^a^^jTQ  w tndQw :  die  two  gorgeous 
canopies  which  crown  the  e^^treme  tuiretay  and  the  ^uoofiir 
sion  of  .el^g^qt  carved  wprk  Uuat  corers  tlie  .whole  easi 
ffoiity  tapering  up  ^o  a  pojnt^  where  we  Tiow  ibe  bre#thiiq; 
^t^tue  of  the  pious  fouo/d^r  resting  upofi  bis  cho^»en  em* 
bleo))  the  pelican.  In  a  word».  Directed  i^id  muubtftedi 
^  t^iis  work  has  been  dtiriilg  tjbe  eoquse  of  nearljr  three 
c^nturiesy  it  still  warranto  i}^  to  assert,  that  if  the  9M^ 
ca^tbedral  had  been  fin]$hed  in  i^be  style  of  ^his  portion  of 
^,  the  whole  island,  and  perjiaps  all  Europe  eoAild  aol 
have  ^:chibited  a  gotb jc  structure  equal  lo  itl^.- ' 

His  lost  appearance  in  parliament  was  in  1423  ;  be  had 
^en  l)een  nearly  6ye  ye^r^  deprived  of  his  sight,  which  be 
never  recovered.  Wolsey  endeavoured  to  persuade  biift 
to  resign  l^is  bishopric  to  faio),  ^nd  accept  of  a  pension, 
^ut  this  be  rejepted,  ^sserUog,  ^cpprding  to  Parkier,  that 
V  Tho'  by  i^a^on  of  his  bliodneps  he  was  no|:  able  to  dia* 
tinguish  white*  from  blaick,  yet  be  could  discern  betvneo 
true  4nd  fabe^  i*ight  and  wrong ;  and  plainly  enough  saw, 
without  eyes,  the  malice  of  .tb%t  ungrateful  man,  wkkh 
he  did  npt  se^  before.  Tk^^  it  behoved  tbe  eardinalto 
ial^e  care  npt  to  be  so  hlipded  with  ambition  as  not  to 
fqr^ee  his  own  end^  |}e  needed  not  trouble  himself  with 
t)ie  bisbopfic  of  VVincbpst^r,  but  rattier  should  .mind  tbe 
king's  affairs." 

.  Bi^  last  days  were  spep(  ip  prayer  and  meditation,  which 
^t  length  becfiaie  <^lo)ost  uninterrupted  both  day  and  nightt 
lledi^d  Sept:  14,  U28,  and  vras  buried  in  the  fine  chaatrjr 
lybich  ))e.l)u}|t  for  that  purpose  in  Winchester  cathedral^ 
If^nped^fttely.  bebjnd  the  l]igh  altar*  oh  the  south  sidft. 
Purii^g  l^is  residence- hpfc,  b^  ws^s  indefatigable  in  preacht 
ingi  and  exciting  the  clergy  tQ  their  duty.  He  was  alio 
i^n]>qunded  in  bjs  cbarjties  to  the  poor,  whom  he  assisted 
H^it^i  food,  clp^hes,  and  money  >  at  tbe  same  time  eyert 

•  ]l|i1oeir>4  History  of  VTinchMter, 
lEpf/I}.  p.  J 9,  96.  '<}a  the  top  of  tbe 
wall  which  be  built  round  the  presby- 
tery^ be  placed,  in  leaden  cbe«U,  tbref 
on  j^  f  kle^  the  bon^s  of  several  of  the 
i|r|!stSaxou  kings  and  bishops,  api^  some 
later  princes,  who  had  been  originally 
buried  behind  tbe  high  altar,  or  in  dif- 

fer^nt  parts  of  tbp  church,  with  their 
flames  Inscribed  06  the  face  of  th^ 
chest,  and  a  crown  on  each.  But  the 
havocli  of  fi^naticisiii  in  U19  laie  ciTil 
var  deranged  the  bones,  which  were 
pollected  again  as  well  as  oireonMtancet 
pecmKted,  1661.  Goqgb,  VekufU  Mor 
j^qMCOti^  xqI  XL  pli|te  U 

F  O  X.  41 

dtHig  Iros^laliitf ,  mud  piromoting  the  trade  oP  the  city,  by 
a  ^?g« estabiishtnfent  which  he  kept* up  at  Wolvesey,  of 
V0O  bcftidred  and  twenty  servants* 

7i^Hli  ehftntcter/'  says  Mr.  Gough,  *^  ^nay  be  briefly 
untuned  up  'in  these  twcf  particulars  :  great  talents  and 
aMiCies  forbiMiness,  which  recommended  him  to  one  of 
th^-wise^  princet  of  the  age;  and  not  less  charity  and 
mtffiftfieence,  of  whi^h  he  has  left  lasting  monuments.**  Of 
his  wrttingSy  we  have  only  an  English  translation  of  the 
^*^Rtde  of  8t,  Benediet/^  for  the  use  of  his  diocese, 
prfMed  by  Pinson,  15115,  and  a  Letter  to  cardinalWoU 
se^,  the  subject  of  which  is  the  cardinals  intended  visi* 
tafton  and  rcformatiQii  of  the  clergy.  Fox  expresses  hi$ 
great  satisfaction  a^/any  measures  which  might  produce 
.aodesirable  an  efifefct.  The  general  and  respectful  style 
of  this  letter  either  affords  a  proof  of  Fox's  meek  and  con-r^ 
ciltotory  temper,>br  suggests  a  doubt  whether  our  histo- 
fianis  have  not  tob  itiiplicitly  followed  each  other  in  assert^ 
ing-4bat  Wolsey's  ifrgratitude  was  the  principal  cause  of  his 
retiring  from  courtv'^  That  Wolsey  was  ungrateful  maybe 
infetped  from  the  preceding  quotation  from  archbishop 
Painter,  but  Pox's'discovery  of  it,  there  im|)lied,  was  long 
8ub«equent  to  bis  leaving  the  court ;  and  k  is  certain  that 
in  ^the  letter  now  mentioned,  and  in  another  written  iil 
15M,  he  addresses  the  cardinal  in  terms  of  the  utmost  re-* 
spcfM  and  aflfection.  Of  these  circumstances  Fiddes  and 
Gr©re,  the  biographers  of  W6lsey,  have  not  neglected  to 
avail  themselves,  but  they  have  suppressed  all  notice  of 
bis^#erto  Foxrespeeting  the  resignation  of  the  bishopric.  ' 
.  The  foundation  of  Corpus  Christi  college  was  preceded 
by  the  purchase  of  ceitain  pieces  of  land  in  Oxford,  be* 
longing  to  Merton  college;  the  nunnery  of  Godstow,  and 
the  priory  of  8t.  Frideswyde, '  which  he  completed  in  1513; 
But  his  design  at  this  time  went  no  farther  than  to  found  a 
college  for  a  warden  and  a  certain  number  of  monks  and 
secmir  sohoiars  belonging  to  the  priory  of  St.  Swithin,  in 
Winchester,  in  the  manner  of  Canterbury  and  Durham 
colleges,  which  were  similar  nurseries  in  Oxford  for  the 
pridifies  of  Canterbury  and  Durham.  The  buildings  for 
this-vpurpose  were  advancing  under  the  eare  of  Williann 
Vertue,  mason,  and  Humphrey  Codk,  carpenter  and  mastet 
of  the  works,  when  the*  judicious  advice  of  Hugh  Oldham^ 
bishop  of  £?seter,  induced  him  to  enlarge  his  plan  to  one 
of  moFe  usefuhiess  and  durability.     This  prelate,  an  epii* 

4ft  tax. 

nent  ptiron  of  literature^  and  a  man  of  acnte  discemmefil, 
if  sakl  to  have  addresse4  him  tbus:  **Wbat!  my  bld^ 
shall  we  build  bouses,  and  provide  iivelihoodafor  a  com-: 
pany  of  monks,  whose  end  and  fait  we  ourselves  may  kre 
to  see?  No,  no,  it  is  more  meet  a  great  deal, -that ^^e^ 
should  have  care  to' provide  for  the  increase  of  learhiiig, 
and  for  sucli  as  who  by  tbeir  learning  shall  do  good  to  tbe 
church  and  commonwealth."*  These  arguments,  strength-^ 
ened  probably  by  others  of  a  similar  tendency,  induced- ^i>x 
to  imitate  those  founders  ivho  had  sjready  contributed xso 
largely  to  the  fame  of  the-  university  of  Oxford*  AgmmI-' 
ingly,  by  licence  of  Henry  VIII.  dated  Nov.  26,  1516,  he 
obtained  leave  to  found  a  ccrflege  for  the  sciences  .of  dm- 
>^i^y>  philosophy,  and  aru,  for  a  president  and  thirty 
scholars,  graduate  and  not  graduate,  more  or  less  sac- 
cording  to  the  revenues  of  the  society,  on  a  certain  grotnld 
between  Merton  college  on  the  east,  a  lane  near  Cant«r« 
bury  college  (afterwards  part  of  Christ-churcb),  andi-  a 
garden  of  the  priory  of  St.  Frideswyde  on  the  west,  a  street 
or  lane  of  Oriel  college  on*  the  north,  and  the  town  i^ll 
on  the  south,  and  this  new  college  to  be  endowed  with 
350/.  yearly.  The  charter,  dated  Cal,  Mar.  15)6,  reeiies 
that  the  founder,  to  the  praise  and  honour  of  God  Almighty, 
the  nM)st  holy  body  of  Christy  and  the  blessed  Virgin  Mary, 
as  also  of  the  apo^les  Peter,  Paul,  and  Andrew,  and^  of 
St.  Cuthbert  and  St.  S within,  and  St.  Birin,  patcona^oC 
the  churches  of  Exeter,  Bath  and  Wells,  Durham,  aind 
Winchester,  (the  four  sees  which  he  successively  fiUed) 
doth  found  and  appoint  this  college  always  to  be  caUed. 
Corpus  Ghristi  College.  The  statutes  are  dated  i«b. 
13,  1527,  in  the  27th  year  of  his  translation  to  Winebes- 
ter,i  and  accdrding  to  them,  the  society  was  to. consist  of 
a  president,  twenty  fellows,  twenty  scholars,  two  chirp-* 
lains,  two  clerks,  and  two  choristers.  ?     . 

But  what  conferred  an  almost  immediate  superiority  of 
reputation  on  this  society,  was  the  appointment  of  twoiec* 
tures  for  Greek  and  Latin,  which  obtained  the  pratse^and 
adn^iration  of  Erasmus  and  the  H>tber  learned  m^n  irho 
were  now  endeavouring  to  introduce  a  knowledge  of  >  the 
classics  as  an  essential  branch  of  acaddmic  study.  With 
this  enlightened  design,  the  founder  invited  to .  his  inew 
college  Ludovicus  Vives,  Nicholas  Crucher  the  mathe* 
inatician,  Clement  Edwards  and  Nicholas  Utten,  profest 
sorsof  Greek;  Thomas  Lupset^  Richard. Pi^e,  andvothei 

FOX.  4» 

jmen  of  estaUttbed  repvUGtion*     TbiS)  Mr.  •^ Warleo  «b*^ 
aenrety  was  a  new  and  noble  departure  from  the  oarnsfw 
plan  of  academical  edocitioo.    The  course  of  the  LMm 
lectnrer  was  not  confined  to  the  college,  but  open  to  ll^e 
students  of  Oxford  in  general.     He  was  expressly  directed 
to  drive  barbarism  from  the  new  college,  barbgrieme  nostra 
uheario  pro  xnirili  si  quando  puUuU^extirpet  tt  ^iciMt.    Tlie 
'  Greek  lecturer  was  ordered  to  explain  the  best  Grade 
classics,  and  those  which  fox  apoeified  on  this  occasioiit 
are  the  paraat  m  the  opiasoii  of  modem  times.     But  suah 
ana:dwtensper  of  the  age,  that  Fox  was  obliged  to  iatro* 
duce  his  Greek  lectureship,  by  pleading  that  the  sacied 
canoflis  had  comasanded,  that  a  knowledge  of  the  Greek 
tongue  should  not  be  wanting   in  '  pubUc  seminaries  of 
education.     By  the  aacred  canons  he  meant  a  decree  of 
the  council  of  Vienne,  in  Daiiphiny,  promulged  ao  early 
as  1311,   which  enjoined  that  professorships  of  Greek, 
.  Hebrew,  and  Arabic,  should  be  instituted  in  the  univer- 
aitiesof  Oxford,  Paris,  -Bononia,  Salamanca,  and  the  coiprt 
of  Rome.    This,  howev<»r,  was  not  entirety  satisfacWy* 
The  prejudices  against  the  Greek  were  still  6o  inveterate, 
that  the  university  was  for  seme  time  seriously  disturbied 
by  the  advocates  of  the  school-learning.    The  persuasion 
and  example  of  ErasmJ!is,  who  resided  about  this  timt,iii 
Sl  Mary's  college,  had  a  considerable  effect  in  restoiing 
peace,  and  more  attention  was  gradually  bestowed  on  ^he 
learned  languages,  and  this  study^  so  curiously  introduced 
under  the  sanction  of  pope  Clement's  decree  of  Vientie, 
proved  at  no  great  distance  of  time,  a  powerful  instrument 
in  effecting  the  reformation.    Those  vrho  would  depiive 
Clement  of  the 'liberality  of  his- edict,  state  his  diief  mo<» 
tive  to  have  been  a  superstitious  regard  for  the  Latin, 
Greek,  and  Hebrew,  because  the  superscription  on  the 
cross  was  written  in  these  languages, '    . 

FOX  (Henry),  Lorx^  H6ix^nd,  the  first  nobleman  of 
that  title}  was  the  second  and  youngest  son  of  the.  second 
marriage,  of  sir  Stephen  Fox,  and  brother  of  Stephen 
first  earl  of  Ilchcster.  He  was  born  in  170ir,  and  ^  was 
chosen  one  of  the  members  for  Hendoo,  in  Wiitshirey  on 
a  vacancy,  in  March  17S5,  to  that  parliament  which  inet 
Jan.  23,  1794;  and  being  constituted  anrvey or- general  of 

<  Cbalmen's  }X\%i.  of  Oxford.— life  in  Biog,  Brit,  and  especially  tbat  by 
Mr.  Gough,  in  the  Vetusta  MdaumeDta.— Wood's  Colleges  and  Halls,— AUu 
Ox.voi«l«*^loriia'ifirsaBii»|fco.  ' 

tt  FOX. 

hi*  «^€«ta|^ft  1id|r4  of  works,  a  writ-vris  orilfiMd  «fonel7; 
i797«;aDd  k^  wt»  re*>elected.     la  the  sexi  ^mlivmem^ 
litiKioiooed  Ao  meet  Juns  25,  174.1,  h&jeriFed  for;WiiiKl^ 
•or^  and  in  1743^  being  eoostknted.ooe  of  the.  csooMniti 
mmers  of  the  treasury,  in  the  iidiniEoistration  fonned  bjr 
^e  Pelhaaifi,  a  writ  was  issued  I^a  2 1st  of  that  year,  cfoy 
a  oew  election,  and  be  was  r^-cboaen.     In  1746,  ontfatf 
reatopatioD  of  tlie  old  cabinrt,  after  the  short  administration, 
pf  ead  Granrille^  he  was  appointed  secfetary  at  war,  an4 
sworn  oiie  his  jxu^esty's  moat  honourable  priyy^coirniafc 
Oa  this  occaisioni  and  until  be  was  advanced  to  tim  peie^ 
age,  be  loootitiued  to  represent  Wsndsoc  io  pariaaoititc^i 
lo  1754,.  the  death  of  Mn  Pelham  pradosced^a  lacane^M 
the  treasury^  which  was.filied  up  by  his  baotber  the  :daktt 
of  Newcastle,  who,  ihovgh  a  noblemaQ  of  high  hiiiieiilti% 
tinblemisbed  integrity,  and  considerable  abilities,  yet  wai 
pf  too  jealous  and  unstable  a  temper  to  manage  the  house^ 
of  commons  with  equal  address  and  activity,  and  to  g€Hid4< 
the  reins,  of  government  without  a.  coadjutor  at  so  ardoaus 
^  a  conjuncture.    The  seals  of  cbanceUodr  of  the  exohddjuet' 
and  secretary  of  state,  vacant  by  the  death  of  Mn'  Pel*- 
ham,  and  by  the  promotion  of  the  duke  of  Nemrcastle,  :be<^ 
eame  therefore  the  objecsa  of  contention.     The  persons 
who  now  aspired  to  .the  management  of  the.hmise  of  cooi^ 
mons,  wei^  Mr.  Fox  and  Mr.  Pitt  (afterwards  earl  of  Chaa>*  ' 
bam)  whose  parliamentary  -  abilities  had   for   sosne  time^ 
divided  the  suffrages  o£  the  oatioii ;  wbo  had  so  l<Hig  f0S<»  ^ 
%^>rfid  .reciprocal  jeaJqusy^  and'  who   now  became  pubise  ^ 
rivais  for  power.     Both  these  rival  ttatesmen  were  younger  - 
brothers,  nearly  of  the  same  age.;  both  weis  educated  at 
l^totv,  both   disUuguished  £or  classiial  knowledge,   bdtb 
CoaifOeiiced  their  parltanifentary  career  at  the  same  periodj 
4nd  both  raised  themselves  to  eminence  by  their  superior'* 
talents,  yet  no  two  characters  were  ever  more  contrastedi  * 
Mr.  Fox  iohemted  a  strong  and  vigoorous  constitution,  was' 
profuse  and  dissipated  in  bis  youtl^  and  after  squandering 
his  private  patrimony,  went  abroad  to  extrioate  himself 
from  his  jembanrasaments^     On  his  r^nrn.  he  obtained  a  - 
seat  in  parliament,   anil  wannly  attached  hicnseif  to  sir  • 
]ii«dE>ert  Walpole,  whom  he  idoUxed.;  and  to  wboie  pa*  ' 
troi^e  he  was  tadebbad  for  she  place  4if  .surveyor Tgenecal  : 
ofuhe  board  of  works.     His  marriage  in  1744  with  lady  ' 
Cari^IiniQ  Lennox^    dangbter  of  the.  duke  of.  Rich mond^  * 
though  at  first   displeasing  to   tbQ    family,  ye^.  fijps(]ly> 

FOX.  4S 

streaglfeeMMl  ISr  pfrftticil  MWieelion^  He  waseqiMiHy  a 
iQW-offpkmfwrettidfauiihets^foroied  for  social  and  coovivial 
uneroQiune ;  of  an  wuruffled  temper^  and  frank  duppsHioo; 
Na  ^laleHVtti.  ai^qoiied .  more  adherents^  not  raeraljr  frbm 
p0)it^(al  itiouw% .  but  awaycd  by  bis  agreeable  manners^ 
and  atiadied  to  hxm  by  pemeaa^  frieadsiup^  wbieh  he  feUy 
mmted  by  bis  ^  aeal  in.  pmuotiiig  tbeir  interesls^  He  is 
pmiy  abaracterized^  even  by  Lord  Cbealerfiddv  <<  aa  baving 
no  fixed  priuoiplca  of  religion  or  morality,  and  as  too  un« 
warjr]iii:rtdioiiling  and  exposing  tbem/'.  Aa  a  parliament 
taq&omtoiv  be  was  occaaieoally  besitatiog  and  perpleaedi 
hnt^  wbev  warmed  with  bis  enhject,  be  spoke  with  an  am« 
BMitioo  and  rapidity  wliicb  appeared  more  striking  front 
bis.  former  beaitation.  His  speeches  were  not  crpwded 
witb  .flowers  of  riietoric,  or  diatingotshod  by  brtUiaacy  of 
diction  ;  bni  wero  replete  with :  sterLtng  .seoee  and  sound 
argument  He  was  quick  in  reply,  keen  iwirapaaiec^  and 
skallid  in  dieoeroing^tfaettempctf  of  the.  bouse..  He  wmta 
wifeboatr  effQtt;or  afieotation;  liis  puUic  dispalcbea  were 
manly  aodf  iteBspiouoiar,  md  bis  private  letters  eaey  and  . 
animate;^  .  Though  of  ast  aanbiiaous  apirilv  he  re^ssdedl 
money  as  acpriilcipaL  ofa^ecl^<  and'  power  only  aa  a  aeoon^ 
dary.  oeaeeau  He  .was.  air  exedttent  bosbaad,  a  asest  in^^ 
diilge»t  father,  •alditd  maslsr^.  a(ceiirteooa>neighbo«ir,  and) 
OBft  ^ftee  charities  .deaoonstrated  that  he  .possessed  'im 
ahnndaoce  the  mi  Ik  of  hnmnn  kifidaess.-f**iSnch'  is  aatdte 
banw'.heen  theebaraoter  ofierdHollandy  .wbtioh  is  here  ia^* 
tr<|(i««ed  as  a  prelude  to  someajceomit  of  hts  more  illusr^ 
triofia  son.  li  may  thereforensulfice  to-  add,  -fthaA  ia  1766> 
he^t  resigned  of  aeoratairy  at  war  to  Mr.  Pise,  and? 
in  idle  fidlowing.  year  was  appointed  paymaster^  thefonaes,.« 
wloob  he  lelatned  uatii!  tbe  commenoemeiitiof  ibe:piresen0 
reign  ^  his  ooaduct .  ib  tfaia  office  was  attended;  with  aomd 
dk^ea  of  oUoqay ;.  inr  owe  instance,  at  Itfast^  groasiyt 
6v«pcbarged*  Ear  baviDg:acdumuJa(ed  a>oonsidembie  for«^ 
tu^  tbe  perquinitea  oTofficei  and  the  interest  of  moneys 
ill? hand,  be««ias  styled  in  one  of  tbe  addreaaes  of  the  cityl 
o£. London,  *^  the  defaoker  of  onaccotinted  mtliions."  Oas 
May  6,  1762,  his  lady  was  created  baronesa  Holland  9  aadr 
on 'April  16,  176S,  he  bimseif  was  created  a  peer  by  thei 
title  of  lord  Holland,  baron  Holland^  of  Foxlcy,>in  tbm  ^ 
comty  of  Wilts.  In  the  latter- pare  of  his  life  he  amused} 
himself  by.  building,  at  a  vast  expence,  a  fantastic  villa  at 
Kings^te,  near  Margate^     His*  lordship  was^alsa  a  toM 

4«  J'.OX^! 

of  tbepnvj^  council,  said  dcrk  it  the  PeBs,  ttr  ttelhtid^ 
gjrsiiKed  him  fpr  his  own  iife  and  that  of'  bis  two  sons*' 
Lord  Holland  died  at  Holland-house,  near  Keaiington^ 
Jnly  1,  1774,  in  the  sixty^ninth  ye«r  of  Usage,  leaving 
three  sons,  Stephen^  his  successor ;  Chaiiss  James,  the' 
safaject  of  the  next  article ;  and  Heniy  Edward,  a  general 
in  die  army.  Stephen,  second  lord  Holland,  surviTed  hi*- 
father  but  a  few  months,  dying  Deo.  M,  1774,  and  waa. 
sttoceeded  by  Henry  Richard,  the  present  peer.*    • 

FOX  (Charles  James)^  one  of  the  most  iUnstrions 
statesmen  of  modem  times,  the.  second  son  of  the  pre^ 
ceding  lord  Holland,  was  born  Jan.  19,  0»S.  1748.  We 
have  already  noticed  that  lord  Holland  was  an  indulgent 
fiuher^  and  it  has  been  said  that  his  partiality  to  this  son 
was  carried  tp  an  unwarrantable  length.  That  his  ftitber 
might  have  been  incited  by  parental  affection,  a  ;feeling^ 
o£ 'which  few  men  can  judge  but  for  theiiiseived,-  by  the 
eerigr  discovery  he  made  of  his  son's  talents,  to  indulge  him 
in  .the  caprices  of  .youth,  is  not  improbable ;  *  but  that  this*, 
iadttlgence  was  not  excessive,  may  with  equal*  prababilUy 
be  inferred  from  the  future  conduct  of  Miv  Foa,  which- 
letained  no  traces  of  the  **  spoiled  child,"  i|nd  none  of 
the  haughty  insolence  of  one  to  whom  inferiors  and  servants 
bare  been  ordered  to  pay  obsequious  obedienee;  Nor  was' 
Ua  education  neglected.  At  £too,  where  he  had  I>r.' 
Barnard  for  his  master,  he  diatinguis^d  himself  by  como' 
elegant  eaercisei^  which  are  to  be  found  in  the  <^  Musie* 
Stonenses,^*  and  at  Hertford  college,  Oxford,  where  he* 
studied  uiuler  the  tutorage  of  Dr^  Newcome^  afterward^' 
Parnate  of  Ireland,  his  proficiency  in  classical  and  poliee' 
literature  must  have  been  equal  to  that  of  any  of  his  con-^ 
tempoKaries.  The  fund  indeed  of  classical  4€arniiig  which: 
lie 'accumulated  both  at  Eton  and  Oxford  was  such  aato* 
lyimain  inexhausted  during  the  whole  of  hie  bosy  and* 
c^veotful. political  career;  and  while  itpnivhd'to  the  last's, 
soarce  of  elegant  amusement  in  his  leisnre  hoors,^  it  enabled-* 
kim  to. sank  with  some  of  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  his r 
time.  This  we  may  affirm  on  the  authori^of  Dr.  Warton,* 
with  wbom'he:irequently  and  keenly  contested  at  the  .lite- 
rary club^  and  on.thatof  a  recent  publication  of  his  leiters* 
ta  Gilbert  Wakefield,  wiih  whom  be  corresponded  on  sub-*' 
jects  of  .classical  ta6te.  and  crilicism* 

••«  •  .•  -•.■.  « 

•  *••  §,'"  •  ••*         .«  ..'  •*.•,*  «• 

rPfCMi :  Oxford^  where/ as  was  tbe  cintom  wiiti  yenng 
intended  for  public  life,   he  did  not  remain   long ' 
c^Mittgh  to.  accomulatft  degrees,  he  repaired  to  the*  conti"* ' 
i^ot..    In  bis  travels  it  is  sud  that  he  acquired  more  of  tk^ 
pfluish  of  foreign  intercourse  than  those  who  kttew  him 
QUgDin  bis  latter  days  could  have  believed,  and  returned  a 
fashionable  young  man,  noted  for  a  foppish  gaiety  of  dress  - 
and.  manner,  from  which  he  soon  passed  into  the  opposite ' 
extreme^    As  his  father  ihtetided  him  to  rise  in  the  poli- 
tical world,  be  procured  htm  a  seat  for  tbe  borough  of 
Mtdhurst,  in  1768,  before  be  had  attained  the  legal  age; 
af^rcumstance  which,  if  known,  appears  to  have  been  then 
overlooked.  Two  years  afterwards,  his  father's  interest  pro-- 
cnced  him  the  office  of  one  of  tbe  lords  commissioners  of 
the  admtffalty;  but  in  May  1772,  be  resigned  that  situation, 
apd  in  January  1773,  was  nominated  a  commissioner  of- 
thetrtasury.  .  At  this  time  it  cannot  be  denied  that  his* 
priiticat  opinions  were  in  *  unison  with  those  of  his  lather, ' 
wha  vha:  accounted  a  tory,  and  were  adverse  to  the  tuii>u- 
iMt  pniceedif^s  of  the  city  of  London,  which  at  this' time 
wsis  deluded  bjr  the  specious  pretences  to  patriotism  dis« 
piayed   by  the  celebrated  Wilkes.     It  was  in  particular: 
Mir^  Foxl^s  opinion,  in  allusion  to  the  public  meetings  hekl 
by  tbe  supporters  of  ^*  Wilkes  and  liberty,"  that  <<  the 
voide  of  tbe  people  was  only  to  be  beard  in  the  house  of* 
eommons.'*     I'hat  he  held,  however,  some  of  the  opirAimsi 
byBcwfaiclr  his  future  life  was  guided,  appears  firom.  his- 
speech^  in'  favour  of  religious  liberty,  when  sir  WiUiam' 
Misredith  introduced  a  bill  to  give  relief  from  subscripdoar 
t^itiie  thirty«nioe  articles;  and  perhaps  other  instancesr 
marybe  found  in  which  his  natural  ingenuousness  of  niiad, 
aujd^.  openness  of  character,  burst  tbrottgb  tbe  tramnteis  o^ 
ptu-ty ;.  and  although  it  must  be  alioiv^d  that  the  cause  be^ 
nbor.  supported  was  not  that  which  be  afterwards  espoused^ 
it) may  be  doubted  whether  he  was.  not  even  at  thik  taoie/r 
viheu'a  mere  subaltern  in  the  nunistecial  raofcs^  more  ua^' 
restrained  in  his  sentiments  than  at  some  memorable  pe«: 
riods  of  his  subsequent  Jife»        •.   i' 

-.After  having  displayed  Ins  talents  to  the  greatest  ad  van^' 
tage  in.  favour  of  the  minister  for  about  six  years,  the  latter: 
(iacd  Norths  procured  his  disflnissal' f rom  office  in  a  mau'^ 
<ier  not  the  most  gracious,  and.whicfa,^  if  it^did  not  leave'; 
in'Mr.  Fox^smind  some  portion  of  xesentmenf,  he  must 
have'b^<^n  greatly  superior  to  tli^  infirmities  of  our  nature^ 

4^  roxi 

opFtb.i9y  t774y  irhile  he  .V8^  8eciia%  eilgaged' In  cOtt<^ 
veraatiDii  wieb  tbe  minister  on  ocher  nbJ0M»  in  the  IniifMr' 
of  comiBons^  he  received  th6  fotkntitig  laeonfc'note-by-die' 
bands  ^f  dne'  of  the  mfessengevs  of  the  bouse :         -  * 

*^  His  Majesty  bas  tbougbt  proper  to  order  a  anW^  coilt«* 
mission  of  Treasury  to  be  madi^  out»  in  which  i  do  imm£; 
see  your  natne.    North." 

TlMS'.event  was  not  oecaaioned  by  any  opposition*  oar  th^" 
pknrt  of  Mr.  Fo3t  to  lord  Norih^si  measures,  bat.  to  »  dil^- 
feretice  of  opinion  asr  lo  tbe  best  mode  of  carryifkg  thaiiir 
into-efiRsctv  and  that  in  aiy  instance  of  comparativefy^Miiall: 
importance.  This  vras  a  question  respecting^  the  eoMalictat 
ctf  Mr.  H.  8.  WoodfadI,  tbe  printer  of  the  Public  A4^r«.> 
tiaer^  who  bad  been  broufght  to-  the  bar  oi  tbe  boiu^  for^ 
iooertiog;  a  letter  supposed  to  ba^e  bedn  widttievi  by  ths^ 
revt  J.  Uorne,  afterwards  J.  HorneTooke,  in  wiyiok  oliotfli 
luijustifiable  liberties  had  been  taken  wtnh- the  cbariMeter  of 
the  speaker,  sir  Fletcher  Norton,,  withr  a  ooarso  viraleoce 
of  langttage.  peculiar  to  Tooke.  Mr.  Woodiali<  having 
given*  up  the  atitbor,  and  thrown  himsetf  on*  tbe  naercy  ol 
tbe  house^  iti  \vas' moved  by  Mr.  H^rblei^t  that  be  siiould  be 
Gcmiikiiited  to  the  custody  of  the  seijeant  at  arms.  Mr. 
Fox,  at  ihat*  period  a  zealous  advocate  for  the  prinlegesi 
d£  the  bouse,  declared  that  tbe  punisbinent  was  not  suffix 
oiently  severe,-  and*  moved  ^^  that  he  be  committed  to  New«« 
gate,  as  tbe  only  proper  place  to  wbiohf  offenders  sliouidi 
be  sent;  tliough  hints,*'  belaid,  '<  had  been  throw-out 
that  the  aheriflb  woilld  not  admit  hiib.*'  To  this  lord  North 
seplied,  that  he  waa  very  sorry  that  hints*  had  been  thfoww 
out  of  whafc  tbe  sheritfs  would  or  Wouid  not  db ;  he  hoped 
there  were  no  persons  who  would  dispute  tbe  power  of 
that  house;  he  therefore  moved  that  the  printer  be  com<* 
mitted  to  the  Gate-house,  as  be  thought  ic  imprudent  to 
fyfce  themselves  into  a  contest  with-  the  oity ;  but  Mr; 
Herbert  carried  bis  motion  in  opposition  both  to  lord  North 
and  Mr.  Fox,  by  a  majority  of  1 52  to  68,  to  the  great 
displeasure  of  lord  North,  who  asserted- that  it  was  entirely 
owing  to  the  imerference  of  Mr.  Fox,  diat  he  was  left  in  a 

To  this  trifling  dispute,  we  are  left  to  refer  tbe  whole 
of  Mr.  Fox's  subsequent  conduct,  and  as  he  appears^  to 
have  immediately  commenced  hostilities  with  the  minister 
%nd  bis  friends,  it  has  been  recorded^  asL  peculiarly .foitu^ 

-F  OX;  49 

ivMte  (at  bim,  that  be  bad  no  occasion  to  degrade  bU  con- 
sisteqcy  by  opposing  any  o{  the  measures  he  bad  formerly 
.supported^  ia  detail  at  least;  and  that  a  new  era  of  po-* 
litical  hostility  bad  just  commenced  on  which  be  could 
enter  with,  all  the  apparent  earnestness  of  honest  convic- 
tioq.  This,  we  need  scarcely  add,  originated  in  the  dis« 
piite  between  Great  Britain  and  her  American  colonies. 
..During  the  who^e  of  this  period,  and  of  the  war  which  foN 
.lawed,  Mr.  Fox.  spoke  and  voted  ia  direct  opposition  to 
the  ministerial  systegi,  which  ended  at  laist  in  the  separa- 
tion of  the  colonies  Jfrom  the  mother  state.  It  was  now 
that  Mr.  Fox's  talents  appeared  in  their  fullest  lustre,  and 
that  be  took  the  foremost  rank  among  the  speakers  of  the 
bouse,  although  it  could  at  that  time,  and  in  bi^  9wn 
party,  boast  of  a  Burke,  a  Barr£,  and  a  Dunning. 

At  the  genend  election  in  1780,  JVIr.  Fox  became  .can>* 
.d^te  for  the.  city,  of  Westminster^  in  which,  after  a  vio- 
lent contest,  he  succeeded,  tliough  opposed,  as  we  are 
,tokly  by  the  formidable  interest  of  the\Newcastle  faipily^: 
and. by  the.  whole  influence  of  the  crown.     Being  now  the 
representative  of  i  great  city,  it  is  added,  <^  he  appeared 
in  parliament  in  a  more  dignified  capacity,  and  acquired  4i 
consiiderable  increase  of.  consequence  to  liis  politic^  cha* 
•racter.    .In  himself  be  was  still  the  same  :  he  now.  nepe^-  ^ 
sarily  lived  and  acted  in  the  bosom  of  his  constituents ;  big: 
easiness  of  acces^  his  pleasant  social  spirit,  his  friendly  < 
(dispositioix.and  conciliating  maimers,  which  appeared  in ^ 
all  be  said,  and  the  good  temper  which  predominated  in  ' 
aU  be  did,  were. qualities  that. rendered  bim  the  friend  ^ 
a^d  acquaintanqe,  as  >yell  as  the  representative,  of  tboae  " 
who  sent  .him  into  parliament;  his  superior  talents,  and 
•  their  powerful,  and  fi'equent  application  to  popular  pur^ 
ppses,  made  him  best  knoven  among  political  men,  and 
gave  bim  a  just  claim  to  the  title  so  long  applied  to  him, 
qf  ^  Tb^  man  of  the  people.'"     Nptwithstanding  all  this, 
it  might  not  be  difficult  to  prove  that  Mr.  Fox  was  upon-^ 
the  whole  no  great  gaiqer  by  repifesenting  a  city  in  which 
tbi^.art^.of  popularity,  even  when  most  honestly  practiaed^^ 
jife  BO  security  for  its  coiuimiance ;  and  indeed  the 
was  QQt  far  distant  when  he  had  to  experience  the  fatal 
effi^cLs  of  preferring  a  seat, .  which  tfa^  purest  virtues  only 
can  neither  obtain  nor  preserve,  and  in  contesting  which, 
corruption  pn  one  side  must  b^  ppposed  by  corruption  ob 
$b%P.tben.  ,      /  - 

Vol.  XV.  E 


to  f  0  X. 

The,  subjects  of  debate  in  the  new  parliamefit  tiffariitig 
the  oppo^iion  opportunities  for  the  display  of  their  eld-' 
quence,  they  now  became  formidable  by  an  increase  at 
numbers.  Ministers  were  assailed  in  the  bouse  by  argtf- 
inents  which  they  could  neither  repel  nor  contradict,  and 
from  without  they  were  overwhelmed  by  the  clatnodrs  df 
that  same  people  to  whom  the  war  was  at  first  so  accept- 
*Able ;  till  at  length  lord  North  and  his  adherents  were 
obliged  to  resign,  and  it  was  thought,  as  such  vengeance 
had  been  repeatedly  threatefned  both  by  Mr.  Fox  and  Mf. 
Burke,  that  they  would  have  been  made  responsible  for 
all  the  mischiefs  and  bloodshed  that  had  occurred  during 
their  calamitous  administration.  The  Rockingham  party, 
'however,  who  came  into  power  in  the  spring  1782,  and 
whose  resentments  the  attainment  of  that  object  seems  !• 
Iiave  softened,  contented  themselves  with,  the  defeat  6f 
their  opponents.  Mr.  Fox  obtained  the  office  of  secretary 
of  ^tate  for  foreign  aflPaifs,  and  the  marqots  of  Rocking^- 
iiam  was  nominated  the  first  lord  of  the  treasury.  Still  the 
expectation  of  the  nation  was  raised  to  the  highest  pitch  ; 
with  this  party,  they  hoped  to  see  an  end  to  national  ca- 
lamity, and  the  interests  of  the  country  supported  and 
maintained  in  all  quarters  of  the  globe.  Much  indeed 
Was  performed  by  them  considering  the  shortness  of  their 
administration.  Though  they  had  succeeded  to  an  empty 
exchequer,  and  a  general  and  most  calamitous  war,^  yet 
they  resolved  to  free- the  people  from  some  of  their  nume^ 
jrous  grievances.  Contractors  were  excluded  by  act  <yf 
parliament  from  the  house  of  commons ;  custom  and  ex- 
cise officers  were  disqualified  from  voting  at  elections ;  ail 
the  proceedings  with  respect  to  the  Middlesex  eWction 
were  rescinded ;  while  a  reform  bill  abolished  a  mimber  iaf 
useless  offices.  A  more  generous  policy  was  adopted  ii 
regard  to  Ireland ;  a  general  peace  was  meditated,  and 
America,  which  could  not  be  restored,  was  at  least  to 
be  conciliated.  In  the  midst  of  these  promising  appear^ 
ances,  the  marquis  of  Rockingham,  who  was  the  support 
cf  the  new  administration,  suddenly  died,  an  event  wbieti 
distracted  ^nd  divided  bis  party. '  The  council  board  waa 
instantly  torn  in  pieces  by  political  schisms,  originating  in 
a  dispute  respecting  the  person  who  should  succeed  as  nrst 
lord' of  the  treasury.  The  candidates  were,  lord  8bel-> 
burne,  afterwards  marquis  of  Lansdowne>  and  die  lat« 
duke  of  Portland  -,  the  former^  supposed  to  have  ^  etr  4)f 

r  o  X  SI 

^e  kitig^  tad  a  majority  in  the  cabinet,  was  immediately 
entrMslfbd  with  the  reins  of  government,  and  Mr.  Fox  re* 
tii'ed  in  disgusti  declaring  that  *^  be  bad  determined  never 
to  connive  at  plans  in  private,  which  he  could  not  publicly 
mvow."  What  these  plans  were,  we  know  not,  but  he  now 
resiftoied  bis  station  in  opposition,  and  joined  the  very  tnan 
whose  conduct  he  had  for  a  series  of  years  deprecated  at 
the  most  destructive  to  the  interests  of  Iris  country,  and 
most  baneful  to  the  happiness  of  mankind ;  while  bis  for- 
mer colleague,  the  earl  of  Shelburne,  was  busied  in  con- 
^eluding  a  peace  with  France,  Spain,  Holland,  /and  th€i 
United  States  of  America.  But  as  this  nobleman,  though 
by  no  meaijtaeficient  in  political  wisdom,  had  omitted  to 
take  those  steps  which  preceding  ministers  had  ever  adopted 
jto  secure  safety,  a  confederacy  was  formed  against  htm  by 
the  union  of  the  friends  of  Mr.  Fox  and  lord  North,  known 
by  the  name  of  *^  The  Coalition,"  which  proved  in  the 
«vent  as  impolitic,  as  it  was  odious  to  the  great  mass  of 
the  people.  Never  indeed  in  this  reign  has  any  measure; 
caused  a  more  general  expression  of  popular  disgust;  and 
although  it  answered  the  temporary  purpose  of  those  who 
adopted  it,  by  enabling  them  to  supplant  their  rivals,  and 
$0. seize  opoti  their  places,  their  success  was  ephemeral; 
'  .cbey  had,  it  is  true,  a  majority  in  the  house  of  commons, 
hvtt  the  people  at  large  were  decidedly  hostile  to  an  union 
.which  appeared  to  them  to  be  bottomed  on  ambition  only,, 
and  destitute  of  any  common  public  principle.  It  was  as- 
verted,  with  too  much  appearance  of  truth,  that  they 
agreed  in  no  one  great  measure  calculated  for  the  benefit 
0i  the  country,  and  the  nation  seemed  to  unite  against 
.them. as  one  man.  Their  conduct  in  the  cabinet  led  the 
fovereign  to  use  a  watchful  and  even  jealous  eye  upon 
their  acts  ;  and  the  famous  India  bill  proved  the  rock  on. 
which  they  finally  split,  and  on  account  of  which  they  for- 
feited their  places.  Mr.  Fox  had  now  to  contend  for  the 
government  of  the  empire  with  William  Pitt,  a  stripling 
aoarcely  arrived  at  the  age  of  manhood,  but  who  neverthe- 
less succeeded  to  the  post  of  premier,  and  maintained  that 
aitttation  with  a  career  as  briltiant  as  that  of  his  opponent, 
lor, more  than  twenty  years.  v 

>.  The  tide  of  popularity  had  set  in  so  strongly  against  Mr. 
jTox^  that. at  the  general  election  about  seventy  of  his  most 
aotive  A'iends  and  partisans  lost  their  seats  in  the  house  of 
^commons,.  aii4he  himself  was  forced  injto  a  long  and  tur* 



52  FOX. 

buleiit  coolest  for  the  city  of  Westminster.  He  faad^  iM 
we  have  seen,  been  originally  returned  for  that  place  by 
the  voice  of  the  inhabitants,  in  opposition  to  the  influence 
of  the  crown;  but  his  junction  with  lord  North  had  now 
lost  him  the  affections  of  a  considerable  number  of  bis 
TOters,  and  although  he  ultimately  succeeded,  it  was  d,t 
an  expence  to  his  friends  which  some  of  them  felt  for 
inany  years  afterwards.  He  lost  also,  what,  we  are  per-** 
auaded,  must  have  affected  him  more  than  all,  the  support 
of  that  class  without  doors  of  independent  men,  and  able 
writers  on  constitutional  questions,  who  had  revered  him 
during  the  American  war  as  the  patron  of  liberty.  Still, 
although  in  the  new  parliament  which  met  m  1784,  Mn 
Pitt  had  a  decided  majority,  Mr.  Fox  made  his  appearance 
at  the  head  of  a  very  formidable  opposition,  and  questions 
of  general  political  interest  were  for  some  years  contested 
with  such  a  display  of  brilliant  talents,  as  had  never  been 
known  in  the  house  of  commons. 

In  1788,  Mr.  Fox  repaired  to  the  continent,  in  com- 
|)any.  with  the  lady  who  was  afterwards  acknowledged  as 
his  wife,  and  after  spending  a  few  ^ays  with  Gibbon,  the 
historian,  at  Lausanne,  departed  for  Italy,  but  was  sud* 
denly  recalled  home,  in  consequence  of  the  king's  illness, 
and  the  necessity  of  providing  for  a  regency.  On  this 
memorable  occasioUj  Mr.  Fox,  and  his  great  rival,  Mr. 
Pitt,  appeared  to  have  exchanged  systems ;  Mr.  Pitt  con- 
tending for  the  constitutional  measure  of  a  bill  of  limita« 
tions,  while  Mr.  Fox  was  equally  strenuous  for  plncihg  the 
regency  in  the  hands  of  the  heir  apparent,  without  any 
restrictions ;  and  powerful  as  he  and  his  party  were  at  this 
time,  and  perhaps  they  never  shone  more  in  debate,  Mr. 
Pitt  was  triumphant  in  every  stage  of  the  bill,  and  was 
supported  by  the  almost  unanimous  voice  of  the  nation. 
Yet  the  ministers  must  have  retired,  as  it  was  well  kbown 
that  Mr.  Fox  and  his  party  stood  high  in  favour  with  th^ 
future  Regent,  and  Mr.  j^itt  had  actually  meditated  on  the 
ceconomy  of  a  private  station,  when  the  intemperance  of 
Mr.  Burke,  who  was  never  less  loyal  than  at  this  crisis, 
delayed  the  passing  of  the  bill,  on  one  pretence  or  ano-^ 
ther,  until  by  his  majesty's  recovery,  it  became  happily 
useless.  On  this  great  question  Mr«  Fox  had  again  the 
misfortune  to  forfeit  the  regard  of  those  who  have  b^en 
considered  as  the  depositories  of  constitutional  principles^ 
atHi  consequenily  appeared  to  have  traversed  the  sysi^tt  of 

FOX.  ^3 

which  he  bad  been  cotifidered  as  the  most  eonsistent  and 
intrepid  advocate.  In  1790  and  1791  be  recovered  som^ 
of  the  ground  he  had  lost,  by  opposing  with  effect  a  war 
with  Spain,  and  another  with  Russia,  for  objects  which  he 
thought  too  dearly  purchased  by  such  an  experiment ;  and 
^n  1790  he  appeared  again  the  friend  of  constitutional  U- 
jberty,  by  his  libel  bill  respecting  the  rights  of  juries  in 
criminal  cases.  This,  although  strongly  opposed,  tenni* 
pated  at  last  in  a  decision  that  juries  are  judges  of  both 
^iie  law  and  the  fact.  But  the  time  was  now  arrived  when 
he  was,  by  a  peculiarity  in  .bis  way  of  thinking,  to  be  for 
^ver  separated  from  the  political  friends  who  had  longest 
adhered  to  bim,  and  many  of  whom  he  loved  with  all  th^ 
^doiir  of  affection. 

When  the  revolution  took  place  in  France,  Mr.  Fox 
perhaps  was  not  singular  in  conceiving  that  it  would  be 
attended  with  great  benefit  to  that  nation  ;  in  some  of  his 
speeches  he  went  farther ;  and  continued  an  admirer  of 
what  was  passing  in  France  long  after  others  had  begun  to 
foresee  the  most  disastrous  consequences.     While  Mr.  Fox 

Serceived  nothing  but  what  was  good,  Mr.  Burke  pre* 
icted  almost  all,  indeed,  that  has  since  happened,  and 
^n  accidental  alteircation  in  the  house  of  commons,  (See 
BuKKE,)  separated  these  two  friends  for  ever.  "This," 
says  one  of  his  biograpliers,  "  was  a  circumstance  that  af«» 
fected  Mr.  Fox  more  than  any  other  through  life ;  he  had 
^gn  his  plans  for  the  public  good  disappointed  ^  he  had 
been  deserted  by  a  crowd  of  poUtical  adherents ;  a  thousand 
times  hijf  heart  and  his  motives  had  been  slandered,  still 
be  Imd  abundant  resources  in  himself  to  bear  up  against 
thq  tide  setting  in  against  bim.  No  opposition,  no  inju-* 
ries  could  excite  in  him  the  spirit  of  revenge,  or  the  prin- 
ciples of  acrimoiiy ;  even  when  his  friend,*  on  whom  he 
bun^  with  almost  idolatrous  regard,  broke  from  bim  in  the 
paroxysm  of  political  madness,  and  with  furious  ciruelty 
explored,  in  his  attack  on  him,  every  avenue  to  pain,  far 
from  repelling  enmity  with  enmity,  he  discovered  his  sen^ 
sibilities  of  wrong  only  with  tears,  and  he  subsequently 
wept,  with  a  pertinacity  of  affection  almost  without  ex* 
ample,  over  the  sepulchre  of  that  very  man,  who  had  un* 
relentingly  spurned  all  his  offers  of  reconciliation,  and  who,, 
with  reference  to  him,  had  expired  in  the  bitterness  of  re-' 
s^ntment/'  We  have  little  scruple  in  adopting  these  sen* 
timenta ;  for  whatever  may  be  thought  of  Mr.  Jf ox's  opi« 

B4  FOX. 

iiions,  tkere  are  few,  we  hope,  whose  hearts  would  faaw^ 
pejriDitted  them  to  act  the  part  of  Mr.  Burke  in*  this  ih« 
teresting  scene. 

The  policy  of  the  war  which  Ibllowed,  belongs  to  his- 
tory. On  ltd  concluision  in  1801,  after  the  resignation  of 
Mr.  Pitt,  when  Mr.  Addington,  (since  lord  Sidmouth,) 
concluded  the  treaty  of  Amiens,  Mr.  Fox  and  his  friends 
gave  him  his  support.  When  hostilities  were  again  me- 
ditated, Mr.  Fox  at  first  expressed  his  doubts  of  their  ne- 
cessity; but  when,  on  the  death  of  Mr.  Pitt,  in  1806,  he 
came  again  into  power,  as  secretary  of  state  for  the  fo-^ 
reign  department,  in  conjunction  with  the  Grenvi lie  party, 
be  found  it  necessary  to  support  the  war  by  the  same 
means  and  in  the  same  spirit  as  his  predecessor.  Some 
measures  of  a  more  private  nature,  which  he  was  obliged 
to  adopt  in  order  to  satisfy  the  wishes  of  the  new  coalition 
he  had  formed,  served  rather  to  diminish  than  increase 
his  popplarity ;  but  his  health  was  now  decaying;  symp* 
toms  of  dropsy  appeared,  and  within  a  few  months  he  wa$ 
laid  in  the  grave  close  by  his  illustrious  rival.  He  died 
Sept.  13,  1806,  without  pain  and  almost  without  astrugg1e> 
in  the  58  th  year  of  his  age. 

The  present  lord  Holland  has  said,  in  the  preface  U> 
Mr.  Fox^s  historical  work,  that  although  **  those  who  adw 
mired  Mr.  Fox  in  public,  and  those  who  loved  him  in  pii*^ 
vate,  must  naturally  feel  desirous  that -some  memorial 
should  be  preserved  of  the  great  and  good  qualities  of  his^ 
bead  and  heart;"  yet,  <*  the  objections  to  such  an  un- 
dertaking at  present  are  obviods,  and  after  miich  reflec-' 
tioD,  they  h^ve  appeared  to  those  connected  with  him  in-* 
'  »uperable.'*  Such  a  declaration,  it  is  hoped,  may  apolo- 
gize for  what  we  have  admitted,  and  for  what  we  have 
rejected,  in  this  sketch  of  Mr.  Fox's  lifi^.  We  have  touched 
only  on  a  few  memorable  periods,  convinced  that  the  pre- 
sent temper  of  the  times  is  unfavourable  to  a  more  minute; 
discussion  of  the  merits  of  his  long  parliamentary  life.  Yet 
this  consideration  has  not  had  much  weight  with  those  who 
]>rofess  to  be  his  admirers,  and  soon  after  his  death  a 
number  of  **  Characters"  of  him  appeared  sufficient  to  RW 
two  volumes  8vo,  edited  by  Dr.  Parr.  Of  one  .circum- 
stance there  can  be  no  dispute.  Friends  and  foes  are  equally- 
agreed  in  the  amiable,  even,  and  benign  features  of  his 
private  character.  **  He  was  a  man,"  said  Burke,  **  mad:^ 
to  be  loved/.'  and  he  was  loved  by  ail  who  knew  him. 


FOX.  4$ 

..  Mr.  Fox  must  now  be  considered  at  an  author.  While 
mt  Eton,  bis  compositions  were  highly  distikiguished,  some 
of  which  are  in  print;  as  one  compo$ed  in  or  about  1761, 
beginning,  <*  Vocat  ultimas,  labor  ;*'  another,  *^  I,  fugias, 
ceieri  voiitans  per  nubiia  cursu,*'  written  in  1764;  and  hit 
'^  Quid  miri  faciat  Natura,"  which  was  followed  by  a  Greek 
4ialogue  in  1765.  See  ^'  Mussq  Etonenses/'  &c.  He  was 
also  author  of  the  14th,  16th,  and  perhaps,  says  the  present 
lord  Holland,  his  nephew,  a  few  ofher  numbers  of  a  pe«> 
riodical  publication  in  1779,  called  the  ^*  Euglisbmao*** 
In  1793  he  published  ^  A  Letter  to  the  Electors  of  West* 
minster,'*  which  passed  through  thirteen  editions  within  a 
few  months.  This  pamphlet  contains  a  full  and  ampid 
justification  of  hia  political  conduct,  with  respect  to  the 
discussions  in  which  he  had  engaged  on  the  French  re* 

It  does  not  appear  that  the  parliamentary  speeches^ 
printed  separately  as  his,  of  .which  there  are  many,  were 
ever  revised  by  him,  but  were  taken  from  the  public  pa* 
pers.  But  ^^  A  Sketch  of  the  Character  of  the  late  most, 
npble  Francis  duke  of  Bedford,  as  delivered  in  his  intro* 
ductory  speech  to  a  motion  for  a  new  writ  for  Tavistock^- 
oil  the  16th  of  March,  1802,"  was  printed  by  his  authority, 
and  from  his  own  manuscript  copy ;  and  it  is  said,  that  hei 
observed  on  that  pcoasiop,  **  that  he  had  never  before  atr 
tempted  to  make  a  copy  of  any  speech  which  he  had  de* 
liyered  in  public.'*  After  that  be  wrote  an  epitaph  on.  the 
late  bishop  of  Downe,  which  is  engraved  on  his  tomb  in 
the  chapel  of  St.  James,  in  the  Hampstead  road.  <<  There 
are,"'  says  lord  Holland,  **  several  specimens  of  his,  com- 
position in  verse,  in  different  languages;  but  the  lioes  oo. 
.  Mrs.  Crewe,  and  those  ou  Mrs.  Fox,  on  his  birth-day,  are,. 
as  far  as  I  recollect,  »l\  that  h^ve  been  printed."  An  ode 
to  Poverty,  and  an  episram  upon  Gibbon,  though  very 
generally  attributed  to  him,  are  certainly  not  bis  com^. 

To  lord  Holland,  however,  the  world  is  indebted  for  an 
important  posthumous  publication  of  this  great  statesman,, 
entitled  **  A  History  of  the  early  part  of  the  Reign  of  Jamea 
the  Second,  with  an  introductory  chapter,**  &c<  It  is  not 
koown  when  Mr.  Fox  first  formed  the  design,  of  writing  a., 
history ;  but  in  1797  be  pubHcly  announced  in  parliament 
faijis  intention  of  devoting  a  greater  portion  of  his  time  to  hh 
jprivate  pursuits,  and  when  be  bad  deiU^rmiijied  to  conse^- 

««  E  a  X. 

erate  a  part  irnvritiog  history,  be  was  naturally  led,  ftom 
liis  intimaite  knowledge  of  the  English  constitution,  to  pre» 
fer  the  hiiMiory  of  his  own  country,  and  to  select  a  period 
favoctsable  to  the  general  illustration  of 'the  great  principles 
of  freedom  on  which  it  is  founded.  With  this  view  be 
fixed  on  the  revolution  of  I68g,  but  bad  made  a  small 
progress  in  this  work  when  be  was  called  to  take  a  princi^r 
pal  part  in  the  government  of  the  country.  The  volume 
comprehends  only  th.e  history  of  the  transactions  of  the 
first  year  of  the  reign  of  James  II.  with  an  introductory 
chapter  on  the  character  and  leading  events  of  the  times 
immediately  preceding.  Whatever  ofmiion  may  be  enters 
tained  of  the  views  Mr.  Fox  takes  of  those  times,  or  of 
some  novel  opinions  advanced,  there' is  enough  in  this 
work  to  prove  that  he  might  have  proved  an  elegant  and 
sound  historian,  and  to  make  it  a  subject  of  regret  that  he 
did  not  employ  bis  talents  on  literary  composition  when 
they  were  in  their  full  vigour.  * 

FOX  MORZILLO  (Sebastian),  or  Sbbastiamus  Foxivb 
MoRZiLLUS,  a  learned  Spaniard,  originally  of  the  family  of 
Foix,  in  Aquitaine,  was  born  at  Seville  in  1528,  and  passed 
the  whole  of  his  short  life  in  the  study  of  philosophy  and 
the  belies  lettres,  acquiring  such  reputation  from  his  works 
as  made  his  untimely  death  a  subject  of  unfeigned  regret 
with  his  countrymen;  After  being  educated  in  granunae 
learning  at  Seville,  be  studied  at  Louvaine  and  other  unl-^ 
Tersities,  and  acquired  the  esteem  of  some  of  the  moat 
eminent  professors  of  his  time.  Before  he  was  twenty 
years  of  age  be  had  published  his  '^  Paraphrasis  in  Ciee-« 
ronis  topica,''  and  in  his  twenty-fourth  y^ar  his  Commfin-i 
tary  on  the  Timaeus  of  Plato.  About  this  time  the  repu"* 
tation  he  had  acquired  induced  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain,  to 
invite  him  home,  and  place  his  son  the  infant  Carlos  under 
bis  care ;  hut  returning  by  sea,  be  unhappily  perished  by 
shipwreck  in  the  flower  of  iiis  age,  leaving  the  following 
works  as  a  proof  that  his  short  space  of  life  bad  been  em«- 
ployed  in  arduous  and  useful  study  :  I.  ^^  De  Studii  philo- 
sophiei  rationed"  of  which  there  is  an  edition  joined  to 
Nunnesius's  "  De  rccte  conficiejido  curriculo  Pbiloso*^ 
pbico,^^  Leyden,  1621,  8vo.  2.  ^' De  usu  et  exercitatioae 
^iSkleotica,*'  and  *^  De  Demonst^atione,*'  Basil,  1555,  8vo. 

}  From  various  periodical  journals. — Sir  B.  Brydges's  edition  of  CoIHds'v 
Pfeeragp.— rRees's  Cyclopaedia. — Character  of  C.  J.  Fox,  selected  and  in  par^ 
yHtten  b^  P||l]of^|ris  Wawmn^,  u  ^  Dr.  Pattr,  1909,  Sv».  ^  . 

FOX  «f 

S.  '^^  In  Topica  Ciceronis  paraphrasis  et  scholia,*'  Antwerp^ 
1550^  Svo.  4.  '*  De  Daturse  philosophise  seu  de  Platonit 
ct  Aristotelis  consensione,  libri  quinque/'  Louvaine,  1554^ 
SvO)  often  reprinted.  5.  ^*  De  Juventute  atque  de  Ho- 
Aore,"  Basil.  6.  /^  Compendium  Etbices,  &c.'*  Basily 
1554,  Svo,  7.  '^  In  Platonis  Tim»utn  seu  de  universo 
coiiimentarius,'*  ibid.  1554,  foi.  8.  ^*  In  Pb»donem,  et 
in  ejusdem  decern  tibros  de  republica  commentarii,''  BasiL 
9.  "  De  Imitatione,'*  Antwerp,  1554,  Svo.  10.  **  Do  con* 
scribenda  bistoria,"  Antwerp  and  Paris,  1557,  8vo,  and 
Antwerp  again,  1564.  Mir»us,  Gerard  Vossius,  Gabriel 
Naudens,  iftnd  others,  speak  of  this  author  as  one  of  the 
most  learned  men  of  his  time.  ^ 

FRACASTORIO,  or  FRAC  ASTORO,  (Jerom,)  an  emi- 
lietit  Italian  poet  and  physician,  was  born  at  Verona  iiir 
1483.  Two  singularities  are  related  of  him  in  his  infancy; 
<>Qe,  that  his  lips  adhered  so  closely  to  each  other  when 
lie  came  into  the  world,  that  a  surgeon  was  obliged  to 
divide  them  with  his  knife ;  the  other,  that  his  mother, 
Camilla  Mascarellia,  was  killed  by  lightning,  while  he, 
though  in  her  arms  at  the  very  moment,  escaped  unhurt 
Fracastorio  was  of  parts  so  exquisite,  and  made  so  wonder- 
ful a  progress  in  every  thing  he  undertook,  that  he  became 
eminently  skilled,  not  only  in  the  belles  lettres,  but  in  all 
arts  and  sciences.  He  was  a  poet,  a  philosopher,  a  phy« 
sician,  an  astronomer,  and  a  mathematician.  He  was  s 
mail  also  of  great  political  consequence,  as  appears  from 
pope  Paul  Ill.'s  making  use  of  his  authority  to  remove  the 
€obncil  of  Trent  to  Bologna,  under  the  pretext  of  a  con- 
tagious distemper,  which,  as  Fracastorio  deposed,  made  it 
Ab  longer  safe  for  him  to  continue  at  Trent.  He  was  in« 
ftimately  acquainted  with  cardinal  Bembo,  Julius  Scaliger, 
and  all  the  great  men  of  his  time.  He  died  of  an  apoplexy, 
MCasi  near  Verona,  in  1553;  and  in  1559  the  town  of 
Verona  erected  a  statue  in  honour  of  him. 

He  was  the  author  of  many  productions,  both  as  a  poet 
iknd  as  a  physician  ;  yet  n^ver  man  was  more  disinterested 
in  both  these  capacities,  evidently  so  as  a  physician,  for 
be  practised  without  fees;  and  as  a  poet,  whose  usual 
^w^rd  is  glory,  no  man  could  be  more  indifferent.  It  is 
owing  to  this  indifference  that  we  have  so  little  of  his  poetry, 
in  comparison  of  what  be  wrote ;  and  that  among  other 


\jla&oi^.Biblf  Hvi|^.-<^B»iUet  |Fi^il9e9ij  aa4£af«is  ce]#brei»-*>Sftiii  Oooiti^t 


pom  positions  his  odes  and  epigrams,  which  were  read  in 
manuscript  with  infinite  admiration,  and  would  have  been 
most   thankfully  received  by   the  public,  yet  not  being 
printed,  were  lost.     He  wrote  in  Latin,  and  with  great 
^leganc^.     His  poems  now  extant  are  the  three  books  of 
^'  Siphilis,  or  De  Morbo  GallicQ,"  a  book  of  miscellaoeoos 
poems,  and  two  books  of  his  poems,  entitled  *^  Joseph,** 
which  he  began  at  the  latter  end  of  bis  life,  but  did  not 
live  to  finish.     And  these  works,  it  is  said,  would  have 
perished  with  the  rest,  if  his  friends  had  not  taken  care  to 
preserve  and  communicate  them  :  for  Fracastorios,  writing 
merely  for  amusement,  never  took  any  care  respecting  hit 
work«,  when  they  were  out  of  his  hands. 
.   His  astronomical,  critical,  and  philosophical  treatises 
are  enlivened  with  occasional  poems.     Several  of  them  are 
composed  in  the  form  of  conversations  :  a  species  of  writ* 
ing  sanctioned  by  some  of  the  finest  models  of  antiquity, 
and  much  used  in  those  early  periods  of  the  revival  of 
letters.    Their  titles  are  borrowed  from  the  names  of  the 
speakers,     The  ^^  De  Anima  Dialogus"'  is  denominated 
Fracastorius ;  the  treatise  ^'  De  Poetica'*  is  entitled  Nau- 
gerius;  and  the  books  .  <^  De  Intellectione'*  have  the  title 
of  Turrius.     A  young  man,  in  the  character  of  a  minstrel, 
who  is  supposed  to  be  more  especially  subject  to  the  au«- 
thority.  of  Naugerius,  sings  to  his  lyre  the  verses  that  are 
occasionally  introduced.  ^  The  pretence  is  merely  relaxa^ 
tion  from  severer  thought ;  and  the  poema  are  often  un» 
connected  with  the  main  subject. 

Perhaps  the  productions  of  no  modern  poet  have  been 
more  commended  by-  the  learned,  than  those  of  Fracas* 
torio.     His  poems  are,  in  general,  written  with  a  spirit 
which  never  degenerates  into  insipidity.     But  on  his  '^  Si« ' 
philis"  the  high  poetical  reputation  of  Fracastorio  is  prin* 
cipaliy  founded.     Sannazarius,  on  reading  this  poem,  de* 
ciared  he  thought  it  superior  to  any  thing  produced  by  : 
himself,  or  his  learned  contemporaries,  and  Julius  Scali* 
ger  was  not  content  to  pronounce  him  the  best  poet  in  the 
world  next  to  Virgil,  but  affirmed  him  to  be  the  best  in 
every  thing  else;  apd,  in  short,  though  he  was  not  gen^*  ^. 
rally  lavish  pf  his  praise,  with  respect  to  Fracastorio  bo 
scarcely  retained  himself  within  the  bounds  of  adoration. 
Fracastorio's  medical  pieces  are,  *^  De  sympathia  et  anti* 
pathia, — De  contagione  et  contagiosis  morbis, — De  causis 
f  ritic^Qrum  dierum^-^De  vini  temperatura,|  fcc.''  His  worka 

P  R  A  q  A  S  T  O  R  I  O.  i9 

imxe  been  pirinted  separately  and  collectively.  The  best 
edition  of  Ibem  is  that  of  Padua,   1735,  in  2  vols.  4to.  ^ 

FRACHETTA  (JerOm),  an  e^iinent  political  writer^ 
was  It  native  of  Rovigno  in  Italy,  and  spent  several  years 
at  Rome,  where  he  was  greatly  esteemed  by  Sessa,  am'<- 
bassador  of  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain.  He  was  employed  in 
civil  as  well  as  military  aBairs,  and  acquitted  himself  always 
with  great  applause;  yet  he  had  like  to  have  been  ruined, 
and  to  have  even  lost  his  life,  by  his  enemies.  This 
obliged  him  to  withdraw  to  Naples;  and  still  having  friends 
to  protect  his  innocence,  he  proved  it  at  length  to  the 
court  of  Spain,  who  ordered  count  de  Benevento,  viceroy 
of  Naples,  to  employ  him,  and  Frachetta  lived  in  a  very 
honourable  manner  at  Naples,  where  a  handsome  pension 
was  allowed  him.  He  gained  great  reputation  by  his  po^ 
litical  wori^s,  the  most  considerable  of  which  is  that  entitled 
^^  II  Seniinario  de  Governi  di  Stato,  et  di  Guerra.'*  In 
this  work  he  has  collected,  under  an  hutidred  and  ten 
chapters^,  about  eight  thousand  military  and  state  maxims, 
extracted  from  the  best  authors ;  and  has  added  to  each 
chapter  a  discourse,  which  serves  as  a  conimentary  to  it. 
This  work  was  printed  twice,  at  least,  by  the  author,  re* 
printed  at  Venice  in  1647,  and  at  Genoa  in  1648,  4to; 
and  there  was  added  to  it,  ^^  II  Principe,*'  by  the  same 
writer,  which  was  published  in  1597.  The  dedication 
informs  us,  that  Frachetta  was  prompted  to  write  this  book 
from  a  donversation  he  had  with  the  duke  of  Sessa;  in 
which  the  latter  observed,  among  other  particulars,  that 
be  thought  it  as  important  as  it  was  a  difficult  task,  to  iti- 
fonii  princes  truly  of  such  transactions  as  happen  in  their 
dominions.  His  other  compositions  are,  ^  Discorso  della 
Ragione  di  Stato:  Discorso  della.  Ragione  di  Guerra; 
£sposizione  di  tutta  TOpera  di  Lucrezio/'  He  died  at 
Naples  in  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  but 
at  what  age  is  unknown.  * 

FRAGUIER  (Claude  Francis),  a  French  writer,  was 
Uorn  of  a  noble  family  at  Paris  in  1666.  His  first  studies 
were  under  the  Jesuits;  and  father  La  Baune  liad  the 
forming  of  his  taste  to  polite  literature.  He  was  also  a 
disciple  of  the  fathers  Rapin,  Jouvenci,  La  Rue,  and 
Camsnite^  and  the  affection  he  had  for  them  induced  him 

^  Tiraboschi: — Moreri.— Niceroo,  vol.  XVII. — GrtswelPt  PoIUiui. Ti^  b«A 

pecoont,  we  think,  is  io  Roscoe's  Leo  X.--^Saxii  Oottioast. 
f  GsiSI,  PJcU^Moreiik 

«0  F  R  A  G  U  I  E  R. 

to  itcU^it  bioisdf  of  their  order  in  1683.  After  Uis  noi* 
▼ictate,  aod  when  be  had  finished  bis  course  of  philosophy 
at  Paxis,  be  was  sent  to  Caen  to  teach  the  belles  lettres, 
where  be  contracted  a  friendship  with  Huet  and  Segraiv, 
and  much  improved  himself  under  their  instructions.  The 
former  advised  him  to  spend  one  part  of  the  day  upon  the 
Greek  authors,  and  another  upon  the  Latin  :  by  pursuing 
*which  method^  he  became  an  adept  in  both  languages. 
Foqr  years  being  passed  here,  he  was  recalled  to  Paris, 
inhere  he  spent  other  four  years  in  the  study  of  divinity. 
At  the  end  of  this  course,  he  was  shortly  to  take  upon 
bim  the  occupation  of  either  preaching,  or  teaching ;  but 
finding  in  himself  no  inclination  for  either,  he  quitted  his 
prder  in  1694,  though  he  still  reteined  his  usual  attach- 
ment to  it«  Being  now  at  liberty  to  indulge  his  own 
fishes,  be  devoted  himself  solely  to  improve  and  polish 
)ii^  understanding.  He  soon*  after  assisted  the  abbi  Big- 
9011,  under  whose  direction  the  ^'  Journal  des  S^avans** 
was  conducted.;  and  he  had  all  the  qualifications  necessary 
j(br  such  ^  work,  a  profound  knowledge  of  antiquity,  a 
skill  not  only  in  the  Greek  and  Latin,  but  also  [talian, 
Spanish,  and  English  tongues,  a  sound  judgment,  anex- 
^ct  taste,  and  a  very  impartial  and  candid  temper.  Ha 
afterwards  formed  a  plan  of  translating  the  works  of  Plato  ^ 
thinking,  very  justly,  that  the  versions  of  Ficinus  and  Ser- 
i^nus  had  left  room  enough  for  correction  and  amendments. 
He  had  begun  this  work,  but  was  obliged  to  discontinue  it 
^y  a  misfortune  which  befel  him  in  1709.  He  had  bor- 
cowed,  as  we  are  told,  of  his  friend  father  Hardouin,  a 
manuscript  commentary  of  his  upon  the  New  Testament^ 
ip  order  to  make  some  extracts  from  it ;  and  was  busy  at 
work  upon  it  one  summer  evetiing,  with  the  window  half 
open,  and  himself  inconsiderately  almost  undressed.  The 
Qold  air  had  so  unhappy  an  effect  in  relaxing  the  muscles 
of  his  neck,  that  he  could  never  afterwards  hold  his  head 
in  its  natural  situation.  The  winter  increased  his  malady ; 
and  he  was  troubled  with  involuntary  convulsive  motiona 
(^  the  head,  and  with  pains  which  often  hindered  him  from 
sleeping ;  yet  he  lived  nineteen  years  after ;  and  though 
be  could  not  undertake  any  literary  work,  constantly  rc- 
c;eived  visits  from  the  learned,  and  conversed  with  them 
not  without  pleasure.  He  died  suddenly  of  an  apoplexy, 
M!88,  in  bis  sixty-second  year.  He  nad  been  made  a 
member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  in  1705^  and  of  the 
French  academy  in  1708. 

F  R  A  G  U  I  E  R.  %l 

HiB  wotks'comist  of  Latin  poems,  and  a  great  natn\>6c 
of  very  excellent  dissertations  in  the  Memoirs  of  tto 
French  academy  *.  His  poems  were  published  ^t  Paris  in 
J 729,  in  i2mo,  with  the  poems  of  Huet^  under  the  care 
of  the  abb6  d^OUvet,  who  prefixed  an  eulogy  of  Fraguier  ; 
)a«id  at  the  end  of  them  are  three  Latin  dissertations  con- 
cerning Socrates,  whioh  is  all  that  remains  of  the  Prote- 
foraena  be  had  prepared  for  his  intended  translation  df 
iato.  These  dissertations,  with  many  others  upon  cif- 
irioQs  and  interesting  subjects,  are  printed  in  the  Memoim 
Hbove-mentioned.  * 

FRANCESCA  (Pietro  Della),  commonly  called  FraM^ 
CESco  Dal  Boroo  a  San  Sepolcro,  a  painter  of  consi*- 
derable  renown,  was  bom  at  Borgo  in  Umbria,  ifO  }373. 
In  his  youth  he  studied  the  mathematics ;  but  at  fifteen 
yeir^  of  age  determined  on  being  a  painter,  when  he  was 
patronised  by  Gindobaldo  Fettro,  duke  of  Urbino.  H« 
did  not,  however,  so  completely  devote  his  time  to  paint- 
ing as  to  neglect  his  former  studies,  but  wrote  several 
essays  on  geometry  anct  perspective,  which  were  long  pr^^ 
served  in  the  duke's  library  at  Urbino.  He  afterwards 
painted  in  Pesara,  Ancona,  and  Ferrara;  but  few  of  his 
works  remain  at  either  of  these  places^  Having  obtained 
much  reputation^  he  was  sent  for  to  Rome  by  pope  Nicho^ 
las  V.  to  paint  two  historical  subjects  in  the  chambers  of 
the  Vatican,  in  concurrence  mth  Bramante  di  Miiano, 
called  Bramantino ;  but  Julius  H.  destroyed  these  to  make 
room  for  Raphael's  Miracle  of  Bolsena,  and  St.  Peter  ift 
Prison.  Notwithstanding  this  degradation  of  his  labours^ 
before  the  superior  powers  of  Raphael,  he  was  very  de^ 
serving  of  esteem,  if  the  account  which  Vasari  gives  of  hitak 
be  true,  and  we  consider  the  imperfeot  state  of  the  art  tl 
the  time  in  which  he  lived.     He  exhibited  much  knov^'^ 

*  "This  learned   academician  was  ioto the  form  of  a  memoir,  and  pre- 

unable  to  persuade  himself  that  anti-  sented  it  to  the  academy  of  inscrip- 

i|iiicy,  so  enligfatened,  and  so  ingefiious  tions  and  belles  lettres,  in  1716.     M. 

in  the  cultivatioo  of  the  tine  arts,  could  Burette   acquamts  us  that  this  abbi 

hare  been  ignorant  of  the  union  of  learned  to  play  on  the  harpsichord  mt 

different  parts,    in    their  concerts  of  an  advanced  age,  and  concluding  thrit 

Toices  and  instruments,  which  he  calls  the  ancients,  to  whom  he  generoasl^ 

'  the  most  perfect  and  sublime  part  of  gare  all  good  things,   could  not  d4> 

music ;'  and  thinking  that  he  had  hap-  without  counterpoint,   made   them   a 

pily  discovered,  in  a  passage 'df  Plato,  present  of  that  harmony,  with  which 

an  indubitable  and  dt^cisive  pro(^  of  bis  aged  ears  were  so  plea8cd.''-*-Bj 

the  ancients  having  possessed  the  art  Dr.  Burney,  in  Reei's  Cyclopixrdia* 
of  eonnterpoint^  he  drew  up  bis  opinion 

1  Nicer&n,  tol.  XVIlI.-— Chiuf(fpie.--Moreri, 


ledge  of  amtomy,  fediog  of  esptession,  aod  of  Autnhm<^ 
tion  of  light  and  sfaade«  The  principal  work  of  Fiaocesca 
was  a  night  scene,  in  which  he  represented  an  angel  car* 
tying  a  cross,  and  appearing  in  vision  to  the  emperor  Con* 
stantine  sleeping  in  his  tent  with  his  chamberlain  near 
liim,  and  some  of  his  soldiers.  The  light  which  issued 
from  the  cross  and  the  angel  illominated  the  scene,  and 
was  spread  over  it  with  the  utmost  discretion.  Every 
thing  appeared  to  have  been  studied  from  nature,  and  was 
executed  with  great  propriety  and  truth.  He  also  painted 
a  battle,  which  was  highly  commended  for  the  spirit  an^ 
.fire  with  which  it  was  eondocted ;  the  strength  of  the  ex- 
pression, and  the  imitation  of  nature ;  particularly  a  groupe 
of  horsemen,  which,  ^  Vasari  says,  '*  considering  the  pe* 
nod,  cannot  be  too  highly  commended/* 

Having  exercised  the  various  talents  nature  had  be^ 
stowed  upon  him  till  be  was  eighty-six  years  old,  be  died 
in  145S*  ^ 

FRANCESCHINI  (Mahc  Antonio),  an  historical 
painter,  bom  at  Bologna  in  1648,  was  at  first  a  discijde  of 
^  G.  Battista  Galli,  and  from  him  entered  the  school  of  Car- 
lo Cignani,  who  soon  discovered  the  talents  of  his  pupil^ 
and  not  only  formed  his  style,  but  made  him  his  relation 
by  marrying  him  to  bis  niece,  and  he  soon  became  fab 
principal  assistant.  He  was  employed  in  embellishing 
many  churches  and  convents  in  bis  native  city,  and  in 
*other  parts  of  Italy;  and  particularly  at  Modeoa,  he 
painted  the  grand  hall  of  the  duke's  palace  so  much  to  the 
satisfaction  of  that  prince,  that  he  wished  to  reuin  him  at 
liis  court  by  an  offer  of  a  large  pension,  and  such  honours 
as  were  due  to  his  merit.  But  Franceschini  preferred  his 
freedom  and  ease  to  the  greatest  acquisitions  of  weakh, 
#nd  with  polite  respect  refused  the  offer.  At  Genoa  he 
painted,  in  the  great  council  chamber,  a  design  that  at 
once  manifested  the  fertility  of  bis  invention,  and  the 
grandeur  of  his  ideas ;  for  most  of  the  memorable  actions 
of  the  republic  were  there  represented  with  a  multitude  of 
figures  nobly  designed,  judiciously  grouped  and  disposed^ 
and  correctly  drawn.  And  in  the  Palazzo  Monti  at  Bd<«>^ 
togna  is  a  small  gallery  painted  by  bim,  of  which  the  co- 
louring is  exceedingly  lovely,  though  the  figures  appear 
to  want  roundness,     Franceschini,  though  of  the  school  9^ 

I  Vaiari.— Piikington.— ReeB*t  Cyclopedia. 

r  11  A  N  C  £  S  C  H  IN  T.  ei 

Clenani,  is  original  in  the  suavity  of  his  colour,  and  thci 
facility  of  his  execution.  He  is  fresh  without  being  cold, 
and  full  without  being  crowded.  As  he  was  a  maehinisC^ 
and  in  Upper  Italy  what  Cortona  was  in  the  Lower,  symp* 
toms  of  the  mannerist  appear  in  his  works.  He  had  the 
iiabit  of  painting  his  cartoons  in  chiaro-scuro,  and,  by  fix* 
ing  them  to  the  spot  where  the  fresco  was  to  be  executed, 
became  a  judge  of  their  effect.  He  preserved  the  powen 
Df  his  mind  and  pencil  unaltered  at  a  very  advanced  age ; 
and  when  he  was  even  seventy-eight  years  old,  he  designed 
and  coloured  his  pictures  with  ail  that  fire  and  spirit  for 
which  he  had  been  distinguished  in  bis  best  time.  He  died 
in  1729,  at  the  age  of  eighty-one. ' 


FRANCIA  (Francesco),  an  historical  painter,  whose  real 
flame  was  Raibolini,  was  born  at  Bologna  in  )4S0,  and  was 
bred  to  the  profession  of  a  goldsmith,  which  he  exercised 
for  some  time  with  very  considerable  celebrity,  having  the 
coinage  of  the  city  of  Bologna  under  his  care.  His  desire 
of  reputation,  and  his  acquaintance  with  Andrea  Mantegna 
and  other  painters,  led  him  to  the  study  of  painting,  but 
from  whom  he  received  the  first  elements  of  instruction  is 
not  known.  In  1490  he  produced  a  picture  of  th*  Virgia 
seated,  and  surrounded  by  several  figures ;  among  whom 
is  the  portrait  of  M.  Bart.  Felisini,  for  whom  the  picture 
ivas  painted.  In  this  be  still  calls  himself  **  Franciscus 
Ffancia,  aurifex,'*  and  it,  with  another  picture  of  a  similar 
subject,  painted  for  the  chapel  Bentivoglio  a  St.  Jacopo, 
gained  him  great  reputation.  He  painted  many  pictures 
for  churches,  &c.  in  Bologna,  Modena,  Parma,  and  other 
cities ;  but  they  were  in  the  early,  Gothic,  dry  manner, 
tailed  "  stila  antico  moderno,'*  which  he  greatly  improved 
upon  in  his  latter  productions.  On  Pietro  Perugrno  h^ 
formed  his  characters  of  heads,  vtnd  his  choice  of  tone  and 
colour;  on  Gian.  Bellino,  fullness  of  outline  and  breadth 
of  drapery;  and  if  the  best  evidence  of  his  merit,  the 
authority  of  Raphael,  be  of  weight,  in  process  of  time  he 
excelled  them  both.  In  a  letter  dated  1508,  edited  by 
Malvaisia,  Raphael  declares  that  the  Madonnas  of  Francia 
were  inferior,  in  his  opinion,  to  none  for  beauty,  devout- 
iiesSf  and  form.  His  idea  of  Francia^s  talents  exhibited 
(tself^  strli:  sti^onger  in  his  entrusting  his  picture  of  Sc 

l-D*Ar(!enviUe,  toI.  n.--PilkiD(ton.—Ref9*f  Cyclopedia. 

««  F<  R  A  N  C  t  A. 


.  Ge«ila>>'  destined  for  tke  cburcia  of  8t  6io  da  Morle  «ft 
Bolpgua,  .to  his  care,  by  letter  soliciting  bim  as  a  friend  to 
^seerit  put  in  its  place^  and  tf  be  fonnd  any  defect  in  ity  that 
be  would  kindly  correct  it.  Vasari  says  that  Francia  died 
with  grief  in  1 51 8,.  upon  seeing  by  this  picture  that  be 
was  <as  nothing  in  the  art,  compared  viritb  the  superior  genkn  - 
of  Raphael ;  ,but  Malvasia  proves  that  he  lived  some  yearf^ 
afterwards,  and  in  an  improved  style  produced  bis  cele-^^ 
brated  St.  Sebastian,  which  Caracci  describes  as  the  gene^ 
ral  model  of  proportion  and  form  for  the  students  at  Bo^- 
Ipgna.  A  copy  of  this  figure  still  exists  in  the  church  ^ 
deUa  Misericordia.^  ■  ■  "* 

FRANCIABIGIO  (Marco  Antonio),  or  FttANCU  Bt^^ 
GIG,  was  an  historical  painter,  born  in  1483.     He  studied*  ^ 
for  .a  short  time  under  Albertioelli,  but  is  chiefly  known  ais 
,tbe  competitor,  and  in  some  works  the  partner  of  Andtes^ 
d^X  Sarto.     Similar  in  principle,  but  inferior  to  bim  in'  ' 
pQwer,  .be  strove  to  supply  by  diligence  the  defects  of 
nature;  <  with  vrh^X  success,  will  appear  on  comparison  of 
his  work  ia  the  cloister  of  the  NunziaAaat  Florence,*  witb 
those  of  Andrea  at  the  same  place.     On  its  being  unco-^ 
Tered  by.  the  monks,  the  painter  in.  a  fit  of  shame  or  rage 
gave  it  some  blows  with  a,  hammer,  nor  ever  after  could  be 
induced  to  finish  it.     He  appears  to  have  succeeded  better 
in  two  histories  which  he  inserted  among  the  frescos  of  a 
Andrea  at  the  Scalzo,  nor  is  he  there  much  inferior.    ,Be 
likewise  emulated  him  at  Poggio  a  Cajaoio,  where  be  te^- 
psesented  the  return  of  M.  Tullius  from  exile,  a  work^ 
which  though  it  remained  unfinished,  shews  him  to  great 
advantage.     This  artist  died  in  1524,  in  the  prime  of  life*'?  -^ 

FRANCIS  of  Assisi,  «  celebrated  saint  (^  the  Romish  ^ 
church,  and  founder  of  one  of  the  four  orders  of  meadi**  ^ 
cant  friars,  called  Franciscans,  was  born  at  Assisi  in  Umtp-'^ 
bria,  in  1182.    He  was  the  son  of  a  merchant,  and. was  -^ 
cteriHtened  John,  but  had  the  name  of  Francis  added,""  fif^oca 
his  facility  of  talkitig  Frenpb,  which  he  learned,  to  qualify   - 
bim  for  bis  father's  profession.     He  was  at  first  a  young  •- 
man  of  dissolute  manners,  but  in  consequence  of  an  illneiis 
about  1206,  he  became* so  strongly  afiected  with  religic9i0 
zeal,  that  he  took  a  resolution  of  retiring  from*tbe  yvorld^, 
He  now  devoted  himself  so  much  to  solitude,  mortified    / 
himself  to  such  a  degree,  and  contracted  so  ghastly,  a  ooun* 

.1  PilkiDgtOD^—Rcet's  .Cyclopaedia.  ?  Ibid. 

leiiances  that  the  inhabitatUs  x>f  Assisj  tfaougbt  bim  -  di9« 
tracted.  Hi^  father,  thinking  to  make  bim  resume  bis  pro- 
fession, employed  a  very  .severe  method  for  that  purpote^ 
hy  throwing  hioi  into  prison ;  but  finding  this  made  .ua 
impression  on  him,  be  took  bim  before  the  bishop  of  Assisi^ 
in  order  to  make  bim  resign  all  claim  to  his, pater nalestate^ 
which  he  not  only  agreed  to,  but  stripped  off  all  his  clothes, 
ieven  to  his  shirL  He  then  prevailed  with  great  numbers^ 
to  <}evote  themselves,  a^  he  had  donei  to  tlie  poverty  which 
i>^  considered  as  enjoiqed  \3ff  the  gospel  j  and  drew .  up>  ^a 
institute  or  rule,  for  their  use,  which  was  approved  by  popq 
Innocent  IIL  in  1210.    The  yipar  after,  l\e  obtained  of  the 

Eieaediptin^s,tl)e -church  of  Portiuncula,  near  Assist,  and 
is  order  increased  so  fast,  that  when  he  held  a  chapter  in 
1219,  hear  5000  friars  of  the  order  of  Miners  (so  thej^ 
yiere  called)  were  present.  Soon  after  he  obtained  also  a 
bull  in  favour  of  his  order  from  pope  Honorius  III.  Abo«K 
this  time  he  went  into  the  Holy  Land,  and  endeavouri^d 
in  v^A  to  convert  the  sultaf)  IVjeledin.  It  is  s^d,  that  be 
offered  to  throw  himself  into  the  flames  to  prove  liis  faith 
in  what  \i^  taught.  lie  returned  soon  after  to  his  native 
coantry,  and  xlied  at  Assisi  in  1226,  being  then  only  forty* 
five»  He  was  canonized  by  pope  Gregory  IX.  the  6th  of 
^lay,  1220^;  and. Oct.  the  4th,  on  which  his  death  hap« 
pened,  was  appointed  as  bis  festival. 
.  His  order  soon  rose  to  great  splendor,  and  has  done 
great  ^ervic^  to  the  Homan  pontiffs.  Some  popes,  several 
cardinals,  and^a  great  number  of  prelates,  and  celebrated 
authors*  bav«  been  of  it*  It  is  divided  into  several  bodies^ 
^ome  of  which  are  more  rigid  than  other$ ;  and  all  strongly 
inherit  the  ancient  einuiation,  which  soon  broke  out 
between  the  children  of  St.  Francis  and  those  of  St.  Do^ 
niinic.  Before  the  reformation,  the. Franciscans  bad  in 
England  about  eighty  convents,  besides  some  nunneries. 
Those  i«;bo  are  desirous  to  know  more  of  St.  Francis  and 
his  order,  besides  our  authorities  at  the  bottom  of  the  page^ 
ms^  be  referred  to  his  life  written  by  Bonaventure.  But 
periiaps  the  most  ample  and  circumstantial  accounts  are 
given  by  Luke  Wac^jjiing,  in  the  first  volume  of  his  ^*  An- 
Bales  Ordinis  Minorum,''.  which  contains  a  complete  his- 
tory of  the  Franciscan  order,  confirihed  by  a  great  number 
of  authentic  records.  The  best  edition  of  this  work  is  that 
published  at  Rome  in  173t,  and  following  years,  in  IS 
vols.  fol.  by  Joseph  Maria  Fonseca  ab  Ebora.  It  is  to  the 
V©L.  XV.  F 

U  fRANClS. 

•ame  Waddtog  Aat  we  are  krddsted  for  ilie  ^  Opoictik 
8k  FrMicbci,**  foid  the  *^  BiUtatiieea  ordiiiit  Mioonimy^ 
Ibe  fertner  of  which  appeared  in  %tOf  nt  Antwerf^  1625^ 
Imd  the  latter  at  Rome  io  1650.  The  hidtory  of  theie 
•fden  will,  it  is  hoped,  be  of  less  conaequence  herealtery 
when  a  more  enlightened  state  of  society  has  aihbwn  their 
iBsafficiefiey  in  the  advanceinent  of  real  reltgtoiry  hut  fit 
can  iiet^r  be  uninterestieg  to  know  the  early  i^e  6f  tiiosi 
formidable  bodies  of  ecelesiastics  wMch  once  faetd  thA 
world  in  awe.  The  life  of  St.  'f  rancltt,  like  that  of  mo«t  of 
the  Romi^  sainls,  is  rendered  iMredibie  and  ridioolooa 
by  the  aiddition  of  miracles  and  prodigies,  the  fietiotis  ol 
after-^tttnea,  but  eoold  they  be  separated  frotn  what  i| 
genuine^  he  might  probably  appear  ati  enthiisiiisty  yet  sisf^ 
oere  in  what  he  believed  and  practised.' 

FRANCIB  (of  Pauix>),  mother  RomMi  saint,  who  to 
exceed  his  predecessor  in  hitmilir^,  founded  the  (^rder  of 
Miuuns  (leMt),  as  he  had  tbat  of  Miners  (inCerihn).  «Ht 
was  born  in  141 6,  at  Paulo  in  Catsbria.  He  begati  bia 
eaieer  of  mortificatiou  by  retiring  to  a  ceU  evi  ik  desert  pnt 
of  the  coast,  where  his  san^tty  soon  dbtained  folloum^ 
and  they  ere  long  <:on^ructed  a  monastery  mood  his  cdL 
Thus  was  his  order  oommenced.  He  femied  a*  rub  for  i% 
which  was  approved  by  pope  Alexander  VI;  f^d  confirmed 
by  Jfulius  IL  His  rule  was  extremity  rigorous,  enjotnii^ 
perpetual  abstinence  from  wine,  fidi^  a^ditieat.  HM^dis^ 
^ftos  'were  always  to  go  bare-^footed,  liever  tt>  sit^tp  upiHI 
a  bed,  and  to  use  mai^  other  movtilications.  He  dibd  iif 
France,  to  which  couutry  be  went  at  die^^aniest  s(rfite^« 
tion  of  Louis  XL  who  hoped  to  be  out^d  of  n.  dahgeiHiul^ 
indady  by  his  presence.  This  event  took  place  at  CtessiiK 
du->Parc^  in  1 508,  wbea  he  was  at  the  age  <^  ninety^<wk|^ 
He  was  canonized  in  1519,  by  Leo.X.  By  the  confemon 
of  his  admirers  he  was  perfectly  illitepatew  * 

FRANCIS  DE  Sal£s,  (St.),  was  .born  at  the  eii9t|i^  vi 
Sales,  in  the  diocese  erf"  Geneva,  August  !2 1,  15674  H^ 
descended  from  one  of  the  most  ancient  and  tiohle  faitiilie* 
of  Savoy.  Having  taken  a  doctor  of  law's  degrte  «r  Paduai 
he  was  first  advocate  at  Cfaambciry,^,^hen  provost  of  flht- 
church  of  Geneva  at  Annecy.  Claudius  deGranier^ibit 
bishop,   sent  him  as  missionary  into  the  valleys  of  bast 

l^Qen.  Dict.->Mo8heim  and  MHoer't  Cto^^h  iSsk^HPaWic.  BibL  lA  ll«4^ 

.^Batier'9  Uvea  of  the  Saiott.  ' 

.' «_M«rerl— BiUlsf'tiiTteoftteSsmtW  V  ...J 

lie  is  said  lo  have  performed  in  ^re)at  Huintei^Si  'Wid  kh 
.sermons  were  attetidiad  With  wonderful  «t)6ce9S4  Tte'bkhop 
i«riF  Geneva  eb«^  kim  aft^^vi^rds  ^rhi$  e4a4jut6i',  Mt  Wag 
ioUig«it  to  vs^  butildfity  before  tse  coald  kie  ^eti^tmded  t# 
lu^cept'  %he  diffice^  Re44gk>ut  kthit^  c AHed  4iim  alterwardli 
Sntb  I'raM^^,  MtePb  he  was  unfyd«%alty  ^teeifi^ ;  Md  ear^ 
^«a(  dii  Pl3t¥dii  siLfd^  ^IMre.M^ere  no  tiereties  wbom  Int^ 
^iM^ilrf ^ot^oil^v^e)  %ift  Mi  IJte  €^eii^a  mutt  be  «iii)^id9idii 

li^ieonvM  tfa^fDv'^i  il)3i^y  tYrbeinf  informed ^f  bte  iii^t^l^ 

ttmtie^hiYki'  eoticideMbie  offifiit^  id  biiypM  of^^lAiififig  hiMi 
ih  -iPitifk^ ;  bul  4«e  divide  taltlfei*  td  i1K«m^  Id  SiiVoy,  wfad«^ 
|ie>«llrfvf&d  ift  l^GM/ Md  fOYllid  %i^bi^  6fiitif<6l;ilMd  dtod  H 

^^  diiy s  biefem.  81.  f^ft^ii  Umi  uiid«k«rMk  ibe  nftfof^ 
«iatio%  of  hte  diiM%«e)  wiM«  t»tety  ii#d  ^ittd^^ofi  flM^ 
irislMed  tbrt^lgh  bli  z^dl^}  h^  r^9tor^d  t^gulaHiy  In  %b^ 
%ft6nafift«3t^,  und  fMtitJuU^d  tbe  ofttef  #f  tbe  ^«Ai1taliMrlH 

4^0,  n^hidi  Wa* «miliiiMd by  Pftul  V.  leis^Mdt^hf^Mil^ 

ifte  barM«!«ide  OblLM^,  ^4kiui  Hedelif^Md  bf  Mifir^^rt^ 
tef  At  D^>  Vvlto  the  fo«indftMi.  tl«  cll^  csslitbKiiH^  » 
j|£$»Dgi^g^'tioti  of  beiMfts  iil  Gti8ibhi»)  tiMdt^A  «<st}MtoM» 
^«asil  didcjpllffe  H^  it»  aiKi^ttt  Vigoiifr^  4U[ld  cM^eiMtl  Wmfl^ 
f^rxi'hthtHM  te  tbefiiifh.  A\  \it^  MtlW^iitf  KMP  !^l§  81. 
ktaft^  wa^  dbti^ed  t^  ^  «)g«tiii  to  Pi^r^^  fi^ih 'th^  6aMMilil 
i!%  Sa^^  to  <^A«H»de  a  mint^ttg^  bilHiW^eii  lbe^tM««4ir 
^fediiit^t  ttird  OhHsiftlft  er  WtAme^  AMdnd  daug&i%¥^^ 
•l«iffy;iV.  Tbtftfirin^Ms  b^^w)f,:tbbs6>de«^'4;^4il^ 
^i^f  ^ldiUfti<er$  btft  M  ^M>d«t>ce{it  tbe  phK^^  dtlly  bR  t#b 
tKMllJKtl0A« >,  Wfe,  thi%  It  "shi^td  lidt^^^f^iide  fab  iMlfdifii^ 
1tt<  iif s  di0t«sie  \  ttr^  c}«h«V|  tbit wbejh^e^r  fafe  did i<]f6t%M«ute 
k6^  ^^^y  ^  Ibofitd  m\  ^tt\^  the  ¥^tb<t^  ^l  it    ini«^ 

llfiilt«dial«ly^  IBS  if  by  wtiy  of  invliMing  blfi^  ^th^Ms^'dffie^^ 
bv^etited  hiiii  v»Tl:fr%tery  ValtAble  iMttnetfd^^tftig',  ^^Ofi 
^bifdleim  'tr^t  yd«  Witt  "ki^e^  ft  {^  My  f^Hetr  ^  iff^ch 
•M6^  fib(^hsdi  ^  I  pttMl^ite  fi>  tfo  sd,  ttiaStitti,  tiiil^lto  *tbe>oor 
msihd  fntie^d  brit/*  R^Htiiing  to  sAtnhe^yr  be  tHnidhuett 
m^Mi  theidickv'i«iiMK0^e^th0»e  it)  Wfeiftt^  inBtrii^ttfaet>i^i^, 
mft^  (ttsirhitf^  alt'^tlle  dMies  of  a  pfous  faiilhop,  tiH  i6^i», 
^l«i^  jte  ^fed  of  Jift  apbplexy  iat  Lyorts,  December  ^8^ 
ngfed'flfty^sik,  liUViii^  sevefAl  refigioti^  woi^fcs,  ci^letted  ih 
^.vx>ls.  f6l.  The  most  kttowtt  Are,  "The  Inttodlittion  to  It 
devout  Life;^'  and  '^  Pbilo/'  or  a  tres^ise  on  the  love  of 
God.     MarsoUier  has  written  his  life>  2  vols.  12|tio,  wbick 

F  2  . 

68  y  R  A  N  C  I  & 

waft  traimlated  into  English  by  Mr.  Cratborne^     He  wflf 
canonized  in  1665.' 

;*  FRANCIS  I.  king  of  France^  surpamed  <*  the  Great,  and 
ibe  restorer  of  learning,"  succeeded  his  father-in-law 
,-L«|iiis  XII.  who  died  without  a  son  in  1515.  Francis  I.  waa 
tjs^  only:  ^OH  of  Charles  duke  of  Orleans,  constable  of 
-Angoidliiie,  and  born  at  Cognac,  September  12,  1494. 
.liaoiediately  after  his  coronation  he  took  the  .title  of 
.duke  pf  Milaoi  aiid.  put  hiipselfat  the  head  of  a  ppwerA^l 
vmy  to  assert  his  right  to  t);iat  duchy.  Th^  Swiss,  who 
'defend^,  it,  opposed.  his,enterprize9  ftnd.  attacked.  )fkim 
jnear  :]tfairignftn>i^;  but.  they  were  cut. to  pieces  in  asap- 
:  goinary.  cptitest»  and  about  15,000  left  dead  on  the  fiel4* 
.The  famous  Trivulce,  who. had  been  engaged  in  eighteeu 
•bfMttleft,  called  this  <<  The.  battle  pf  ,the,  Giallts,*^  and  dbie 
^others  ^^.Children>  play."  It  was  on  tlus  occasion  that  {be 
Jung  desired  |o  h^,  knighted  by  the  famous  Bayard.  That 
s^nk  was  originally  the  highest  that  could  be  aspired  tp: 
pijioees  of  the  blood  were  not  called  .monseigneur^jq^or 
their  wjveii  inadam^^  till  they  had  been .  kpighted ;  por 
smt;^  ,«ny  one  cl^im  that  honour,  unless  he  could  tnuce 
his  mobility  at  least  three ,  generations  back,  both  on  bis 
^tl^fB^  and :  ipotber's  side,  an4  alsp , bore  an  unblemished 
cjiMac^^r,  e^pect^Uy  for  fpilit^ry  courage  and  valour.    Tiie 

'  lareatipB ,  of  a  knight,  was  Attended,  w^th .  few  ceren^onies^ 
>«tl^Gept  af^  8oaie  fe^va^  in  wbiph  case  a  great  number 

:  tw^^  observed.,  ,  Thisinsti^utipo^  wi^ich  may  be  traced  np 

.  40  the  firpt  racei  contributed.not  a  Jiittle  ,tp  polish  the  minds 
<d  the  Frepch,  by  restrail^og.fheip  withjn  the  bounds  of  $i 
benevolent  morality..  They  swbrf  tp,  spare  neither  lifq  or 

'   ^h9^^fl^  ip  defence  qf  religion,  ixi  ;^gi^ting  against  the  .in^ 

.  4del|i,  pngtecting  the,  widow,  tbe^prphan,.  ana  all 
^ho'  wene  d^fcfi^f  |slei|3»  By  )his  ,  victory  at  Marignanat 
Frawis  L  became  9ia^ter  of  the  Milanese,  which  was  ceded 

,,  to  him  by  Maxiir;ilian  Sfor^  wbp  the^  retired  into  Frajtce. 
JPope  Leo  }L.  aJL^rgied  by  tbfse  ponquests,,  held  a  OPn- 
^enpe  with  the.  ki^.atBolffgna,  .obtained  from  him  the 
abelitipn  of  the  Prftgp^aticSs^cUpp,  and.  settled  the  Coo^ 
cordate,  which  was  confirmed  tb^^  j^ar.  following^ 
MieraQ  counciL    From  that  time  the  JMns;s  of  .France  ap^ 

'  .ppit^ted  to  ^11  consistoriaL  beufBifices,  apd  ttje^pope  repeived 

»  Moferi.—Dlct.  Hi«t.-^Botlfer.  *  '      -     ' 

f  R  A  N  C  I  S.  69 

vne  yesr'f  inconie  upon  every  change.  The  treaty  of 
Noyofi  wai  concluded  the  same  year  betweecl'  Charlea  V* 
and  Francis  I.  one  principal  article  of  which  ivas  the  re*' 
ttoration  of  Navarre.  Charles  V.  on  the  death  of  Maxi- 
miliitn  1.  being  elected  emperor,  1519,  in' opposition  to 
.Francis,  the  jealousy  which  subsisted  between  those  two' 
princes  broke  out  immediately,  and  kindled  a  long  war, 
which  proved  fatal  to  all  Europe.  The  French,  com* 
manded  by  Andrew  de  Foix,  conquered  Navari^  in  ISStO^ 
and  lost  it  again  almost  directly ;  they  drove  the  English 
and  inf)periaTists  fromPicardy;  took  Hesdin,  Fontarabia, 
and  several  other  places;  but  lost  Milan  and  Tonrnay  tiv 
1521.  The  following  year,  Odet  de  Foix,  viscount  of 
Lautrec,  was  defeated  at  the  bloody  battle  of  Bicoqne, 
which  was  followed  by  theloss  of  Cremona,  Genoa,  and  a 

freat  part  of  Italy.     Nor  did  their  misfortunes  end  here. 
*he  constable  of  Bourbon,  persecuted  by  the  duchess  of 
Angouleme,  joined   the   emperor   1523,  and,    being  ap* 
pointed  commander  of  his  forces  in  1524,  defeated  admivai 
...Bonevet^s  rear  at  the  retreat  of  Rebec,  and  retook  all  the 
Milanese.     He  afterwards  entered  Provence  with  a  power* 
ful  army,  but  was  obliged  to  raise  the  siege  of  Marseilles, 
\,  and  retired  with  loss.     Francis  I.  however,  went  into  Italy; 
retook  Milan,  and  was  going  to  besiege'Pavia ;  belt,  having 
Imprudently  detached  piart  of  his  troops  to  send  tbedi- to 
.  iNapIesy  he  was  defeated  by  the  constable  de  Bourbto^ia 
;/^a  bipody  battle  before  Pavia;    February  24,  102^5^  tifter 
'^JiBving  two  horses  kilted  under  him,  and  disjtfaying  plt>« 
/   digious  valouK     His  greatness*  of' niind  never  ttppeared 
more  conspicuously  than   after  this  unfortunate  engage-* 
l^.^^ment.     In  a  letter  to  his  mother  he  says,  **  Every  thing  is 
!,iost  but  honour.*'     He.  was  conducted  ias  a  prisoner*  to 
^i^^l^a^rfd,  and  returned  the  following  year,  after  the  treaty 
'^wj^ich  was  concluded  in  that  citry,  January  14^  tt^^    This 
'    treaty,  extprted  by  force,  was  not  ftrlfitled;  the  emperor 
hadJnsisted  on  the  duchy  of  Burgundy  being  ceded  to 
\l^)m;  but,  when  Lannoi  went  to  demand  it  in  bis  master's 
.  name,  be  was  introduced  to  an  audience  given  to  the  de« 
.  puties  of  Burgundy,  who  declared  to  the  king,  that- he 
had  iio  power  to  give  tfp  any  province  of  his  kingdom. 
Upon  this  the  War  re-commenced  immMiately.     Francis 
]•  senc^  forces  into  Italy,  undfer  the  command  of  Lautrec, 
who  rdk^ned  '  Clefnent  VII.  and  at  first  gained  great  ad* 
vant^es,  but  perished  afterwajrds,  with  his  army,  by  sick* 

W)*  JTH  A  M  €  rSi 

]ies9.  The  kTngy  wbc^  bad  boien  twi#  ]r0«n  ftMvMbufii^ 
coudoded  the  treaty  of  Cambray  in  1529^  by  wbieh  h€ 
#ogaged  to  marry  Eieanor  of  Aiwlri%  tho  cmfiefor^ii  ftiHiir; 
and  bis  ivro  sons^  vrho  had  been  given -a9  b<>stage9^'^  w«ff9 
Bantomed  at  tbe  kiivg^s  return  for  two  millions  in  gc^d^ 
Hie  ambition  of  possessing  Milaii,  caused  peace  again  td 
be  brokea.  Fraifieis  took  Savoy  in  )53  j,  drove  &e  em* 
{>eror  frook  Provei|^6  in  i&d^y  entered  into  an  alUance  witll 
dolyman  II.  emperor  of  th^  Turks  i  took  Hesdin^  and  se-i 
▼erai  other  places^  in  1 5'i7|  and  made  a  truce  of  teti  yters 
vith  Cliairfes  V.  at  Niee,-  k53S,  wbtob  did  not^  however* 
last  long.  The  emperor,  going  fo  punish  the  people  of 
Ghenti  wfa^  bad  rebelled,  obtained  a  pasisage  tbnMg'i 
firanre,  Vy  promsing  Francis  the  inveetitnre  of  tl^«biony 
ef  Miil^  ^  whieb  of  his. children  be  pleased;^  bat}  afte* 
being  received  fn^rsiiee  with  the  highest  bonou rain  l^^ 
he  was  no  sooner  arrived  in  Fland€frs  steiil  be  refuaed  %<^ 
keep  bis  prcHnis^.  This  brol^e  th^  tifiioe;  tbe  ^r  4vaa 
#^ttew^ed/and  ei^rried  on #itb  val^i^rui^ streoCMtt ottboth lAdes*. 
The  king's  troops  enlet^d  |ta1y,  lUMissilton^.  ai|d>  Lnsfefai*; 
bnrg.  Ftahcis  of  ffourbob;  cooi^  d'EngaianiMivon  tim 
battle  of  Ceri2olfS  itl  iB4*y  and  took  M^iitfernst.  Frandit 
1.  gained  over  lo  bis  side  Barbar^ssa^  and  GustayosYasa^ 
king  of  Sweden  ;  wbft^5  en  the  eibar  band,  Heniy  VII l« 
of  Englfind  esp6ased  the  i^itenitats  of  Cbaples  V.  and  io0k( 
Botogtia,  1544.  '  A  peace  "vfasHEit  last coqcluded  vrithtfaeK 
•fripert^r  at  Cvessyy  S^etobei^  18,4  J44,  and  witb  Henry 
Vlil.  Jmie  7^  i  54^ ;  bilt  Flrsiieig  did' not  long  enjoy  th« 
tranqniliity  wbkh  tbis  peiM  prdcuir^  htf<i  ^  be  died  at  ibm 
Castle '  of  RaenboiriHet  the  4ast  day  of  Mant^  IMI^  aged; 
fifty <(three.  lliis  prince  pos$essed  the  nsoiit  fining  qaa^ 
littes  3  be  was  witty,  mild,  niagnammotis,  *generoiiS|  and 
t^enevoient  Th^  revival  of  polite  (literature  in  Euvoptf 
was  cbieAy  owing  to  bis  care ;  he  patroaized  the  learner 
fonnded  the  roya^  college  aft  Farii^  fuviiisbed  a  library  kl^ 
Ffrtintait)blean  at  a  great  expence,  and  bnilt  several  palaces^' 
^bicb  he  othanlented  with  piesnres,  slatnes,  and  costly 
f«|rniture.  When  dyin^,  be  pa^ticulai^Iy  requested  his  son 
to  difniit^  tbe  taxes  which  be  had  b^n  <»bliged  to  levyi 
for  d^raying  the  expences  of  the  war  ^' and  pat  it  in  bit 
power  to  do  soj  for  be  \eft  400^000  crowtiiB  ^>  gold  in  Ini 
coflbrs,  with  a  quarter  of.  his  rev^an^a  whidi  >  was  then 
due.  It  was  this  sovereign  who  ordf  i^  alb  puiUio  acts  /ts^ 
be  written  in  Freoygb.    Upon  tbe  wkoh  )vb  apjiears  t9 


litMi  tMtn  ow  of  ^  greUfftt  omioieRU  of  the  Frewh 
ibicooe.  * 

FRANCIS  (Phij^ip),  m  EiiglUb  clergyman,  and  the 
able  tiiu)«lator  of  Horace  aq4  I>eiD09tbene89  was  of  Iriah 
extr^ctioB,  if  iv9.t  boro  in  that  kingdom,  where  his  father 
utas  a  digoilGLed  clerapyaian,  and,  among  other  pre{ennent5| 
heU  tba  rectory  of  St.  Mary,  Dublin,  frogi  which  be  was 
<^ted  by  the  court  on  account  of  his  Tory  principles* 
His  son,  our  author,  was  else  educated  for  the  church,  and 
.obtained  a  doctor's  degree.  His  edition  of  '^  Horace'* 
snade  bis  name  known  in  England  about  n^3;  and  raise4 
bim.a  reputation  as  a  classiciJ  editor  and  translator,  which 
aeo  subsequent  attempts  have  g^atly  diminished.  Dr. 
.Johnson*  many  years  after  other  rivsla  had  ^rted,  gave 
bim  tbif  praise :  *^  The  lyrical  part  of  Horace  never  can 
be  properly  translated;  so  much,  of  the  excellence  is  in 
.ibe  sNimbers  and  the  expression.  Francis  has  done  it  the 
best :  ril  take  his,  6ve  out  of  six,  i^inst  them  all'* 

Some  tim^  after  the  publicatian  of  Horace,  be  appear^ 
t^bavecome  o^er  to  Eoghmd,  where,  in  11  S3,  he  pub« 
lisjied  a  translation  of  part  of  the  *^  Orations  of  Demor 
stbeaes^*' .  intending  to  comprise  the  whple  in  two  quarto 
.i(olumes. .  It  was  a  nutter  of  some  importance  at  that  time 
to  risk  a  large  work  of.this.kind»  and  the  author  had  the 
pirecftution  therefore  to  secure  a  copious  list  of  subscribers* 
Unfortunately,  boivever,  it  bad  to  contend  with  the  ac« 
knowledge  merit  of  Leiand's  translation,  and,  allpwing 
tiieir  respective  merits  to  bav^  been  j^early  equal,  Leiand'a 
bad  at  least  the  priority  in  point  of  time,  and  upon  com* 
parison,  was  preferred  by  the  critics,  as  beintg  more  free 
and  eloquent^  and  less  literaJiy' exact    This,  however,  did 
not  ^rise  firom  aiiy  defect  in  oi^r  author's  skill,  h^t  was 
oierely  an  error,  if  an.  error  at  aU|  in  judgment^  foe  b^ 
<^oiiceived^  that.  as.  £ew .  liberties  as  possible  ought  to  bo 
takea>  with  the  style  of  bis  author,  and  that  there  was  an 
essential  ^lii&rence  between  a  literal   translation,  which  considered  as  faithful^  and  an  imitation^  in  whiqb 
we  can  diever  be  cer^io  that  we  h^ve  the  author's  worcis  or 
.precise  meaning.  ,  In  J  7^5  he  completed  hi&  purpose  in  a 
second  volume,,  wtiich  was  applauded  as  a  difiScult  work 
well,e;icecuted#  anid  accept;able  to  every  friend  of  geniua 
and  litexature;  but  its  success  was  by  i>o  mecuiscoirrespoad-* 
«ttt  to  the  wi^he&^oftbe  author  or  of  his  friends. 

>  Hist,  of 'Fi-aQ(;g.->Itobertson>  Hist.  ofCkarfoa  V. 


73  F  R  A  N  C  I  a 

The  year  before  tbe  first  volume  of  his  '^  Benioetbetiet?^ 
^ppe^red,  he  deteroiined  to  attempt  the  drama^  aud  his  first 
essay  was  a  tragedy  entitled  "  Eugenia."  This  is  profe^ 
sedly  an  adaptation  of  the  French  **  Cenie**  to  Engiish 
feelings  and  habits^  but  it  had  not  much  success  on  th^ 
stage.  Lord  Chesterfield^  in  one  of  \n^  letters  to  hisSon, 
observes  that  hi  did  pot  think  it  would  have  succeeded  so 
yrell,  considering  how  long  our  British  audiences  bad  been 
accustomed  to  murder,  racks,  and  poisqn  in  every  tragedy; 
yet  it  affected  the  heart  so  much,  that  it  triumpl^ed  over 
habit  aiid  prejudice.  In  a  subsequent  letter,  h^  says  thai 
the  boxes  were  crowded  till  the  sixth  night,  wh^n  the  pit 
and  gallery  were  totally  deserted,  and  it  was  droppf^. 
pistres^  without  death^  he  repeats,  ^as  no(  sufficient  toi 
affect  a  truQ  British  audiencej  so  long  accustomed  to  dag- 
gerS)  racks,  and  bowls  of  poispn  ^  contrary  to  Horace^ 
rule,*  they  desire  to  sea  Medea  murder  her  chjldren  do  the 
stage.  The  sentiments  were  tpo  delicate  to  move  tbem  i 
and  their  hearts  were  to  be  taken  by  storm,  not  by  parley. 
In  1754,  Mr.  Franci^  brought  out  another  tragedy  at  Gqt 
vent-s:arden  theatre,  entitled  f*  Constantine,  which  wasf 
equ:illy  unsuccessful,  but  appears  to  have  suffet^ed  princi* 
pally  by  the  improper  distribution  of  the  part$  among  the 
actors.  This  he  alludes  to,  in  the  dedication  to  lord  Ches- 
terfield,  with  whom  he  apjpears  to  have  been  acquainted^ 
and  intimates  at  the  same  time  Xhffi  these  di^ppointments 
bad  induced  him  to  take  le^ve  of  tbe  stage.  ' 

During  tbe  political  contests  at  the  beginning  of  the 
present  reign,  he  employed  his  pen  in  defence  ot  govern- 
inent^  and  acquired  the  patronage  of  lord  Holland,:  wbo 
Ifewarded  his  services  by  the  rectory  of  BarroWj^  in  Suffolk,» 
and  the  chaplainship  of  Chelsea  hospital.  What  were  his 
publicationson  political  topics,  as  they  were  anonymous^  dnd 
iprobal)|y  dispersed  among  the  periodical  jouv^ials,  eanaot 
pow  be  ascertained.  They  drew  upon  him,  however,  tbe 
wrath  qf  Churchill,  who  in  bis  '^  Author-'  has  exhibited  a 
portrait  of  Mr.  Francis,  probably  overcbareed  by  spleen 
and*envy.  Churchill,  indeed,  was  so  profuse  of -his  ca* 
lumny,  tba^  be  seldom  gained  credit,'  and  long  before  be 
died^  his  assertions  bad  begun  to  lose  their  value,  Hefis 
said  to  have  intended  to  write  a  satirical  poem,  in  wbidh 
Francis  was  to  makip  bis  appearance  as  the  Ordinary  of 
Ne\vgate.  The  severity  of  this  satire  was  better  under- 
stood  at^^t  time^  w]i$q  the  ordtnaries  qI^  Newgate  wkr« 


ioAa  in  very  Httle  esteenii  and  schne  of  them  w^re  grossly 
ignorant  a^d  dissolute.  Mr.  Francis  died  at  Bath,  Mi^rch 
B,  1773',  leaving  a  son>  who  in  the  same  year  was  appointed 
one  of  the  snureme  council  of  Bengal,  and  is  now  sir 
^ilip  Francis,  K.  B. 

.    Of  all  the  classical  writers,  "  Hdrace**  is  by  geneti(l 
'CM)nsent  allowed  to  be  the  most  difficult  to  translate,  yc^ 
'SO  tiiriversal  has  been  the  ambition  to  perform  this  task, 
that  seaveeiy  an  English  poet  can  be  named  in  whose  works 
'We  do  not  find  some  part  6f  Horace.    These  efforts,  how- 
iiBv^Ti  have  not  so  frequently  been  directed  to  give  thi 
^^ensd  and  local  meaning  of  the  author,  as  to  transfuse  hi$ 
iparire,  and  adapt  it  to  modern  persons  and  times.     But  of 
^^the^flew  who  have  exhibited  the  whole  of  this  interesting 
-^poet'in  an  English  dress,  Mr.  Francis  has  been  supposed 
to  have  succeeded  best  in  that  which  is  most  difficult,  th^ 
}yric  part,  and  likewise  to  have  conveyed  the  spirit  and 
sense  of  the  original  in  the  episttes  and  satires,  With  least 
injofy  to  the  genicis  of  the  author.     In  his  preface  he  ac- 
kirowledges  his  obligations  to  Dr.  Dunkin,  a  poet  of  some 
cdebrity,  and  an  excellent  classical  scholar.' 
'   FRANCiUS  (Peter),  a  Greek  and  Latin  poet,  of  much 
teputation  on  the  continent,  was  born  at  Amsterdam,  Ai!kg« 
19,  1645.     He  receii^ed  his  early  education  under  Adrian 
Junius,  rector  of  the  school*  of  Amsterdam^  who  had  the 
happy  art  of  di^overing  the  predominant  talents  of  his 
scholars,  and  of'  directing  them  to  the  most  advantageous 
^  theibod  of  cultfvjtting  them.^   To  young  'Firancius  he  re- 
commended Ovid  as  i  model,  and  those  who  have  read  his 
oworks  are  of  Opinibn 'that  be  mtist  have  •*  given  his  days 
.^nd  nights*'  to  the  study  of  that  (3elebrated  poet.     From 
'Amsterdam  he  went  to  Leyden,  where  he  became  a  pupil 
-of  GronoviUs  the  elder,  who  soon  distinguished  him  from 
/  the  rest  of  his  scholars,  and  treated  him  as  a  frieild,  which 
-ibark  of  esteem  was  alto  extended  to  him  by  Grohovius  the 
yian:  'After  this  course  of  scholastic  studies,  *  he  set  out 
i'Off  bis  tmvets,^  visiting  England  and  France,  in  which  Ian, 
->at  Angers,  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  civil  andcan^n 
:^law.     While'  atPtfris  he  acquii-ed   the  esteem'  of  many 
^ielBtrned  mien,  and  when  he  proceeded  afterwards 'to  Italy, 
''improved  his  acquaintance  with  the  literary  men  of  that 
cotmtry,  andwai'Vety  respcfctfolly  received  by  Cosmo  III. 

74  F  R  A  N  C  I  US. 

ipmid  dt^  of  Tuscany.    After  hb  r^nni  to  Ansterdttf* 
the  magistrates,  ia  1674,  elected  biixiprofiessor  of  rhetoric 
»iul  history,  and  ia  1686  professor  of  Oreefc.    In  16id3.  the 
directora  of  the  academy  of  Leyden  oiade  bim  ao  oifisr  of 
one  of  their  professorships,  but  the  magistrates  of  Amsteo^ 
dam,  fearing  to  lose  so^  great  aa  ornament  to  their  city, 
increased  bis  salary,  that  be  might  be  mider  no  temfitatioa 
on  that  account  to  leave  them*     Be  accordingly  remained 
here  until  bis  death,  Aug.  19,  1704,  when  he  was  exactly 
fifty-nine  years  old.    Fraucius  particularly  excelled  in  der 
ekimatton,  in  which  bis  first  roaster,  Junius,  the  ablest 
declaimer  of  his  time,  had  insinicted  him,  and  in  which 
he  took  some  lessons  af terwarda  from  a  famous  tragic  actor, 
Adam  Caroli,  who,,  he  used  to  say,  was  to  bim  what 
Roscins  was  to  Cicera     Hi&  publications  consist  of,  1. 
^'Poemata,''  Amsterdam,  1682»  l2mo;  ibid*  1697,  8vo, 
These  consist  of  verses  in  various,  measures,  which  were 
highly  esteemed,  although  some  were  of  apinion  that  be 
succeeded  better  in  the  elegies  and  epigrams,  and  lighter 
pieces,  than  in  the  bercnc  aitempu.    The  first  of  the  edi« 
tioos  above*memioned  bos  some  traoslatmns  from  the 
^  Anthology*'  omitted  in  the  second,  because  the  author 
had  au  intention  of  giving  a  complete  tvau&tatioo  of  that 
celebrated  collection,  which,  however,  he  never  executed« 
Ia  other  respects,  the  aecond  edition  is  more  ample  and 
correct.    2i  ^^  Oratiooes,''  Amst.  .1692,  Evo,  of  which  an 
enlarged  edition  appeared  i»  1705,  Eva.    His  emulaticm 
Qf  the  style  of  Cicero, is  said  to  be  very  obvious,  in  thesA 
orations.    Some  of  them  bad  been  published  separateiyi 
particularly  a  piece  of  bumoor  entitled  ^  £ncomijum  GalU 
Galhnatici/*     S.  **  Specimen  elo()ttenti8B  extertorin  ad  orar 
tronciN  M.  T»  Ciceronis  pro  A.  Licin.  Arcbia  accommo- 
daium,"  Amst,   1697,  l2mo.     4.  ^*  Specimen  eloquentim 
exteripris  ad  orationeni  Ciceronis  pro.  M.  Idarcelio  ajccom* 
modatum»"  ibid.  1699,  12mo.    These  two  last  were  reh 
printed  in  1700,  8vo,  with  his  **  Qratio  de  ratione  dei;la^ 
mendi."     5.  *<  £|>istola  prima  ad  C«  V aleriimi  Acciuctum, ; 
vero  nomine  Jacobnm  Perisonium,  professorem  Leydeo.-. 
sem,"'  &c.  Ain«t.  1696,  4to.    This  relatea  to  a  personal 
dispute  between  Francins  and  Perizooitts,  pf  very  Lktie 
consequence  to  the  public,  and  was  answered  by  Perixo** 
nius.     6.  ^^  The  Homily  of  S.  Gregcire  of  Nazian^en,  0i9 
charity  to  our  neighbour/'   translated  from   Greek  into 

Gerawn,  Anst.  1700,  ftm.    7.  *^  Ailiscouiie  oa  tim  Ju- 

F  R  A  I^  C  I  U  S  Vk 

\^bief  Jm.  ITOO;^  io  GenDAD^  ibid.  1700^  4to;  i.  <^  Poil# 
Imioa,  qiubiis  accedtnit  iUustrium  eruditorum  i|d  eiMH 
Epistolffi,"  ibicL  1706,  Sva' 

FRANCK  deFaancke^^u,  (George),  an  eminent  Ger« 
apui  pbyfticiao,  wan  born  ti  Naumburg,  io  Upper  Saxonj^ 
Ifay  3,  1643.  His  father,  altboiigh  living  aa  a  simpW 
peasant^  was  of  a  noble  family.  After  going  tbropgh  his 
acbeol  edncation,  George  went  to  Jena  at  tbeage  of 
Oigbteeo,  and  waa  crowned  a  poet  by  count  paiatio# 
Riohter,  in  consequence  of  bis  extraordinary  talent  for 
writing. verses  in  the  German,  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew 
languages.  Bat  be  exhibited  still  greater  talents  dortng  hia 
Qonrsse  ot  medical  studies,  and  tbis.  canons  of  Naomburg^ 
who  recognized  his  merits,  afforded  bim  liberal  means  of 
subsistence  while  be  applied  himself  to  this  acienee*  Be- 
fore be  took  his  doctor's  degree]) (in  16M)^  be  was  deemed 
'sdigible  to  give  lectures  in  botany,  chemistry,  and  ana-P 
tomy,  and  acquired  great  repntatipn.  In  1672,  the  electov 
pafauine  appointed  him  to  the  yacant  professorship  of  m^ 
dicine  at  Heidelberg,  and  a  few  years  afterwwrds  nonsit 
lAted  bim  bis  own  physician.  But  the  troubles  occasioned 
.  by  the  war  obliged  bim  in  1688,  to  retire  to  Fsancfeft  on  tbo 
Main.  John  George  III.  elector  of  Saxony,  then  received 
bimintohisaervsce)  and  appointed  bim  profMsor  of  medicine 
^  Wittemberg  j  an  office  which  he  filled  with  so  'Unicli 
edaty  tbat  tb^  principal  prolessonhip,  and  the  title  oC 
dean  of  the  faculty  at  Leipsic^  weffesoon  ofieved  to  bim, 
'Ebisi  bowererybe  vofosed,  by  the  instigation  of  bisfriendsi 
who  sosij^t  to  ^retain  him  at  Witaemberg.  The  two  mtc^ 
geeding  electors  likewise  loaded  this,  physician  with  so 
many  favours,  that  it  waa  supposed  he  could  never  dreaia 
of  quitting  Heidelberg.  Nevertheless,  be  was  induced  by 
^be  offers  of  Christian  V.  king  of  Denmark,  to  remove'  id 
Copenbageo,  where  be  was  received  most  graciously  by* 
tbe  royal  famiiy>  and  was  honoured  with  »the  title  of  Aulic 
cotinselkur,  which  was  oontituied  lo  him  by  Frederick  IV. 
the  successor  of  Christian.  Deaths  hxMnrever,  terminased 
bis  brilliant  career  oi^  the  I6tb  of  Jonev  1704^  in  tbe  six;* 
lie tb  year  of  bis  age. 

^  Araock  was  a  quemfaer  of  several  learned  societies,  and 
TVSJS  ennobled  bydu»  emperor  Leopold,  in  1692,  and  in 
t^$  was  created  count  palatine,,  by  the  title  of  *^  Dq 

"fS  F  R  AN  C  K. 

Fratickenau/'  His  principal  works  are,  1.  **  Institutionimi 
Medicarum  Synopsis,"  Heidelberg,  1672.  2.  **  Lexicon 
Vegetabiiium  iisualium,"  Argentorati,  1672.  This  wa» 
re-published  several  times.  In  the  edition  of  Leipsic, 
16J?8,  the  title  of  M  Flora  Francica"  was  given  to,  it.  ?• 
'^  Bona  nova  Anatomtca,"  Heidelberg,  1680.  4.  "Parva 
Bibliotheca  Zootomica,"  ibid.  1680.  5.  *^  De  calamniia 
in  Medicos  et  Medicinam,"  ibid.  1 686.  6.  "  De  Medicis 
Philologis,"  Witteberg«,  1691.  7.  "  De  palingenesia, 
siveresuscitatione  artificiali  plantarum,  bomioum,  et  ani-» 
n)aliun>,  ^  suis  *  cineribus,  liber  singularis,"  Halie,  1717, 
edited 'by  Nehring.  8.  "  Satyras  Medicw  XX.'*  Leipsic, 
172^.  These  pieces,  which  had  begun  to  appear  in  1673, 
were  published  by  his  son,  George  Frederic  Franck,  who 
was-also  a  teacher  of  medicine  at  Wittemberg,  and  wrote 
several  works  on  botany  and  physic' 

FftANCK,  or  FRANCISCUS  FRANCKEN,  but  liiore 
generally  called  Old  Fkancks,  was  an  artist  of  the  six-r 
teentfa  century.  Very  few  circumstances  relative  to  hiui' 
are  handed  down,  although  his  works  are  as  generally 
known  in  these  kingdom^  as  they  are  in  the  Netherlands; 
nor  are  the  dates  of  his  birth,  death,  or  age,  thoroughly 
ascertained ;  fur  Descampt  supposes  him  to  be  born  in 
1544,  CO  be  admitted  into  the  society  of  painters  at  Ant*' 
werp  in  1561^  which  was  at  seventeen  years  of  age;,  and 
fixe&  his  death  in  1666,  by  which  computation  Francks 
must  have  been  a  hundred  and  twenty-two  years  old 
when  he  died,  which  appears  utterly  improbable ;  though 
others  fix  his  birth  in  1544,  and  bis  death  in  1616,  ag^d 
seventy-two,  which  seems  to  be  nearest  the  truth.  He 
painted  historical  subjects  taken  from  the  Old  or  New  Tes- 
tament, and  was  remarkable  for  introducing  a  great  ngm- 
ber  of  figures  into  his  compositiotis,  which  he  had  Ihe  skill 
to  e:(prei»s  very  distinctly.  He  had  a  fruitful  inventit^jn, 
and  composed  readily ;  but  he  wanted  grace  and  elegance 
in  his  figures,  and  was  apt  to  crowd  too  many  histories  into 
one  scene.  His  touch  was  free,  and  the  colouring  of  his 
pi<itures  generally  transparent;  yet  a  predominant  brown 
or  yellowish  tinge  appeared  pver  them,  neither  natural 
nor  agreeable.  But,  in  several  of  his  best  performances, 
the  colouring  is  clear  and  lively,  the  design  good,  die 
figures  tolerably  correct,    and   the  whole  together  very 

>  Moreri.— Reet's  Cyclopedia^  from  ^oy.-vSftxii  OaomuliciMu 

r  R  A  N  O  K.'  T7 

fileasing.    At  Wilton  is  his  <<  Belsbaiczac's  Feast/*  a  very 
corious  compbsition.  f«     • 

Vandyck  pftea  comBsended  the  works  of"  this  master^ 
and  esteemed  them  worthy  of  a  place  in  uny  coUecttoiu 
Many  of  them  are  frequently  seen  at  public  sales,  which 
render  him  well  known,  though  several  are  also  to  be  me^ 
with  in  those  places,  which  are  unjustly  ascribed  to  Fiuncks, 
and  are  really  unworthy  of  him.  ^  • 

FIIANCK,  commonly  called  Youhg  Frances,  the  sou 
of  the  preceding,  and  of  both  hisnames^  was  born  in  159Q, 
and  instructed  in  the  art  pf-painting  by  his  fatber,  vhos^ 
style  and  manner  be  imitated  in  a  large  and  small  sise; 
but  when  he  found  himself  sufficiently  skilLed  to  be  capable 
of '  improvement  by  travel,  he  went  to  Venice,  and  there 
perfected  his  knowledge  of  ookmring,  by  studying  and 
copying  the  works  of  those  artists  whp  were  most  imminent. 
But  it  seems  extraordinary  that  a  painter  so  'capable  of 
great  things  in  his  profession,  should  devote  his  pencil  to 
the  representation  of  carnivals  and  other  subjects  of  tfatM: 
kind,  preferably  to  historical  subjects  of  a  much  higher 
rank,  which  might  have  procured  for  him  abundiuitly  moiie 
honour.  At. his  return,  however,  to  Flanders,  bis* works 
were  greatly  admired  and  coveted,  being  superior  to  tfao$e 
<^  his  fatber  in  many  respects ;  his  colouring  was  more 
ptear,.  his  pencil  more  delicate,  his  designs  had  somewhat 
iriore  of  elegance,  and  his  expression  was  much .  better^ 
The  taste  of  composition  was  the  same  in  both,  and  they 
/seemed  to  have  the  same  ideas,  and  the  same  defects, 
pnrltipiying  too  many  historical  incidents  into  one  subject, 
^nd  representing  a  series  of  actions,  rather  than  one  prin- 
cfipal  action  or  event.  The  subjects  of  both  painters  were 
usually  taken  from  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  and. also 
fhom  the  Roman  history  (except  the  subjects,  of  young 
Francks  while  he  continued  in  Italy)  3  and  it  might  have 
been  wished  that  each  of  them  had  observed  more  order 
and  propriety  in  the  disposition  of  their  subjects. 

He  had  a  great  particularity  in  touching  the  white  of 

the  eyes  of  his  figures,  which  appears  as  if  a  smalt  lump 

'  of  unbrciken  white  was  touched  on,  with  the  point  of  a  fine 

gencilj    and  it  gives  the  figures  a  great  de^l  of  spirit, 
ven  that  particularity,  well  attended  to,  may  be  a  means 

1  Pilk]BStOB.«»Dtft«ilipf.«— D'Argeavilte,  rul  III.— lUyoolds'i  ^'orki,  toL 
II.  p.  .S86. 

*  .all 

n  »  A  A  N  0  It; 

df  determining  the  buid  ^  this  oMister.  tt  etigbt  t6  44 
observed,  th^from  the  similarity  of  tMtme^  laste^  *^^f 
and  cotomring.  df  the  Old  and  YoMg;  FtaMcks^  4kiAt  warks 
are  often  misiaketi  imd  mfseall^dy  and  'the  woift  t)f  th«  ^aftft 
fiarchased  for  th«  work  of  the  other.  Th^  tnbst  cttj^tai 
l^erfonnante  of  this  {>riMer,  is  a  sciSptMal  MbJ<d<^t  in  ilit 
church  of  Notre  DattKs  at  Antlretp ;  und  an  ^MdUent  pk^ 
tore,  in  the  small  size,  is  *<  8olortion*s  IMhJttj,*^  in  whicA 
that  king  is  represetited  as  kneeling  beitore  an  akar,  on 
iwbich  is  phMed  the  statue  of  Jupiter.  Tbei^4i  b  nbble 
expression  in  the  figare  of  Solomon,  aad  tbe^Mfi^i^^^ 
the  figure  is  bmad  and  flowing;  the  altair  is  e^^eed'mgtj^ 
enriched  with  fine  bas'^r^ief  in  the  kaliavi  style,  Ittid  ^ift 
^xtpiisitdy  finisbed ;  Cbe  penciling  is  msa^  the  cototfring 
-dear  and  tuansparant,  and  the  whole  pietore  appean^tlv 
bave  been  painted  on  (eaf  gold.    Yonng  FhAiefc*  tfied  \h 

^  tHANGKE  (Av€m¥t7d  Hbri^it^),  a  I%a4»ne4  Md  piti^ 
German  divine,  and  a  great  benefa^tdV  t6  Ms  ceifntfy^ 
was  bom  at  Lnbetk,  Mareh  12,  O.  S.  I66k.  fU^  father^ 
John  Frarfeke,  ^wa^then  one  of  the  magi^tmtes  tit  Lnbe^k, 
and  after wevds  entered  into  the  iiervice  ef  Erne^^  the^  Pioii»i 
dttke  of  Sa)te  G^tha,  as  connsdior  of  the  otrati  MA  *tX 
^tkre.  His  mother,  Aime  <31oxln,  waa  the  dlitnglyfer  ^ 
4me  of  the  oldest  bnygomasters  of  Ltibeek.  Yeul)|(1rrfMeke 
liad  the  misfortune  to  lose  his  ftklhef  in  I6T0)  when  be  4«W 
between  six  and  ieven  years  old,  and  at  tbi^earty  i^  feta4 
ahown  such  a  pious  disposition,  that  he  vWa  Intended  ^ 
^e  church,  and  with  thi&  view  his  mother  {rf^ced  hkiti 
under  the  instructions  of  a  private  tutor.  His  proficleirty 
in  classical  studies  was  sucb^  that  at  tlie  ag6  of  fourteei^ 
be  was  considered  as  well  qualified  to  go  tothe  univereity. 
It  was  not,  however,  until  I6'7d,  that  he  Wentto^httt  6f 
Erfurt,  and  from  thence  to  Kiel^  where  he  studied  sottie 
years  under  Korthott  and  Morboff.  In  1 682,  he  fetdt'hed 
to  Gotha,  and  visited  Hamburgh  in  bis  way,  where  he  f^ 
mained  two  months  to  improve  bis  knowledge  of  the  He- 
brew language,  under  Esdras  Ed^atdL  In  trs^  h^ 
went  to  Leipsic,  andtodc  his  degree  of  M.  A.  in'  the 
following  year.  During  his  stay  here,  he  fermed  a  so*- 
«ie^  for  literary  conversation  among  hi^  friends,  Whix;li. 

At^broM MidJtroiBe,  blltof1»fBriornoti^ 

irftANCKK  f9 

kmg  substfled  utideT  the  name  of  <<  CoUegjIam  PbHobibii). 
enn^^*  their  fayoutite  topic  being  tbe  study  of  the  Holjr 
8erq>tiiipe8.  Some  time  afield  be  went  to  Wittemberg, 
wbei^  he  was  necetyed  wkb  great  respect  by  tbe  literati 
«l  ibat  uniyaraityy  and  fcbei»ce  to  Lmieburg,  where  bet 
eifteoded  the  di¥imty  lectures  of  the  celebratd  Sandfaagew. 
Froai  Lonebodtg  be  returned  to  Leipsic,  and  gave  a  coorte  of 
iN^tures  on  tbe  holy  scriptures,  pmctical  as  well  as  critical^ 
which  were  frequented  by  above  three  trancked  students. 
This  success,  with  a  molre-tbaaeommM  earnestness  and 
aeriottsuess  in  his  method  and  address,  occasioned  some 
jealousy,  and  created  him  enemies  likewise  at  Erfurt^ 
whither,  in  1690,  be  was  inyiled  to  become  pastor  of  St. 
Anstin.  Tbe  objection  to  him  was  that  of  pietism^  and  ft 
^ncMased  with  bo  much  violence,  that  in  1691  he  was  de- 
prived of  liis  charge,  and  Ordered  to  quit  tbe  city  witliiti 
two  days.  How  little  he  deserved  this  treatment,  had  al^ 
ready  appeared  in  some  ef  his  writings,  and  was  more  ma* 
IHfcst  after#ards  in  bis  conduct  and  serrtcei. 

Hie  eotirt  of  Ootba,  uninfluenced  by  these  clamoun^ 
a&d  eonvieced  of  bis  innocence  and  worth,  lost  no  timtt 
in  eiffisring  a  suitable  employment  jfbr  his  talents.  He  waa 
abcmt  tbe  same  time  oflSsred  a  professorship  in  the  college 
^  Guboui^,  and  another  at  Weimar,  but  he  preferred  tbe 
iiifers  inade  to -him  by  tbe  elec^r  of  Brandenbburg,  (aftei> 
Wax^  Frederifc  I.  of  Prassla)^  tbe  veVy  day  that  he  was  ora» 
dier^d  to  t0it  Erfurt.  The  uuiversity  of  Halle,  in  SaKony^ 
imd  been  just  founded,  and  Mr.  Fraocke  was  in  I69i  %p« 
peiated  professor  of  the  Greek  and  orienttil  languages,  and 
bastor  of  Claueha,  a  suburb  of  Halle*  In  1698  be  resigned 
kis  professorship  of  the  languages  for  that  of  divinity,  but 
aUbough  be  bad  a  principal  hand .  iu  establishing  the  new 
^iyei^ity,  whieh  soon  became  pre-eminent  among  the 
seminaries  of  Germany,  ht  acquired  greater  &me  as  the 
founder  of  the  celebrated  school,  hospital,  or  rather  ooU 
lege^  for  the  poor  at  Glaucba.  l^e  wh<ile  history  of 
education  does  tiol  produce  an  induce  more  temarkable 
tii  dt&  origin  and  progress  than  this  singular  foundation,  by 
tbe  labour,  industry,  and  persevei:ance,  of  professor 
Franeke.  • 

There  was  a  very  ancient  custom  in  the  ci^  and  neighbour-^ 
hood  of  Halle,  ior  such  persons  as  give  relief  to  the  poor, 
t9^  appoint  a  particular  day  on  which  they  wefe  to  com6  to 
their  doors  to  receive  it.    When  professQr  Frsjoipke  dame  to 

.W  F  R  A  N  C  K  E. 

be  settled  at  Glaucha,  he  readily  adopted  tU^  practke^ 
and  fixed  on  Thursday  as  bis  day.  But,  as. bis  profes* 
sion  led  him,  be  endeavoured  to  confer,  with  th^  poor 
on  the  subject  of  religion,  in,  which  be  found  tb^iQ  mi* 
.serably  deficient,  and  incapable  of  giving  their  children 
any  religious  instruction  whatever.  His  nrst-  contrivance 
-to  supply  their  temporal  wants,  was  .by  supplicating  the 
charity  of  well-disposed  students ;  but  finding .  that  mode 
inconvenient,  be  contented  himself  with  fixing  up  ^  box 
in  his  parlour,  with  one  or  two  suital^le  texts  oS^  scrip-* 
ture  over  it.  In  1695,  when  this  box  bad  been  s^  uff 
about  a  quarter  of  a  year,  he  found  in  it  the  donation  oi M 
single  person  amounting  to  lSs.6d.  English,  which  he  imniii^ 
diately  determined  should  be  the  foundation  of  ^a  charity* 
school.  Unpromising  as  such  a  scheme  might  9tp{itear,,  be 
began  the  same  day  by  purchasing  eight-shillings-^tyor^h  of 
school-books,  and  then  engaged  a  student  to  teach  the  poof 
c)iildren  two  hours  each  day.  He  met  at  first  with  the 
common  fate  of  such  beneyolent  attempts  9  most  of  the 
children  making  away  with  the  bopks  entrusted  to  them, 
and  deserting  the  school  ^  for  tbisj  however,  the.  remedy 
was  easy,  in  obligiiig  the  children  to  leave  them  hehind 
them ;  but  still  his  pious  endeavours  were  in  a  great  o^jea* 
sure  frustrated  by  the  impressions  made  on.  their  .minds  in 
school  being  effaced  by  their  connections  abroad.  Ta 
remedy  this  greater  evil,  he  resolved  to  single  out  some  of 
the  children,  and  to  undertake  their  mainteni^nce,.  as  welj 
as jf  instruction.  Such  of  the  children,  accordingly,  a| 
seemed  most  promising,  he  put  out  to  persons  of  known  iu« 
'tegrity  and  piety  to-^e-educated  by  them,  as  he  had  as  yet 
no  house  to  receive  them.  ,The  report  of  so  excellent  4 
design,  induced  a  person  of  quality  to  contribute  the  sun»^ 
of  1000  crowns,  and  another;  400,  which  served  to  p^r^ 
chase  a  house  into  which  twelv.e  orphans^  the  whole  nxioi-* 
ber  he  had  selected,  were  removed,  s^nd  a  student  of  di* 
vinity  appointed  master  and  teacher.  This  took  place  iii 
1696.  The  number  of  children,  however,  which  demanded 
bis  equal  sympathy,  increasing,  he  conceived  the  .project 
of  building  an  hospital,  such  ai^  naight  contain  about  two 
hundred  people,  and  this  at  a  time,  he  informs  us,  whe^ 
be  had  not  so  much  in  hand  as  would  answer  the  cost  of  a 
small  cottage,  and  when  his  project  was  conse^ently 
looked  upon  as  visionary  and  absurd.  His  reliais^eon 
Providence,  however,  \Vas  so  firm,  that  haying  procured  a 

F  R  A  N  C  K  E.  ,81 

pi«ee  6f  groa'nd,  he  ]aid  the  foundation  stone  on  July  5, 
1698,  and  within  the  space  of  a  year  the  workmen  were 
ready  to  cover  it  with  the  roof.  During  this  time  as  well 
as  the  time  it  subsequently  required  to  complete  it,  the 
exjp^nces  were  defrayed  from  casual  donations.  He  never 
app^Ts  to  have  had  any  kind  of  annual  subscription,  or 
other  help  on  which  the  least  dependence  could  be  placed ; 
he  sometimes  knew  the  names  of  his  benefactors,  but 
mdre  generally  they  were  totally  unknown  to  him,  and 
yetiOne  succeeded  another  at  short  intervals,  and  often 
when  he  was  reduced  to  the  utmost  distress.  By  such  un* 
foreseen  and  unexpected  supplies,  an  establishment  was 
formed,  in  which,  in  1727,  2196  children  were  provided 
for,'  under  130  teachers.  The  whole  progress  oi'  this  great 
work,  as  related  by  professor  Francke,.is  beyond  measure 
astonishing  and  unprecedented ;  for  he  had  applied  none 
of-  the  methods  which  have  since  been  found  useful  in  the 
foilhdation  of  similar  establishments,  and  appears  to  have 
had  nothing  to  support  his  zeal,  but  the  strongest  confi- 
dence in  the  goodness  of  Providence;  and  although  the 
assistance  he  received  was  great  in  the  aggregate,  it  not 
unfrequently  happened  that  his  mornings  were  passed  in 
anxious  fears  lest  the  subjects  of  his  care  might  want  bread 
in  the  day.  These  supplies  consisted  principally  in  money, 
but  many  to  whom'  that  mode  of  contribution  wa^  incon- 
venient, sent  in  provisions,  clothing,  and  utensils  of  va- 
rious sorts,  and  a  very  considerable  number  sold  trinkets 
of  iBtU  kinds,  lace,  jewels,  plate,  &c.  for  the  benefit  of  an 
hospital,  the  good  effects  of  which  were  now  strikingly 
visible,  as  its  progress  advanced.  Some  very  considerable 
contributions  came  even  from  England^  in  consequence  of 
a  short  account  of  the  hospital  having. been  sent  over  and 
published  there  in  1705.  Dr.  White  Kenne^tj  in  parti- 
cubir,  noticed  it  with  high  commendation,  from  the  pulpi^ 
and  added  that  ^'  nothing  in  the  world  seemed  to  him  more 
providential,  or  rather  more  miraculous.**  In  the  follow-^ 
ingyear,  1706,  it  had  grown  up,  not  only  into  an  hos- 
pital for  orphans,  and  a  refuge  for  many  other  distressed 
objects,  but  into  a  kind  of  university,  in  which  all  the 
langiiages  and  sciences  were  taught,  and  a  printing«house 
established  on  a  liberal  plan,  an  infirmary,  i^c. 
'  The  establishment  of  this  great  undertaking  fills  up 
many  years  of  professor  Ffancke's  history.  The  reipaining 
Vol.  XV.  G 

M  F  R  A  N  C  K  K. 

events  of  his  life  are  but  few.  He  associated  with  himself 
John  Anastasius  Freylitighausen,  in  his  charge  as  pastor, 
and  had  him  and  other  men  of  character  and  talents  as  as- 
sistants in  his  school.  The  variety  of  his  Employments^ 
however,  injured  his  healthy  although  he  derived  occa-^ 
sional  benefit  from  travelling.  One  instance  of  his  pious 
zeal  is  thus  recorded  :  The  duke  Maurice,  of  Saxe-Zeitz^ 
had  embraced  the  Roman  catholic  religion,  and  professor 
Praucke,  at  the  request  of  the  duchess,  went  to  his  court, 
in  1718,  and  in  several  conferences  so  completely  satisfied 
his  mind,  as  to  induce  him  to  make  a  public  profession  of 
his  return  to  the  Protestant  church.  Francke^s  death  was 
occasioned  by  profuse  sweats,  which  were  checked  by  de* 
grees,  but  followed  by  a  retention  of  urine,  and  a  para^- 
lytic  attack,  which  proved  fatal  June  8,  1727.  Amidst 
much  weakness  and  pain,  he  lectured  as  late  as  the  1 5tb 
of  May  preceding.  It  would  be  difficult  to  name  a  man 
more  generally  regretted.  Halle,  Elbing,  Jena,  Deux- 
Fonts,  Augsbourgh,  Tubingen,  even  Erfurt,  where  he 
Was  so  shamefully  persecuted,  Leipsic,  Dresden,  Wittem* 
berg,  &c.  all  united  in  expressing  their  sense  of  his  worthy 
by  eulogiums  written  by  the  most  eminent  professors  of 
these  schools.  By  his  wife,  Anne  Magdalene,  the  daughter 
of  Otho  Henry  de  Worm,  a  person  of  distinction,  he  left 
Gotthelf  Augustus  Francke,  professor  of  divinity  and 
pastor  of  the  church  of  Notre-Dame,  and  adaughter  who  was 
married  to  M.  Freylinghausen.  In  his  learning,  talents, 
eloquence,  and  piety,  all  his  contemporaries  seem  agreed. 
As  a  public  beneiactor  he  has  had  few  equals^ 

The  history  of  his  celebrated  Orphan  house  has  been 
long  known  in  this^^ountry,  in  a  translation 'by  Dr.  Josiab 
Woodward,  under  the  title  of  *^  Pietas  Hallensis,*'  Lond. 
1707,  12mo,  often  reprinted^  w4tb  some  of  his  devotional 
tracts.  These  last  were  generally  published  by  professor 
Francke  in  German.  His  Latin  works  are»  1.  ^^  Menu- 
ductio  ad  lectionem  Scripturae  Sacrss,''  Halle^  169^3.  Of 
this  an  improved  translation  by  William  Jaques,  was  pub* 
lished  in  1813,  8vo.  2.  *^  Observationes  BibiicoB  men-» 
stru»  in  Versionem  Germanicam  Bibliorum  Lutheri,** 
Halle,  1695,  12mo.  3.  "  De  Emphasibus  Sac.  Script:'* 
ibid.  1698,  4t6.  4.  «  Idea  studii  TheologiflB,'*  ibid.  1712^ 
12mo.  5.  "  Prselectiones  Hermeneuticse,"  ibid.  1712,^ 
8vo.  6.  "  Monita  Pastoralia  Theologica,"  ibid.  1717^ 
12mo.     7.  <<  Methodus  studii  Tbeologici/'    ibid.    1723y 

F  R  A  N  C  K  E.  IS 

6vo.  S.  **  Introductio  ad  lectionem  Prophetarutn,**  ibid* 
1724,  dvo.  *  9.  *^  Commentatio  de  scopo  (ibiforum  veterii 
et  noTi  Testamenti/'  ibid.  8vo.* 

FRANCKLIN  (Thomas),  D.  D.  chaplain  in  ordinary  to 
his  majesty,  born  1721,  was  the  son  of  Richard  Francklio^ 
well  known  as  the  printer  of  an  anti-ministerial  paper  called 
**  The  Craftsman,'*  in  the  conduct  of  which  he  received 
great  assistance  from  lord  Bolingbroke,  Mr.  Pulteney^  and 
other  excellent  writers,  who  then  opposed  sir  Robert  WaU 
pole's  measures.  By  the  advice  of  the  second  of  these 
gentlemen,  young  Francklin  was  devoted  to  the  church, 
with  a  promise  of  being  provided  for  by  Mr.  Pulteney, 
who  afterwards  forgot  his  undertaking.  Yet  his  father  h^d 
a  claim,  from  his  sufferings  at  least,  to  all  that  these 
patriots  could  do  for  him.  While  engaged  in  their  ser- 
vice, he  was  prosecuted  by  the  crown  several  times,  and 
bad  been  confined  several  years  in  the  King's-bench  prison 
for  a  letter  written  from  the  Hague,  and  printed  by  him  at 
their  desire.  It  is  true,  indeed,  that  several  noblemen 
and  gentlemen  subscribed  a  sum  of  50/.  each  to  Francklin, 
as  a  compensation  for  his  losses,  but  it  is  as  true  that  n6 
more  than  three  of  them  paid  their  money,  of  whom  Mr. 
Pulteney  was  one. 

Young  Franicklin,  however,  was  educated  at  Westmin- 
ster school,  where  he  was  admitted  a  scholar  in  1735,  and 
whence  in  1739  he  was  elected  to  Trinity-college,  Cam- 
bridge, of  which  he  became  a  fellow.  He  was  afterwards 
for  sonie  time  an  usher  at  Westminster-school,  aqd  first 
appeared  as  an  author,  in  a  translation  of  **  Phalaris's 
Epistles,"  1749,  8vo,  and  of  "  Cicero  on  the  Nature  of 
the  Gods."  'About  the  same  time  he  is  said  to  have  pub- 
lished **  An  Inquiry  into  the  Astronomy  and  Anatomy  of 
the  Ancients,"  which  was  reprinted  in  1775,  8vo.  la, 
June  1750,  he  was  chosen  Greek  professor  of  Cambridge, 
in  opposition  of  Mr.  Barford,  of  King's-college,  and  i^ 
the  same  year  became  involved  in  a  dispute  with  the 
university  on  the  following  occasion.  On  the  17th  of  No- 
vember, he  with  a  niimber  of  gentlemen  educated  at 
Westminster  school,  having  met  at  a  tavern,  according  to 
custom,  to  celebrate  queen  Elizabeth's  anniversary,  they 

*  Bibl.  Qermanique,  rol.  XVIII.— Niceron,  vol.  XIV.  •-«  Mor«ri.--^etil8 

Q  2 


were  Intemipted  by  the  senior  proctor,  who  came  into  the 
company  after  1 1  o'clock  at  night,  and  ordered  them  to 
depart,  it  being  an  irregular  hour.  For  disobeying  this 
order,  some  of  them  were  reprimanded  by  the  Tice>chan- 
cellor,  and  others  fined.  Francklin,  who  was  one  of  the 
party,  had  his  share  in  the  business,  and  is  supposed  to 
have  written  a  pamphlet  entitled  ^^  An  Authentic  Narrativ^e 
of  the  late  extraordinary  proceedings  at  Cambridge,  against 
the  Westminster  Club,^*  Lond.  1751, 8vo,  denying  the  charge 
of  irregularity,  and  laying  the  blame  on  the  proctor. 
This  dispute  engaged  the  attentioii  of  the  university  for 
some  time^  as  those  who  plead  for  the  relazatiou  of  dis* 
cipline  will  never  be  without  abettors. 

In  1753,  he  published  a  poem  called  ^<  Translation,*'  in 
which  be  announced  his  intention  of  giving  a  translatiou  of 
'<  Sophocles.''  In  January  1757,  on  the  periodical  paper 
called  *^  The  World"  being  6nished,  he  engaged  to  pub« 
lish  a  similar  one,  under  the  title  of  *^  The  Centinel,'*  but 
after  extending  it  to  twenty-seven  numbers,  he  was  obliged 
to  drop  it  for  want  of  encouragement.  The  next  year  he 
published  *^  A  Fast  Sermon"  preached  at  Queen^street 
phapel,  of  which  he  was  minister,  and  at  St.  Paul's  Co* 
vent-garden,  of  which  he  was  lecturer ;  .and  he  afterwards 
published  a  few  sermons  on  occasional  topics,  or  for  cha- 
rities. In  1759  appeared  his  translation  of  **  Sophocles," 
2  vols.  4to,  which  was  allowed  to  be  a  bold  and  happy  trans* 
fusion  into  the  English  language  of  the  terrible  simplicity 
of  the  Greek  tragedian.  »This  was  followed  by  a  "  Dis- 
sertation on  ancient  Tragedy,"  in  which  he  mentioned 
Arthur  Murphy  by  name,  and  in  terms  not  the  roost  courtly. 
Murphy,  a  man  equally,  or  perhaps  more  irritable,  replied 
in  a  poetical  **  Epistle  addressed  to  Dr.  Johnson,"  who 
calmly  permitted  the  combatants  to  settle  their  disputes  in 
their  own  way,  which,  we  are  told,  amounted  to  a  cessa- 
tion of  hostilities,  if  not  to  an  honourable  peace.  At  this 
time  Francklin  is  said  to  have  been  a  writer  in  the  Critical 
Keview,  which  indeed  is  acknowledged  in  an  article  in  that 
review,  and  might  perhaps  be  deduced  from  internal  evi- 
dence'', as,  besides  his  intimacy  with  Smollet,  his  works 
are  uniformly  mentioned  with  very  high  praise.  In  1757 
he  had  been  preferred  by  Trinity-college  to  the  livings  of 
Ware  and  Thuodrich,  in  Hertfordshire,  and  although  his 
mind  was  more  intent  on  the  stage  than  the  pulpit,  he 


published  in  1765  a  volume  of  **  Sermons  on  the  relative 
duties/*  which  was  well  received  by  the  publick.  Next' 
year  he  produced  at  Drury-iane  theatre,  the  tragedy  of 
•<  The  Earl  of  Warwick,"  taken,  without  any  acknowledge- 
ment, from  the  French  of  La  Harpe.  In  Nov!  1767,  he 
was  enrolled  in  the  list  of  his  majesty^s  chaplains.  In 
1768  he  published  a  piece  of  humour,  without  his  name, 
entitled  "  A  Letter  to  a  Bishop  concerning  Lectureships,'* 
exposing  the  paltry  shifts  of  the  candidates  for  this  office, 
at  their  elections ;  and  next  year  he  wrote  "  An  Ode  on 
the  Institution  of  the  Royal  Academy."  In  March  of  the 
same  year,  he  translated  Voltaire's  "  Orestes"  for  the 
stage.  In  July  1770  he  took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  but  still* 
debased  his  character  by  producing  dramatic  pieces  of  no 
great  fame,  and  chiefly  translations;*  ^*  Electra,"  **  Ma- 
tilda," and  "The  Contract,*'  a  farce.  About  l776' be 
was  presented  to  the  living  of  Brasted,  in  Surrey,  which 
he  held  until  his  death.  He  had  for  some  years  employed 
himself  on  his  excellent  translation  of  the  works  of  ^ "  Lu* 
cian,"  which  he  published  in  1780,  in  2  vols.  4to.  He 
was  also  concerned  with  Smollet,  in  a  translation  of  VoU' 
taire's  works,  but,  it  is  said,  contributed  little  more  than' 
his  name  to  the  title-pages.  There  is  a  tragedy  of  his  still 
in  MSi  entitled  "  Mary  Queen  of  Scots."  Dr.  Francklia 
died  at  his  house  in  Great  Queen-street,  March  15,  1784. 
He  was  unquestionably  a  man  of  learning  and  abilities, 
but  from  peculiarities  of  temper,  and  literary  jealousy, 
seems  not  to  have  been  much  esteemed  by  his  contempo- 
raries. After  his  death  3  volumes  of  his  "  Sermons'*  were 
published  for  the  benefit  of  his  widow  and  family.  Mrs. 
Francklin  died  in  May  1796.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Mr.  Venables,  a  wine-merchant.* 

FRANCO,  or  FRANCHI  (Nicolas),  an  Italian  poet  of 
the  infamous  class  which  disgraced  the  sixteenth  qentury,' 
was  born  at  Beneventb,  in  1510,  and  under  his  father, 
who  was  a  schoolmaster,  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the 
learned  languages.  In  his  youth  he  became  acquainted 
with  Peter  Aretino,  and  from  being  his  assistant  in  his  va» 
rious  works,  became  his  rival,  and  whilst  he  at  least  equalled 
him  in  virulence  and  licentiousness,  greatly  surpassed  him 
m  learning  and  abilities.     His  first  attempt  at  rivalship 

* '  *         '  » 

1  Biog.  Dram,  origiaally  written  by  Mr.  Isaac  Becd^  for  the  European  Ma* 

«6  FRANCO. 


was  his  <<  Pistole  Vulgari/'  in  1539.  A  fierce  war  was 
commenced  between  them,  and  sustained  on  each  side 
with  the  greatest  rancour  and  malignity.  Franco  left 
Venice,  and  took  up  his  abode  at  Montserrat,  where  he 
published  a  dialogue,  entitled  ^'  Delle  Belleze  ;'^  and  a 
collection  of  sonnets  against  Aretino  with  a  ^^  Priapeia  Ita* 
liana,"  which  contained  the  grossest  obscenity,  the  most 
unqualified  abuse,  and  the  boldest*  satire  against  princes, 
popes,  the  fathers  of  the  council  of  Trent,  and  other  emi- 
nent persons.  Yet  all  this  did  not  injure  bis  literary  repu- 
tation ;  be  was  a  principal  member  of  the  academy  of  Ar- 
gonauti  at  Montserrat,  and  in  this  capacity  wrote  his 
'*  Rime  Maritime,"  printed  at  Mantua  in  1549.  At  Mantua 
he  followed  the  profession  of  a  schoolmaster;  thence  he 
removed  to  Rome,  where  he  published  commentaries  on 
the  "  Priapeia,''  attributed  to  Virgil,  the  copies  of  which 
were  suppressed  and  burned  by  order  of  pope  Paul  IV. 
Under  Pius  IV.  he  continued  to  indulge  his  virulence,  and 
found  a  protector  in  cardinal  Morone.  ilis  imprudence, 
however,  in  writing  a  Latin  epigram  against  Pius  V.  with 
other  defamatory  libels,  brought  upon  him  the  punishment 
which  he  amply  deserved.  He  was  taken  from  his  study 
in.  his  furred  robe,  and  hanged  on  the  common  gallows* 
without  trial  or  ceremony.  He  was  author  of  several  other 
works  besides  those  already  enumerated,  and  be  left  be- 
hind him  in  MS.  a  translation  of  Homer's  Iliad.^ 

FRANCOIS  (Laurence),  a  French  abbe  and  very  use- 
fiil  writer,  was  born  at  Arinthod,  in  Francbe-comt^,  Nov, 
2f  1698,  and  for  some  time  belonged  to  the  chevaliers  of 
St.  Lazarus,  but  quitting  that  society,  came  to  Paris  and 
engaged  in  teaching.  He  afterwards  wrote  several  works, 
in  a  style  perhaps  not  very  elegant,  but  which  were  ad* 
spired  either  for  their  intrinsic  usefulness,  or  as  antidotes 
to  the  pernicious  doctrines  of  the  French  philosophers  and 
deists,  who,  conscious  of  his  superiority  in  argument,  af« 
fected  to  regard  him  as  a  man  of  weak  understanding,  and 
a  bigot ;  reproaches  that  are  generally  thrown  upon  the 
advocates  of  revealed  religion  in  other  countries  as  well  as 
in  France.  The  abb£  Francois,  however,  appears  from  his 
works  to  have  been  a  man  of  learning,  and  an  able  dis- 
putant. H6  died  at  Paris,  far  advanced  in  years,  Feb. 
24*1  17S2,  escaping  the  miseries  which  those  against  whom 

>  Tirabotchi.->^Ro800f  *»  Iieo«-^Hoitvi. 


he  wrote,  were  about  to  bring  on  their  country.  His  prin* 
cipal  works  are,  I.  *^  Geograpbie/'  12mo»  an  excellent 
manual  on  that  subject,  often  reprinted,  and  known  by 
the  name  of  **  Crozat,''  the  lady  to  whom  he  dedicated  it, 
and  for  whose  use  be  first  composed  it  2.  **  Preuves  de 
la  religion  de  Jesus  Christ,"  4  vols.  12mo.  ^  3.  "  Defense 
de  la  Religion,"  4  vols.  12mo.  4.  **  Examen  du  Cate- 
chisme  de  I'honn^te  homme,"  12nio.  5.  "  £xameu  des 
faits  qui  servent  de  fondement  a  la  religion  Chretienne," 
1767,  3  vols.  12mo.  6.  "Observation  sur  la  philosophic 
de  Thistoire,"  8vo.  He  left  also  some  manuscripts,  in  re- 
futation of  the  "  Philosopliical  Dictionary,"  the  "  System 
of  Nature,"  and  other  works  which  emanated  from  the 
philosophists  of  France." 


.  FRANCUCCI  (Innocent),  an  historical  painter,  born 
at  Imola,  and  known  by  the  name  of  Innocenzio  da  Imola, 
became  a  disciple  of  Francesco  Francia,  in  1506  ;  then 
passed  some  time  with  Albertinelli  at  Florence ;  and  from 
the  evidence  of  his  works,  and  the  testimony  of  Vasari, 
studied  much  after  Fra.  Bartolomeo  and  Andrea  del  Sarto  :. 
for  though  the  main  disposition  of  his  a]tar-pieces  be  still 
gothic,  he  no  longer  used  the.ancient  gilding;  he  placed 
the  Virgin  on  high  in  the  centre,  and  surrounded  her  with 
saints  and  angels,  architecture,  and  back  grounds  skilfully 
grouped  and  arranged  with  novelty  and  taste.  Such  is  his 
style  in  the  surprizing  picture  of  the  Duomo  at  Faqnza, 
and  in  another  at  P^aro.  The  aerial  perspective  and  back 
ground  Remind  us  of  Leonardo  da  Vijici.  He  sometimes 
placed  smaller  pictures  under  his  altar-pieces,  like  that  j^t 
St.  Giacomo  of  Bologna,  which  breathes  the  very  spirit  pf 
Raphael ;  that  spirit  he  seems  indeed  to  have  aimed  at  in 
the  greater  part  of  his  works,  and  to  have  approached  it 
nearer  than  most  of  Raphael's  own  scholars.  He  excelled 
Francia  and  his  fellow-scholar  Bagnacavallo  in  erudition, 
majesty,  and  correctness.  Subjects  of  novel  coqpibination 
and  fiery  fancy  he  has  not  produced ;  nor  seem  they  to 
have  been  congenial  with  that  mildness  and  tranquillity  of 
character  which  history  ascribes  to  him.  He  was  fifty-six 
years  old  at  the  time  of  his  death,  but  that  is  not  known.* 

FRANKLAND  (Thomas),  an  English  physician  and 
historian  of  singular  character,  was  born  in  Lancashire  ia 
1653,  and  was  entered   a  student  in   Brasenose-college, 

A  Diet.  HiW.  9  Fuseli,  in  Pilkington. 

88  F  R  A  N  K  L  A  N  D. 


Oxford,  in  1649.     He  took  a  degree  in  arts,  and  obtained 
a  fellowship   in   1654.     Afterwards  studying  divinity,  he 
became  a  preacher  according  to  the  form  of  ordination 
during  the  usurpation.     In  1662  he  served  the  office  of 
proctor,  and  the  year  after,  having  taken  orders  regularly, 
he  was,  but  with  much  difficulty,  admitted  tq  the  reading 
of  the  sentences.   He  afterwards  studied  physic,  and  settled 
in  London,  where  he  imposed  upon  the  public  for  some 
time,  by  pretending  to  have  taken  his  doctor's  degree  in 
that  faculty,  and  at  length  offering  himself  as  a  candidate 
for  fellow  of  the  college  of  physicians,   he  produced  a 
forged  diploma,  was  admitted  fellow,  and  afterwards  was 
censor.     His  ungracious  manners,  however,  procuring  him 
enemies,  an  inquiry  was  made  at  Oxford  in  1677,  which 
discovered  the  fraud,  and  although  by  the  connivance  of 
some  of  the  college  of  physicians,   he  remained  among 
them,  yet  his  credit  and  practice  fell  off,  and  being  re* 
duced  in  circumstances,  he  was  imprisoned  in  the  Fleet, 
where  he  died  in   1690,  and  was  interred  in  St.  Vedast's 
churchy  Foster-lane.     He  wrote,  "  The  Annals  of  King 
James  and  King  Charles  L  containing  a  faithful  history 
and  impartial  account  of  the  great  affairs  of  state,  and 
transactions  of  parliament  mu  England,  from  the  tenth  of 
king  James,  1612,  to  the  eighteenth  of  king  Charles,  1642. 
Wherein  several  passages  relating  to  the  late  civil  wars 
(omitted   in  former  histories)  are   made  known,''  Lond. 
1681,  fol.     He  was  supposed  also  to  be  the  author  of  a 
folio  pamphlet,  Lond.   1679,    entitled  <^  The  honours  of 
th^  Lords  Spiritual  asserted,  and  their  privileges  to  vote 
in  capital  cases  in  parliament  maintained  by  reason  ^and 
precedents  ;'^  but  Wood  does  not  give  this  as  ceruin.     Dr. 
Frankland  was  esteemed  a  good  scholar  while.^  at  Oxford, 
but  in  the  subsequent  part  of  his  character  appears  de- 
serving of  little  esteem.' 

FRANKLIN  (Benjamin),  the  celebrated  American 
philosopher^  was  sprung,  as  he  himself  informs  us,  from  a 
family  settled  for  a  long  course  of  years  in  the  village  of 
Ecton,  in  Northamptonshire,  where  they  had  augmented 
their  income,  arising  from  a  small  patrimony  of  thirty  acres, 
by  adding  to  it  the  profits  of  a  blacksmith's  busihess.  His 
father,  Josias,  having  been  converted  by  some  noncon* 
formist  ministers,  left  England  for  Americaj  in  1682,  m^ 

>  Ath.  Ox.  ToL  IT. 


settled  at  Boston,- as  a  soap-boiler  and  tallow-chandler. 
At  this  place,  in  1706,  Benjamin,   the  youngest  of  his 
sons,  was  born.     It  appeared  at  first  to  be  his  destiny  to 
become  a  tallow-chandler,  like  his  father  ;  but,  as  he  ma- 
nifested a  particular  dislike  to  that  occupation,  different 
plans   were  thought  of,  which  ended  in  bis  becoming  a 
printer,  in  1718,  under  one  of  his  brothers,  who  was  settled 
at  Boston,  and  in  1721  began  to  print  a  newspaper.    This 
was  a  business  much  more  to  his  taste,  and  he  soon  shewed 
a  talent  for  reading,  and  occasionally  wrote  verses  which 
were  printed  in  his  brother* s  newspaper,  altliough  unknown 
to  the  latter.     He  wrote  also  in  the  same  some  prose  es- 
says, and  had  the  sagacity  to  cultivate  his  style  after  the 
model  of  the  Spectator.     With  his  brother  he  eontmued 
as  an  apprentice,  until  their  frequent  disagreements,  and 
the  harsh  treatment  he  experienced,  induced  him  to  leave 
Boston  privately,  and  take  a  conveyance  by  sea  to  New 
York.    This  happened  in  1723.     From  New  York  he  im- 
mediately proceeded,  in  quest  of  employment,  to  Phila- 
delphia, not  without  some   distressing  adventures.      His 
own  description '  of  his  first  entrance  into  that  city,  where 
he  was  afterwards  in  so  high  a  situation,  is  too  curious  to 
be  omitted. 

"  On  my  arrival  at  Philadelphia,  I  was  in  my  working 
dress,  my  best  clothes  being  to  come  by  sea.     I  was  co- 
vered with  dirt ;  my  pockets  were  filled  with  shirts  and 
stockings;  I  wag  unacquainted  with  a  single  soul  in  the 
place,  and  knew  not  where  to  seek  for  a  lodging.     Fa- 
tigued i^ith  walking,  rowihg,  and  having  passed  the  night 
without  sleep,  I  was  extremely  hungry,  and  all  my  money 
consisted  of  a  Dutch  dollar,  and  about  a  shilling^s-worfh 
of  coppers,  which  I  gave  to  the  boatmen  for  my  passage. 
As  I  had  assisted  them  in  rowing,  they  refused  it  at  first, 
but  I  insisted  on  their  taking  it.  '  A  man  is  sometimes  more 
generous  when   he  has  little,   than  when  he  has  much 
money ;  probably  because  in  the  first  case  he  is  desirous  of 
concealing  his  poverty. 

**  I  walked  towards  the  top  of  the  street,  looking  eagerly 
on  both  sides,  till  I  came  to  Market-street,  where  Imet  a 
child  with  a  loaf  of  bread.  Often  had  I  made  my  dinner 
on  dry  bread.  I  enquired  where  he  bought  it,  and  went 
straight  to  the  baker's  shop  which  he  pointed  out  to  me.  I 
asked  for  some  biscuits,  expecting  to  find  such  as  we  had 
at  Boston ;  but  they  made,  it  seems,  none  of  that  sort  at 


Philadelphia.  I  then  asked  foe  a  three-penny  loaf.  They 
made  no  loaves  of  that  price.  Finding  myself  ignorant  of 
the  prices  as  well  as  of  the. different  kinds  of  bread,  I  de- 
aired  him  to  let  me  have  three-pennyworth  of  bread  of 
some  kind  or  other.  He  gave  me  three  large  rolls.  I  was 
surprised  at  receiving  so  much :  I  took  them,  however,  and 
having  no  room  in  my  pockets,  I  walked  on  with  a  roll 
under  each  arm,  eating  the  third.  In  this  manner  I  went 
through  Market-street  to  Fourth-street,  and  passed  the 
bouse  of  Mr.  Read,  the  father  of  my  future  wife.  She 
was  standing  at  the  door,  observed  me,  and  thought,  with 
reason,  that  I  made  a  very  singular  and  grotesque  ap- 

Notwithstanding    this    unpromising    commencement^ 
Franklin    soon    met   with   employment  in    his  business, 
working  under  one  Keimer,   a  very  indifferent  printer, 
though  at  that  time  almost  the  only  one  in  Philadelphia. 
In  1724,  encouraged  by  the  specious  promises  of  sir  Wil- 
liam Keith,  governor  of  the  province,  Franklin  sailed  for 
England,  with  a  view  of  purchasing  materials  for  setting 
up  a  press ;  though  his  father,  to  whom  he  bad  applied, 
prudently  declineti  encouraging  the  plan,  on  account  of 
his  extreme  youth,  as  he  was  then  only  eighteen.     On  his 
arrival  in  England,  he  had  the  mortification  to  find  that  the 
governor,  who  had  pretended  to  give  him  letters  of  re- 
Qommendation,  and  of  credit  for  the  sum  required  for  his 
purchases,  had  only  deceived  him ;  and  he  was  obliged  to 
^ork  at  his  trade  in  London  for  a  maintenance.     The  most 
exemplary  industry,  frugalitjiV  and  temperance,  with  great 
quickness  and  skill  in  his  business,  both  as  a  pressman 
and  as  a  compositor,  made  this  rather  a  lucrative  situa- 
tion.    He  reformed  the  workmen  in  the  Jiouses  where  he 
was  employed,  which  were,  first  Mr.  Palmer's,  and  after- 
wards   Mr.  Watts's,  in  Wild-street,  Lincoln's-inn-fields, 
by  whom  he  was  treated  with  a  kindness  which  he  always 
remembered.     Desirous,  however,  of  returning  to  Phila- 
delphia, he  engaged  himself  as  book-keeper  to  a  mer- 
chant, at  fifty  pounds  a  year ;  "  which,**  says  he,  "  was 
less  than  I  earned  as  a  compositor."     He  left  England 
July  23,  1726,  and  reached  Philadelphia  early  in  October. 
In   1727,  Mr.  Denbam  the  merchant  died,  and  Franklin 
returned  to  his  occupation  as  a  printer,  under  Keimer^ 
bis  first  master,  with  a  handsome  salary.     But  it  was  not 
long  {before  he  set  up  for  himself  in  the  same  business,  in 


concert  with  one  Meredith,  a  young  man  who^e  father  was 
opulent,  and  supplied  the  money  required. 

A  little  before  this,  be  had  gradually  associated  a  num- 
ber of  persons,  like  himself,  of  an  eager  and  inquisitive 
turn  of  mind,  and  formed  them  into  a  club,  or  society,  to 
bold  meetings  for  their  mutual  improvement  in  all  kijids 
of  useful  knowledge,  which  was  in  high  repute  for  many 
years  after.  Among  many  other  useful  regulations,  they 
agreed  to  bring  such  books  as  they  had  into  one  place,  to 
form  a  common  library  ;  but  this  furnishing  only  a  scanty 
supply,  they  resolved  to  contribute  a  small  sum  monthly 
towards  the  purchase  of  books  for  their  use  from  London. 
In  this  way  their  stock  began  to  increase  rapidly ;  and  the 
inhabitants  of  Philadelphia,  being  desirous  of  profiting  by 
their  library,  proposed  that  the  books  should  be  lent  out 
on  paying  a  small  sum  for  this  indulgence.  Thus  in  a  few 
years  the  society  became  rich,  and  possessed  more  books 
than  were  perhaps  to  be  found  in  all  the  other  colonies ; 
and  the  example  began  to  be  followed  in  other  places. 

About  1728  or  1729,  Franklin  set  up  a  newspaper,  th^ 
second  in  Philadelphia,  which  proved  very  profitable,  and 
afforded  him  an  opportunity  of  making  himself  known  as  a 
political  writer,  by  his  inserting  several  attempts  of  that 
kind  in  it.  He  also  set  up  a  shop  for  the  sale  of  books  and 
articles  of  stationary,  and  in  1730  he  married  a  lady,  now 
a  widow,  whom  he  had  courted  before  he  went  to  Eng- 
land, when  she  was  a  virgin.  He  afterwards  began  to 
have  some  leisure,  both' for  reading  books,  and  writing 
them,  of  which  he  gave  iQftny  specimens  from  time  to 
time.  In  1732,  he  began  to  publish  *^  Poor  Richard's  Al- 
manack,''  which  was  continued  for  many  years.  It  was 
always  remarkable  for  the  numerous  and  valuable  concise 
maxims  which  it  contained,  for  the  oeconomy  of  human 
life  ;  all  tending  to  industry  and  frugality  ;  and  which  were 
comprized  in  a  well-known  address,  entitled  ^^  The  Way  to 
Wealth."  This  has  been  translated  into  various  languages^ 
and  inserted  in  almost  every  magazine  and  newspaper  in 
Great  Britain  or  America.  It  has  also  been  printed  on  a 
large  sheet,  proper  to  be  framed,  and  bung  up  in  con-r 
spicuous  places  in  all  bouses,  as  it  very,  well  deserves  to 
be,  Mr.  Franklin  became  gradually  more  known  for  his 
political  talents.  In  1736,  he  was  appointed  clerk  ta 
the  general  assembly  of  Pennsylvania ;  and  was  re-elected 
hy  succeeding  assemblies  for  several  years,  till  he  was 


chosen  a  representative  for  the  city  of  Philadelphia ;  and 
in  1737  he  was  appointed  post-master  of  that  city.  In 
1738,  he  formed  the  first  fire-company  there,  to  extin- 
guish and  prevent  fires  and  the  burning  of  houses  ;  an  ex- 
ample which  was  soon  followed  by  other  persons,  and  other 
places.  And  soon  after,  he  suggested  the  plan  of  an  asso- 
ciation for  insuring  houses  <and  ships  from  losses  by  fire, 
which  was  adopted  ;  and  the  association  continues  to  this 
day.  In  1744,  during  a,  war  between  France  and  Great 
Britain,  some  French  and  Indians  made  inroads  upon  the 
frontier  inhabitants  of  the  province,  who  were  unprovided 
for  such  an. attack;  the  situation  of  the  province  was  at 
this  time  truly  alarming,  bein^  destitute  of  every  means 
of  defence.  At  this  crisis  Franklin  stepped  forth,  and  pro- 
posed to  a  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Philadelphia,  a  plan 
of  a  voluntary  association  for  the  defence  of  the  province. 
This  was  approved  of,  and  signed  by  1200  persons  imrae-. 
diately.  Copies  of  it  were  circulated  through  the  province; 
and  in  a  short  time  the  number  of  signatures  amounted  to 
10,000.  Franklin  was  chosen  colonel  of  the  Philadelphia 
regiment ;  but  he  did  not  think  proper,  to  accept  of  the 

Pursuits  of  a  different  nature  now  occupied  the  greatest 
part  of  his  attention  for  some  years.  Being  always  much 
addicted  to  the  study  of  natural  philosophy,  and  the  dis« 
covery  of  the  Leyden  experiment  in  electricity  having 
rendered  that  science  an  objecit  of  general  curiosity,  Mr. 
Franklin  applied  himself  to  it,  and  soon  began  to  distin- 
guish himself  eminently  in  tltat  way.  He  engaged  in  a 
course  of  electrical  experiments  with  all  the  ardour  and 
thirst  for  discovery  which  characterized  the  philosophers  ' 
of  that  day.  By  these  he  was  enabled  to  make  a  number 
of  important  discoveries,  and  to  propose  theories  to  ac- 
count for  various  phenomena ;  which  have  been  generally 
adopted,  and  which  will  probably  endure  for  ages»  His 
observations  he  communicated  in  a  series  of  letters  to  his 
friend  Mr.  Peter  Collinson ;  the  first  of  which  is  dated 
March  28,  1747.  In  these  he  makes  known  the  power  of 
points  in  drawing  and  throwing  off  the  electric  matter, 
which  had  hitherto  escaped  the  notice  of  electricians.  He 
also  made  the  discovery  of  a  plus  and  minus,  or  of  a  po- 
sitive and  negative  state  of  electricity ;  from  whence,  in  a 
satisfactory  manner  he  explained  the  phenomena  of  the 
Leyden  phial,    first   observed  by  Cuneus  or  Musohen- 


brdieck,  which  had  much  perplexed  philosophers.  He 
shewed  that  the  bottle,  when  charged,  contained  no  more 
electricity  than  before,  but  that  as  much  was  taken  from 
one  side  as  was  thrown  on  the  other  ;  and  that,  to  discharge 
it,  it  was  only  necessary  to  make  a  communication  between 
the  two  sides,  by  which  the  equilibriam  might  he  restored, 
and  that  then  no  signs  of  electricity  would  remain.  He 
afterwards  demonstrated  by  experiments,  that  the  elec« 
tricity  did  not  reside  in  thie  coating,  as  had  been  sup[>osed, 
btit  in  the  pores  of  the  glass  itself.  After  a  phial  Was 
charged,  he  removed  the  coating,  and  found  that  upon 
applying  a  new  coating  the  shock  might  still  be  received. 
In  1749,  be  first  suggested  his  idea  of  explaining  the  phe- 
nomena of  thunder-gusts,  and  of  the  aurora  borealis,  upon 
electrical  principles.  He  points  out  many  particulars  in 
which  lightning  and  electricity  agree ;  and  he  adduces 
many  facts,  and  reasoning  from  facts,  in  support  of  his 
positions.  In  the  same  year  he  conceived  the  bold  and 
grand  id^a  of  ascertaining  the  truth  of  his  doctrine,  by 
actually  drawing  down  the  forked  lightning,  by  means  of 
sharp -pointed  iron  rods  raised  into  the  region  of  the  clouds ; 
from  whence  he  derived  his  method  of  securing  buildings 
and  ships  from  being  damaged  by  lightning.  It  was  not 
Until  the  summer  of  1752  that  he  was  enabled  to  complete 
bis  grand  discovery,  the  experiment  of  the  electrical  kite, 
which  b^ing  raised  up  into  the  clouds,  brought  thence  the 
electricity  or  lightning  down  to  the  earth  ;  and  M.  D'Ali- 
bard.made  the  experiment  about  the  same  time  in  France, 
by  following  the  track  which  Franklin  had  before  pointed 
out.  The  letters  which  he  sent  to  Mr.  Collinson,  it  is 
said,  were  refused  a  place  among  the  papers  of  the  royal 
Bociety  of  London  ;  and  Mr.  Collinson  published  them  in 
a  separate  volume,  under  the  title  of  ^^  New  Experiments 
and  Observations  on  Electricity,  made  at  Philadelphia,  in 
America,'*  which  were  read  with  avidity,  and  soon  trans- 
)ated  into  different  languages.  His  theories  were  at  first 
opposed  by  several  philosophers,  and  by  the  members  of 
the  royal  society  of  London;  but  in  1755,  when  he  re- 
turned* to  that  city,  they  voted  him  the  gold  medal  which, 
is  annually  given  to  the  person  who  presents  the  best  paper 
on  some  interesting  subject.  He  was  also  admitted  a 
member  of  the  society,  and  had  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  con- 
ferred upon  him  by  different  universities ;  but  at  tins  time, 
by  reason  of  the  vyar  which  broke  out  between  Britain  and 

9*  F  E  A  N  K  L  I  N. 

France,  he  returned  to  America,  and  interested  himself  in 
the  public  affairs  of  that  country.  Indeed,  he  \kSLd  done 
this  long  before  ;  for  although  philosophy  was  a  principal 
object  of  Franklin's  pursuit  for  several  years,  he  did  not 
confine  himself  to  it  alone.  In  1747  he  became  a  member 
of  the  general  assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  as  a  burgess  fof 
the  city  of  Philadelphia.  Being  a  friend  to  the  rights  of 
man  from  his  infancy,  he  soon  distinguished  himself  as 
a  steady  opponent  of  the  unjust  schemes  of  the  pro^ 
prietaries.  He  was  soon  looked  up  to  as  the  head  of  the 
opposition ;  and  to  him  have  been  attributed  many  of 
the  spirited  replies  of  the  assembly  to  the  messages  of 
the  governors.  •  His  influence  in  the  body  was  very  great, 
not  from  any  superior  powers  of  eloquence;  he  spoke 
but  seldoQ),  and  he  never  was  known  to  make  any 
thing  like  an  elaborate  harangue;  but  his  speeches  gene- 
rally consisting  of  a  dngle  sentence,  or  of  a  well-told 
story,  the  moral  was  always  obviously  to  the  point.  He 
never  attempted  the  flowery  fields  of  oratory.  His  manner 
was  plain  and  mild.  His  style  in  speaking  was,  like  that 
of  his  writings,  simple,  unadorned,  and  remarkably  con- 
cise. With  this  plain  manner,  and  his  penetrating 'and 
solid  judgment,  he  was  able  to  confound  the  most  eloquent 
and  subtle  of  his  adversaries,  to  confirm  the  opinions  of 
his  friends,  and  to  make  converts  of  the  unprejudiced  who 
had  opposed  him.  With  a  single  observation  he  has  ren- 
dered of  no  avail  a  long  and  elegant  discourse,  and  deter- 
ipined  the  fate  of  a  question  of  importance. 

In  1749  he  proposed  a  plan  of  an  academy  to  be  erected 
in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  as  a  foundation  for  posterity 
to  erect  a  seminary  of  learning,  more  extensive  and  suit- 
able to  future  circumstances;  and  in  the  beginning  of 
1750,  three  of  the  schools  were  opened,  nailiely,  the 
Latin  and  Greek  school,  the  mathematical,  and  the  Eng*^ 
lish  schools.  This  foundation  soon  after  gave  rise  to  ano- 
ther more  extensive  college,  incorporated  by  charter  May 
27,  1755,  which  still  subsists,  and  in  a  very  flourishing 
condition.  In  1752  he  was  instrumental  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Pennsylvania  hospital,  for  the  cure  and  relief 
of  indigent  invalids,  which  has  proved  of  the  greatest  use 
to  that  class  of  persons.  Having  conducted  himself  so  well 
as  post-master  of  Philadelphia,  he  was  in  1753  appointed 
deputy  post-master  general  for  the  whole  British  colonies. 

The  colonies  being  much  exposed  to  depredations  in 


their  frcAtier  by  the  Indians  and  the  French ;  at  a  meeting 
of  commissionerB  frooi  several  of  the  provincefly  Mr.  Frank- 
lin proposed  a  plan  for  the  general  defence^  to  establish  in 
the  col^Hfiies  a  general  governmeiily  to  be  administered  by 
a  president-general,  appointed  by  the  crown,  and  by  a 
grand  council,  consisting  of  members  chosen  by  the  re- 
presentatives of  the  different  colonies ;  a  plan  which  was 
unanimously  agreed  to  by  tbe  commissioners  present.  The 
plan,  however,  bad  a  singular  fate  :  it  was  disapproved  of 
by  the  ministry  of  Great  Britain,  because  it  gave  too  much 
power  to  the  representatives  of  the  people ;  and  it  was 
rejected  by  every  assembly,  as  giving  to  the  president 
general,  who  was  to  be  the  representative  of  the  crown, 
an  influence  greater  than  appeared  to  them  proper,  in  a 
plan  of  government  intended  for  freemen.  Perhaps  this 
rejection  on  both  sides  is  the  strongest  proof  that  could 
be  adduced  of  the  excellence  of  it,  as  suited  to  the  situa- 
tion of  Great  Britain  and  America  at  that  time.  It  appears 
to  have  steered  exactly  in  the  i^iddle,  between  tbe  oppo- 
site interests  of  both.  Whether  the  adoption  of  this  plan 
would  have  prevented  the  separation  of  America  from 
Great  Britain,  is  a  question  which  might  afford  much  room 
for  speculation. 

In  1755,  general  Braddock,  with  some  regiments  of 
regular  troops  and  provincial  levies,  was  sent  to  dispossess 
the  French  of  the  posts  upon  which  they  had  seized  in  the 
back  settlements.  After  the  men  were  all  ready,  a  diffi- 
culty occurred,  which  had  nearly  prevented  the  expedi- 
tion :  this  was  the  want  of  waggons.  Franklin  now  step- 
ped forward,  and,  with  the  assistance  of  his  son,  in  a  little 
time  procured  150.  After  the  defeat  of  Braddock,  Frank- 
lin introduced  into  the  assembly  a  bill  for  organizing  a 
militia,  and  had  the  dexterity  to  get  it  passed.  In  conse- 
quence of  this  act,  a  very  respectable  militia  was  formed  ; 
and  Franklin  was  appointed  colonel  of  a  regiment  in  Phi- 
ladelphia, which  consisted  of  1200  men;  in  which  capa« 
city  he  acquitted  himself  with  much  propriety,  and  was  of 
singular  service,  though  this  militia  was  soon  after  dis- 
banded by  order  of  tbe  English  ministry. 

In  1757  he  was  sent  to  England,  with  a  petition  to  the 
king  and  council,  against  the  proprietaries,  who  refused 
to  bear  any  share  in  the  public  expences  and  assessments^; 
which  he  got  settled  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  state.  After 
the  completion  of  this  business,  Franklin  remained  at  the 


^  court  of ^Oreat  Britain  for  some  time,  as  agent  for  the  pn>^ 
vince  of  Pennsylvania;  and  also  for  those  of  Massachusetts, 
Maryland^  and  Georgia.  Soon  after  this,  he  published 
his  Canada  pamphlet,  in  which  he  pointed  out,>  in  a  very 
forcible  manner,  the  advantages  that  would  result  froih 
the  conquest  of  this  province  from  the  French.  An  e^pe*^ 
dition  was.  acoordifigly  planned,  and  the  command  given 
to  general  Wojfe ;  the  success  of  which  is  well  known. 
He  now  divided  his  time  indeed  between  philosophy  and  * 
politics,  rendering* many  services  to  both.  Whilst  here, 
he  invented  the  elegant  musical  instrametit  called  the  Ar*> 
monica,  formed  of  glasses  played  on  by  the-6ngei^.  In 
the  summei;  of  1762  lie  returned  to  America ;  on  the  pas- 
sage to  which  he  observed  the  singular  effect  produced  hf  ' 
the  agitation  of  a  vessel  containing  oil,  floating  on'watet^; 
the  upper  surfEice  of  the  oil  remained  smooth  and  Undi^^ 
turbed,  whilst  the  water  was  agitated  >  with  the  utmoist 
commotion «  On  his  return  he  received  the  thanks  of  ^;he 
assembly^ c^  Pennsylvania;  which  having  annually  elected 
him  a  member  in  bis  absence,  be  again  took  his  leat  in 
this  body,  and  continued  a  steady  defender  of  the  liberties 
of  the  people.  ■        * 

In  1764,  by  the  intrigues  of  the  proprietaries,  Franklin 
lost 'bis  seat'  in  the  assembly,  which  he  had  possessed  for- 
fourteen  years ;  but  was  immediately  appointed  provincial 
agent  to  England,  for  whioh> country  he  presently  set  out. 
In  1766  he  was  examined  before  the  parliament,  relative  to 
the  stainp-aot ;  which  was  soon  after  repealed.    The  samd 
year  he  made  a  journey  into  Holland  and  Germany;  and  . 
another. into  France ;  being  everywhere  received  with  thifil  *" 
greatest  respect  by  the  literati  of  all  nations.     In  1773  he 
attracted  the  public  attention  by  a  letter  on  the  duel  he** 
tween  Mn  Whateley  and  Mr.  Temple,  concerning  the' 
publication  of  governor  Hutchinson's  letters,    declaring 
that  te  was  the  person  who  had  discovered  those  letters.  On  ^ 
the  29th  of  January  next  year,  he  was  examined  before 
the  privy* council,  on  apetition  he  had  presented  long  be- 
fore as  agent  for   Massachusetts  Bay*  against  Mr.  Hut^ 
chinson:  but  this  petition  being  disagreeable  to  ministry^ 
it  was  ^precipitately  reje<!^ted,  and  Dr.  Franklin  was  soon 
after. removed  from  his  office  of  postmaster^general  fot 
America.   .Finding  now  all  efforts  to  restore  harmony :be« 
tween  Gr^t  Britain  and  her  Colonies  useless,  he  returned 
to  America  in  177^^  just  after  the  commencement  of  hos« 


tilities.  Beii^  named  one  of  die  dMegates  to  the  Coiui- 
nentai  congress,  be  bad  a  principal  sbare  in  bringing  abotti 
the  revolution  and  deckration  of  independency  on  the  pav( 
of  the  Coboies.  In  1776  be  was  deputed  by  congress  to 
Canada,  t^  negociate  with  the  people  of  that  country,  and 
to  persuade  them  to  throw  off  the  Btitisb  yoke  -,  but  the 
Canadians  bad  been  lk>  much  disgusted  with  the  hot- beaded 
seal  of  the  New  Englandersj  who  had  burnt  some  of  their 
cbapeis,  that  ibey  refused  to  listen  to  the  proposals,  though 
enforc^  by  all  the  arguments  Dr,  Franklin  could  male 
use  of.  On  the  arrival  of  lord  Howe  in  America^  in  1776, 
lie  entered  upon  a  correspondence  with  him  on  the  subject 
of  reconciliation.  He  wfts  afterwards  appointed^  with 
two  others^  to  wait  upon  the  English  commissionelrsj  and 
learn  the  extent  of  tb^iv  powers ;  but  as  these  only  went  to 
the  granting  pardon  upon  submission,  he  joined  hb  coU 
leagues  in  couiadering  them  aa  insufficient.  Dr.  Franklin 
was  decidedly  in  favour  <^  a  declaration  of  independence, 
and  waa  appointed  president  of  the  convention  assembled 
for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a  new  goyernmeiit  for  the 
fttate  of  Pennsylvania;  When  it  was  ^termined  by  con* 
gress  to  open  a  public  negdciation  with  France^'  Dr.  Firaiik- 
lin  was  ftxed  upon  to  go  to  that  country ;  and  he  brought 
about  the  treaty  of  alliance  offemive  and  defensive^  virhich 
produced  an  immediate  war  between  England  and  France. 
Dr.  Franklin  was  one  of  the  commtssioo^rs^  whd,  on  the 
part  of  the  United  States,  signed  the  provisional  articles  of 
peace  in  1782^  and  the  definitive  treaty  in  the  foUciwing 
year.  Before  he  left  £U«rope,  he  concluded  a  treaty  with 
Sweden  and  Prussia.  Having  seen  the  aocompltshment.of 
bis  wishes  in  the  independence  Of  his  country^  he  re* 
quested  to  be  recalled,  and  after  repeated  solicitations 
Mr.  Jefferson  was  appointeld  in  bis  stead..  Oti  the  arrival 
of  his  sudcessori  he  repaired  to  Havre  de  Grace,  and 
crossing  the  English  cliannel,  landed  at  Newport,  in  the 
Isle  of  Wigbtj  from  wbeece^  after  a  Cavourable  passage* 
he  arrived  safe  at  Philadelphia  in  S^pt.  1785.  Here  he 
was  received  amidst  the  accUmatioos  of  a  vast  and  almost 
innumerable,  nniltkude^  who  bad  fioeked  from  all  parts  to  see 
bim^  and  who  conducted  him  in  triumph  to  his  dwn  house, 
where  in  a  few  days  be  was  visited  by  the  members  of  con- 
.gress^  and  the  principal  inhabitantSvof  Philadelphia.  He 
was  afterwirds  twice  chosen  president  of  the  assembly  of 
.Philadelphia;  but  in  i7S3  the  increasing  infirmiues  of  bis 
Vol.  XV.  H 


^ge  obliged  faitn  to  ask  tnd  bbtniti  permi«9ion  to  retire  atid 
«pend  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  tranqoiUity;  and  on  the 
Iftli  of  April,  1790,  h6>  died  at  the  great  age  of  eighty*- 
f)bur  years  and  three  months*     He  left  behind  him  one  sonv 
«  zealotrs  loyalist^  and  a  danghter  married  to  a  iperehant 
in  Bhiladelphia.    Dr<  Franklin  wms  author  of  many  tratta 
on  electricity,  and  other  bmnchea  of  natural  philosophy^ 
as  well  as  on  political  and  isiscellaneous  sabjiacts.     Many. 
of  bis  papers  i^re  inserted  in  the  Philosophical  Transaetions 
of  Loiidon ;  and  bi^  essays  have  been  freqnmitly  reprmied 
in  tbi»  country  as  weHasin  America^  and  bai^e,  in  coai«^ 
men  with  his  other  works,  been  translated  into  aevevd 
modern  languages.     A.  complete  edition  of  all  these  vm^ 
{printed  in  London  in   lb06,  in  3  rols.  Svo^  with  <^  Me*- 
moirs  of  his  early  life,  written  by^iknseif,"  to  wbicb  the 
preceding  article  is  in  a  considerable  degree  inddotad; 
Some  of  his  political  writings  arO'  said  to  be  still  withheld 
on  political  grounds,  but  it  is  difficult  to  suppose  that  they 
c9Ln  now  he-  of  much  importance,  as  they  relate  to  a.  con- 
test which  no  longer  agitates  the  minds  e^tbe  public*    : 
'    As  a  philoiiopher  the  distingoisbing  cbaracteriscics.  of 
Frankliu^s  mind,  as*  they  have  been  appreciated  by  a  veey 
judicious  writer,  seem  to  hare  been  a  oleamess  ofappre** 
hension,  and  a  steady  undeviating  common  sense.     We  <do 
not  find  him  taking  unrei^trained  excursiosis  into  the  more 
difficult  labyrinifas  of  philosophical  inquiry^  or  indulging 
in  conjecture  and  hypothesis.     He  i«  in  the  consfcatit  habit 
ipf  referring  to  acknowledged  facts  and  observations^  aiifid 
suggests  the  trials  by  wh^di  his  speculatii^  opinions  jouiy 
be  put  to  the  test^     He  does  not  seek  for  extiaordinary 
occasions  of  trying  bis  philosophical  acumen,    nor  aite 
down   with  the  precohceived   intention    of  constructing 
a  philosophical  system.     It  is  in  the  course  of  bis  iamiiiar 
correspondence  that  he  proposes  his*  new  explanations lof 
phenomena,  and  brings  into  notice  \m  new  discoveriies/'  A 
4juestion  put  by  a  friend,  or  an  accidenta]  occurrence  of 
the  day,  genenaily  form  the  ground-work  of  these  sped»- 
lationsr    They  afro^ak«ii  up  by  the  author  as  the  ordiaai^ 
topics  of  friendly  intercourse ;  they  appear  to  cost- him  no 
Jabour ;  and  are  discussed  without  any  parade^    it'  an;  iii>> 
get^ious  solution  of  a  phenomenon  is  siiggested,  it  ta  iir- 
'troduced  with  as  much  aimplicityas  if  it  were  the  teat 
natural  and  obvious  explanation  that  oould  be /offered ; 
and  the  author  feems  to  value  himself  .so  little  upon  it, 
that  the  reader  is  in  danger  of  estimating  it  below  its  teal 

]?  R  A  N  IC  t  I  N*  <'99 

h^p&cUOite.  If  a  inert  bypodiesis  be  pibpbsed^  tbe  aci« 
tbor  himself  is  the  first  to  point  out  its  insnAciencj,  and 
abandons  k  witb  more  facility  tban  be  had  constructed  it. 
Even  tbe  letters  on  electricity,  which  are  by  ftr  the  most 
•finished  of  FnanlcUn^s  performancesy  are  distinctly  charac- 
terized by  ail  these  peculiarttiia.  They  are  at  first  sug- 
-geated  by  the  acoidenul  present  of  an  eleetric^al  tube  lh)tn 
a  correspondent  in  London ;  Franklin  and  his  friends  are 
ihsensibly  engaged  in  a  course  of  electrical  experiments  ; 
the  results  are  from  time  to  time  comlnunicated  to  the 
London  correspondent ;  several  important  discoveries  are 
AuMie ; '  and  at  length  there  arises  a  finished  and  ingenious 
theory  of  electricity.  On  this  account  the  writings  of 
-franklin  possess  a  peculiar  charm.  Hiey  excite  a  fa« 
irourable  disposition  and  a  friendly  interest  in  tbe  reader. 
The  author  never  betrays  any  exertion,  nor  displays  an' 
unwarrantable  partiality  for  bis  own  speculations;  be  as- 
sumes no^superiority  over  his  readers,  nor  seeks  to  ele* 
vate  tbe  importance  of  his  conceptions,  by  tbe  adventitious 
aid  of  declamation,  or  rhetorical  flourishes.  He  exhibits 
no  false  zeal,  no  enthusiasm,  but  calmly  and  modestly 
eeeks  after  truth ;  and  if  he  fails  to  find  it,  has  no  desire 
to  impose  a  counterfeit  in  its  stead.  He  makes  a  fitmtliar 
Amusement  of  philosophical  speculation ;  and  wbile  the 
reader  thinks  he  has  before  him  an  ordinary  and  unstudied 
letter  to  a  friend,  he  is  insensibly. engaged  in  -deep  disqqi-^ 
altions  of  science,  and  made  acquainted  with  the  ingenious 
aoluttons  of  difficult  phenomena.  Of  Franktitt's  more  pri-^ 
.vate  and  personal  character,  we  have  few  particulars ;  but 
it  is  to  be  regretted  that  in  his  religious  principles  be  was 
nearly,  and  all  his  life,  one  of  the  class  of  free^-thinkers.^ 
.    FKANK8.     SeeFRANCK. 

•  FRANTZIUS  (WoLFOANe),  a  Lutberan  divine,  was 
bom  in  1  $€4  at  Plawee,  in  the  eircle  of-  Voigbtland,  anii 
was  educated  at  Francfort  on  the  Oder.  He  then  removed 
to  Wittember^,  where  in  1596,  he  was  appointed  professor 
«f  bfetory,  md  took  bis  doctor^s  degree indivinrty.  Three 
yeers  after^  he  was  invited  to  be  seperititendant  at  Kenra- 
perg,  atid  i^emained  there  until  1605,  when  be  was  chosen 
divinity  professor  at  Wittembei^«  He  died  suddenly  in 
I62S,  of  a  second^  attack  of  apoplexy.  Among  his  nu-r 
mevoos  works  are,  1.  <' Syntagma  controversiarum  theolo- 

1  Life  prefixed  to  iiis  Works.— HattOD*sDictMnary,  S(c, 

H  2 

lOS  F  R  ]0  D  £  G  A  R  ;  U  S. 

FREDEGARIUS,  called  the  scholastic,  the  earliest 
French  bistoriap  except  Gregory. of  Tours,  flourished  in 
the  seventh  pentury,  and  was  living  in  658.  By  ord^r  of 
.Childebrand,  brother  of  Charles  Mattel,  he  wrote  a  chror 
nicle,  which  extends  as  far  jls  the  yeiir  6^1,  His  style  is 
barbarous,  his  arrangement  defective,  iind  his  whole  nar^ 
rative  too  concise  and  rapid,  but  be  is  the  only  original 
historian  pf  a  part  of  that  period.  His  cbroniQle  is  to.  bj6 
found  in  the  collection  of  French  historians,  published  by 
Duchesne  and  Bouquet.  *  i  •  j; 

FREDERIC  II.  sUrnamed  the  Great,  the  third  king  of 
Prussia^  son  of  Frederic  William  I.  was  horn  Jan.  24,  1712, 
and  educated  iii  sQO^e  measure  in  adversity;  for.  when  he 
began  to  grow  up,  and  discovered  talents  for  poetry^ 
piusic,  and  the  fine  arts  in  general,  his  father,  .fearing  lest 
this  taste  should  seduce  him  from  studies  more  necessary 
to  him  a^  ^  l^ing,  opposed  bis  inclinations,  and  treated 
him  with  considerable  harshness.  In  1730,  when  the 
prince  was  eighteen,  this  disagreement  broke  out;  he 
endeavoured  tp  escape,  was  dis^^overed,  i^nd  thrown  into 
prison^  and  Kat,  a  young  officer  who  was  to  have  attended 
his  flight,  was  e:)^eci| ted  before  his  eyes.  His  marriage  in 
1733^  with  the  princess  of  Brunswick  Wolfenbuttel,  re-? 
iftoried  at  Jje^t  apparent  harmony  in  the  family.  But  in 
\k\s  forced  retirement,  ypung  Frederic  had  .eagerly  culti- 
vated hi$  favQurife  sciences,  which  continued  to  divert  hit 
cares  iu  the.  most;  stormy  and  ^xious  periods  of  his  life. 
|le  ascended  the  throne  in  M|iy  1740,  and  almost  imme*, 
diately  flisplayed  his  ambitious  and  military  dispositions, 
by  demanding  Sile$ia  from  Maria  Theresa,  heiress  of  the 
^mp^ror  Charles  VI.  in  his  Austrian  and  Hungarian  do*- 
minions,.  and  pursuing  his  claim  by  force  of  arms.  The 
eaipeKor  died  October  20,  1740,  apd  Lower  Silesia  hard 
submitted  te  Frederic  in  November  1741.  Ffaneestepr 
ped  fprward  to  support  his  pretensions ;  but  in  June  1742, 
$e  ha^  signed  a  treaty  at  Breslaw,  with  the  queen  of  Hun-r 
gary,  which  left  him  in  possession  of  Silesia  and  the  counter 
Qf  Qlata.  In  .the  ^ring  of  1 744,  either  suspecting  thait 
the  treaty  of  BresW  would  be  broken,  or  moved  Egaiil 
by  i^|;)(ition,  he  took  liirimi  iinder  pretence  of  supporting 
the  Section  of  th^^^n^jp^i^t  Oharles  VII;  and  declared  war 
against  Maria  1^ beresa,  who  refused  to  acknowl€|dge  that 

OnMBSfticoa.  ' 

F  RE  D  E  R  I  CXi  IW: 

priAcQ.  The  war.  was  cofitinued  with  tariouf  ftaeces6»  but  > 
on  the  whole  very  gloriously  for  Frederic,  till  the  Ijjtttejr » 
end  of  174d.  It  was  concluded  by  a  treaty  signed  at 
Dresden  on  Christmas  day,  by  which  the  court  of  Vienna  i 
left  hioi.  in  possession  of  Upper  and  Lower  Silesia  (except- 
ing iiome  districts,  and  the  whole  county  of  Glatz)  on  coa-<. 
dition  that  he  should  acknowledge  Francis  I.  of  Lorraine, 
as  emperor. 

In  L755,  the  contest  between  England  and  France,  con- 
cerning their  American  possessions,  led  those  powers  to> 
sQCtk  allies.  England  made,  alliance  with  Prussia,  an4 
France  with  Austria.  The  boldness  and  decision  of  Fre-» 
clerick's  character  were  now  remarkably  displayed.  Sus- 
pecting a  design  against  him  among  the  continental  pow« 
ers^  and  having  eVen  gained  intelligence  of  a  secret  treaty^, 
in  which  the  kln^  of  Poland,  elector  of  Saxony,  was  con^*. 
cexned,  he  pubbshed  a  strong  manifesto,  and  marched  at 
once  with  a  powerful  army  into  Saxony.  But  the  stated 
of  the  empire,  not  satisfied  with  the  reasons  be  alleged, 
declaired  war  against  him,  as  a  distui*ber  of  the  publid 
peme^  In  1757,  he  found  himself  obliged  to  contend  a|: 
ouce  with  Russia,  tiie  German  empire,  the  house  of 
Austria,  Saxony,  Sweden,  and  France.  The  numerous 
arosies  of  his  enemies  overran  his  whole  dominions ;  yet  loM, 
lactivity  aad  courage  were  ready  in  every  quarter  to  give , 
them  .  battle.  He  .  was  defeated  by  the  Russians,  had 
gained  a  battle  against  the  Austrians,  and  had  lost  another 
in  Bohemia,  by  the  Idth  of  June,  17.57«  But  on  the  5th 
of  November  the  same  year,  he  met  the  Austrians  and  the 
French  at  Rosbach,  on  the  frontiers  of  Saxony,  and  re- 
paired his  former  losses  by  a  signal  victory.  His  geniui 
had  invented  a  new  species  of  military  exercise^  and  his 
enemies  probably  owed  theii:  defeat  to  tbeir  imperfect  at-^ 
tempts  to  imitate  what  his  soldiers  bad  completely  learned. 
Within  a  month  he  bad  gained  another  victory  over  tha 
Austfians  near  Breslaw^  in  consequence  of  which  he.  took 
tbat  city,  with  1 5,000  prisoners,  and  recorered  all  Silesia. 
Throughout  the  war,  with  an  ability  almost  incredible,  he 
gained  so  many  adviantages,  and  recovered  with  such 
promptitude  the  losses  be  sustained^  that  the  prodigious 
force  combined  against  him  was  rendered  ineffectiial.  Peace 
WAS  at  length  concluded,  Feb.  15,  1763,  when  the  pos^ 
^esaoci  of  Silesia  was  confirmed  to  him,  and  he,  bd  his 
part^  promisedbis  suflfage^.  tb^^lectim  of  Joseph,  son 

104  F  R  E  D  E  B  I  C. 

of  the  emperor,  as  king  of  the  Romans*    This^  was  (be 
nk)st  splendid  military  period  of  his  life. 

The  year  1772  was  remarkable  for  giving  a  proof  of  the 
insecurity  of  a  small  country  situated  between  powerful 
neighbours,  in  the  seizure  of  considerable  territories  be- 
longing to  Poland,  pf  which  the  king  of  Prussia  had  his 
share  with  Austria  and  Russia.  The  remainder  of  bis 
reign,  with  very  little  exception,  was  devoted  to  the  arts  of 
peace  ;  and  bis  attention  was  diligently  employed  to  give 
his  subjects  V  every  advantage,  consistent  with  a  despotio 
government,  of  just  laws,  improving  commerce,  and  tbe  , 
cultivation  of  the  arts.  Whatever  were  his  errors  in  opinion 
or  practice,  which  were  both  of  the  worst  kind,  or  liis 
offences  against  other  powers,  he  sought  and  obtained  tlie 
attachment  of  his  subjects,  by  exemplary  beneficence,  and 
many  truly  royal  virtues,  mixed,  however,  with  acts  qf 
extraordinary  caprice  and  cruelty.  He  died  August  17j 
1786,  in  the  seventy-fifth  year  of  his  age. 

Frederic,  like  Csesar,  united  tbe  talents  of  a  writer  wi(h 
those  of  a  warrior.     He  wrote  in  French,  and  was  a.  to-* 
lerable  poet;  but  his  abilities  are  more  displayed  in  hi^tory^. 
His  poem  on  the  art  of  war  is,  however,  valuable,  both 
from  bis  deep  knowledge  of  the  subject,  and  tbe  traits  of 
genius  it  displays.     His  works  compose  altogether  nine- 
«teen  volumes,  8vo.     His  poetical  compositions,  which,  ex* 
cepting  his  poem  on  the  Art  of  War,  consist  chiefly  of 
odes  and  epistles,  passed  through  many  editions  under  the 
title,  of  *^  Oeuvres  melees  du  Philosophe  de  Sans  Souci.'*. 
But  all  the  works  published  in  his  life,  both  in  prose  and 
verse,  w€;re  collected  in  four  vols.  8vo,  in  1790,  under  tW 
title  of  "  Oeuvres  primitives  de  Frederic  IL  Roi  de  Prusse, 
ou  collection  desoui^ragesqu'il  publia  pendant  son  regne.^' 
Of  this  publication,  the  first  volume  contains  his  *^  Anti/r 
Machiavel;   military   instructions  for  tbe   general  of  hia 
army;  and  his  correspondence  with  M.  delaJVIotte  Fpu-. 
quel."    The  second,  his  *f  Memoirs  of  the  Houseof  Bran^ 
denburgh.'^     In  the  third  volume  are  his  poems;. and  iu 
the,  fourth,  a  va;riety  of  pieces  in   prose,  philosophicat,: 
inora],  historical,  critical,  and  (iterary ;. particularly /<  Rer 
flections  on  tbe.  military  talents  apd  character  of  Charley 
XII.  king  of  Sweden ;  a  discourse  on  waf ;  letters  on  edu^ 
nation,  and  on  the  love  of  our  country;,  and -a  di6Coaxae.oo 
German  literature."   His  posthumous  works  had  b#eii  pub-*^ 
Usbed  still  earlier^    They  appeared  at:  Berlin- .in  1734,  iff 


TS  vols.  8iro.  The  two  first  of  these  contain  the  **  tfistory 
of  bis  own  Time,  to  the  year  1745."  The  third  and  foartb» 
his  «  History  of  the  Seven  Years*  War.'*  The  fifth  con- 
tains **  Memoirs  from  the  Peace  of  Hubertsbourg  in  1769, 
to  tbe  Partition  of  Poland  in  1775."  The  sixth  ts  filled 
with  miscellaneous  matter,  particularly  ^<  Considerations 
on  the  present  state  of  the  political  powers  of  Europe/* 
and  '<  an  Essay  on  Forms  of  Government,  and  on  the 
duties  of  Sovereigns.**  The  seventh  and  eighth  volumes 
contain  poetical  pieces,  and  some  letters  to  Jordan  and 
Voltaire.  The  remaining  seven  volumes  continae  his  cor* 
respondenoe,  including  letters  to  and  from  FontenellCy 
Rollin,'  Voltaire,  D*Argens,  D*Alembert,  Cohdorcet,  and 
others.  Of  these  productions  many  are  valuable,  m(^e 
e!$peciaily  his  •*  History  of  his  own  Times,**  wliere,  how- 
ever, he  is  more  impartial  in  his  accounts  of  his  campaigns, 
than  in  assigning  the  motives  for  his  wars,  or  estimating 
the  merits  of  his  antagonists* 

His  **  Memoirs  of  the  House  of  Brandenburg**  are  dis- 
tinguished  by  his  correctness  in  facts,  the  liveliness  of  hid 
portraits,  the  justness  of  bis  reflections^  and  the  vigour  of 
his  style.  The  **  Frederician  Code*'  displays  him  in  the 
light  of  an  able  legislator,  copying  the  Roman  law,  but 
adapting  it  with  skill  to  the  nature  and  circumstances  of 
his  t)wn  dominions.  In  his  lighter  productions  he  was  an 
imitator  of  Voltaire,  whose  friendship  he  long  cultivated^ 
and  whose  irreiigibus  opinions  unhappily  he  too  completely 
imbibed.  The  activity  of  his  mind  was  easily  discerned  in 
the  vivacity  of  his  eyes  and  countenance  :  and  he  was  one 
of  those  extraordinary  men  who  by  an  adroit  and  regular 
piertition  of  their  time,  accompanied  with  strong  spirits  and 
perseverance,  can  pursue  a  variety  of  occupations  Which 
doifnmon  mortals  must  contemplate  with  astonishment^i 
H'ad  be  not  been  a  king,  he  would  in  any  situation  have, 
been  a  very  distinguished  man:  being  a  king,  he  dis-^ 
played  those  talents  which  usually  require  the  retirenstent 
of  private  life  for  their  cultivation,  in  a  degree  of  excel- 
tence  which  his  situation  and  mode  of  life  rendered  not 
less  extraordinary  tlian  those  qualities  which  he  possebs^d 
in  the  highest  perfection. 

As  all  particalars  respe<^ting  a  mah  so  eminent  are  ob- 
jects of  attention,  we  shall  subjoin  the  account  of  his  ha-^ 
fcjitual  mode  of  life,  as  it  is  given  by  the  best  aiithoriti^. 
His  dress  was  plain  in  the  extreine,  and  always  miUtarjr  > 

»«•  F  R:  15  D:  K  R:  i  Ci  . 

a  fewmtinites  eftrlyitiitbemornm^  serfed  blm  ^t«  arfang^ 
it^  «ck1  it  was  never  s^ltet^d  in  tbe  day ;  boots  always  madoi 
a  i^rt  of  it.  Every  moment^  from  6ve  o'clock  in  the  morti-* 
1]^  to  ten  at  nighty  bad  it«  regular  allotment.     His  first: 
employniectt  when  be  arofe,  .waa  to  peruse  all  tbe  papers, 
that  were  addressed  to  lum  from  all  parts  of  his  domipions^.' 
tfa^  lowest  of  hta  subjects  being  allowed  to  write  to  biia^. 
and  c«eftatn  of  an  answer.     Every  proposal  was  to  be  made»; 
and  every  favour  asked  in  writing ;  and  a  single  wocd» 
written  with  a.  pencil,  in  tbe  margin^  informed  bis,secte*- 
taries  vvbat  answer  to  return.     This  expeditioAis  method^ 
excluding  all  verbal  discussion,  saved  abundance  of  tiniev: 
and  enabled  the  king  so  well  to  weigh  his  favours,  that  be 
waa  seldom  deceived  by  his  naioiaters,  and  seldom  assented 
pr  denied  improperly,  .  About,  eleven  o^clock  tbe  king  ap-»< 
penred  in  bis  garden,  and  reviewed  his  regiment  of  guarda^^ 
which  was  done  at  the  san^.  hour  by  all  the  colonels  in  bia* 
provinces.     At  twelve  precisely,  be  dined ;  and  usual^ 
invited  eight  or  nine  officers.    At  table  he  discarded  all 
etiquette,  in  hopes  of  making  eonversatinn  free  and  equal  ;\ 
bui»  though  bis  own  bons-mois  and  liveliness  offered  ^1  ther 
encouragement  in  his  powei*,  this  is  an  advantage  that  an 
absolute  monarch  cannot  easily  obtain.    Two  hours  aftec 
dinner  Frederic  retired  to  his  study,  where  be  amused  him^^t 
sdf  in  composing  verse  or  prose,  or  in  the  cultivation  o€ 
some  branch  of  literature.    At  seven  commenced  a  privatt^ 
concert,  in  which  he  played  upon  tbe  flute  with  the  skill 
of  a  professor;  and  frequently  had  pieces  rehearsed  which 
bebad  composed  himself,     Tbe.concert  was  followed  by  a 
supper^  to  which  few  were  admitted  eiccept  literary  meih 
and  .philosophers}  and  the  topics,  of  conversation  weie 
auited  to  such  a  party.    As  he  sacrificed, many  of  his  owa 
gvatificatioB&  to  tbe  duties  of  royalty,  be  exacted  a  severoi 
aecojunt  from  officers,  and  all  who  held  any  places  under 
him.    But  in  many  things  he  was  indulgent^  and  particui^ 
]arly  held  all  caluopy  in  so  much  contempt,  that  he  suf-t 
fered  «ome  of  tbe  «io^.  scurrilous  writers  to  vent  Jtb^ 
viaJice  with  impunity.     ^^  It. is  my  business^''  said  be,/^  to 
do  tbe  duties  of  my  stakioqr^  .and  to  lert  malevolenm  say 
what  it  will."  * 

FREGOSO,  or  FULGOSO  (Baptist),  of  tbe  andent 
Isimily  of  Fregoao>  was  the  son; of  Peter  Fregoso,  who  waf, 


1  Towvrs'g  USi  9f  Frc4«ri<<»T:1'l^i«l^vl^-'  Antedate;!  of  Fr«ikric  the  Grest."»> 
t)ict.  Hist. 

F  R  I  G  O  8  O.  lOT 

rieeted  ^Dge  6f  Genoa  in  1450,  aiid  ariived  faiiptelf  d 
t^at  honour  in  JNov.  1479*  His  arbitravy  conduct,  hoiv^ 
eyeff  assisted  the  ambitioiit  deiigoa  of  his  uncle  Paul^ 
archbishop  of  Genoa,  Who  proouted  him  to  be  deposed  in 
1483,  atid  himself  to  be  elected  in  bia  stead.  Baptist  was 
tium  banished  to  Treg^ui.  When  he  died  is  not  known* 
He  amused  himself  in  his  exile  by  writing  rarions  works, 
limong  which  was  a  aollection  of  ^Meoiorable  Actions 
add.  Ss^yings,'^  addressed  to  his  son  Peter,  and  contain* 
ing  soflfie  particulars  of  bis  own  life»  Vosaius  has']ni«>> 
properly  classed  him  among  Latin  historians,  on  aeconnt 
of.  this  work,  which  was  written  iii  Itslian,  but  lie  had  pro^ 
bably  eeen  only  Ghiiini's  translation,  published  under  the 
title  '^^  Batistas  Fu^osi*  de  dietia  factisque  memorabiltbuili 
coHectanea  a  Camillo  Ghilino  Lattna  facta,  Hbri  norem,** 
JMUUn^  1508,  fol.  and  often  reprinted  at  Paris,  Basil,  Ant«< 
iiperp,  &c»  in  Bvo.  The  best  editions  are  those  of  Paris^ 
14^19,:  and  .li;85,  8ve^. which  haiv^  additions  by  Gaillard, 
Ffegoso  0lso  wrote  <' La  vita  dt  Martino  V."  pope,  bot  it 
doe.^'  nbt  appear  whether  it  was  published ;  and  **  Oe  Fce^- 
ininis  ^o«e  dootriha  excelloeront,^^  which  appeal^  to  hai^ 
beea  taken  from  bis  **  Diota,".  and  inserted  in  a  coUeccioii 
respecting  learned  kdiea  by  Raviskis  Textor,*  Piris,  1531^ 
foi^  'The- only  remaining  publication  of  his  was  a  treatise 
against  ^ove,-  entitled  ^^Adteim."  *  This  is  one  of  th^ 
earliest  printed  books,  bearing  date  Milan,  1496,  accord^ 
ing  to  Clemeht,  b«t  Niceron  says  i4Mi  ^ 

fREHER  (MARauAap),  a  GeroMm,  was  descended  fwm 
a  learned  family,  and  born-  at  Augsinirg,  July  06,  1565: 
He  went  into  France  Very  young,  to  study  the  civil  lair 
under  Cnjactus ;  yet  paid  so  much  atlentiea  to  history  ^nd 
criticism,  that  he  became  eminent  in  both.  When  he  wai 
sctMTceiy  thre^aiid  twenty,  he  was  chosen  among  the  coun- 
sellors of  Casimir,  prince  of.  Palatine^  aod^the  ydar  aftdt 
made  professor  of  law  at  Heidelberg,  where  be  lived  la 
friendship  with  Letnudavins,  SyHmrgios,  Opsopesus,  th^ 
younger  Doubs,  and  other  learned  men  of  his  time.  Some 
little  time  aft^,  be  resigned  his  professor's  chairs  and  was 
takea  itito  ibe  most  Important  cnaploymeiits'by  the  eteeiot 
Frederic  IV.  This  prince  made  him  Tice-president  of  his 
GOttrtyjand.  sent  him  in  quality  of  ambassaddr  to  aevertl 
places.    In  the  midst  of  these  occupations  he  n«ver  inter* 

1  NiceroD,  tsI.  IX  sad  Xt^-CtemeBl  BibL  Ottrteiist. 

lOS  F  R  E  H  E  R. 

nitted  bis  usual  method  of  ^todyttng ;  and  \^ot^  a  p^Hkt 
many  works  upon  critictsm,  law,  and  history,  ttm  bisioTy 
of  tm  own  country  in  paiticukr.  When  we  view  the  cmii- 
logue.of  them  given  by  Malchior  Adam,  we  are  reiidy  to 
iaiagine  that  he  must  have  Hve^  a  ve^y  long  Kfe,-  liii^^ 
hardly  have  done  any  thing  but  write  bodks ;  yet  he  ^ikkl 
hi.  bis' forty-ninth  year,  May  13,  1614.  Douza  says*  tb^ 
he  seems  to  have  be^n  bom  for  the  advaneemefit  of  f)otil^ 
iiterature :  and  Thuaous  acknowledges  that  it  wonid  be 
difficuit  to  find  bis  equal  in  a)i  Germany.  Casattbon  c^s 
iiim  a  man  of  prirfound  and  universal  knowledge  i  ajMi 
JScioppius  say^i  tliat  be  joined  great  actitenes^t  to  an  iiii5r^- 
4ible  depth  of  learning.  Add  to  this,  that  bewasp^i^-* 
lectly  skilled  in  coins,  medals,  statues^  antiques  of^atl 
ffortS)'  and  could  paint  very  well.  His  moral  qnalities'are 
described  as  not  inferior  to  his  intellectual ;  so  that  MeK 
phior  Adam  seems  justly  to  have  lamented^  that  a  man  #bo 
deserved  so  much  to  be  immortal,  should  have  died  so 
soon.  His  principal  works  are,  '1;  '^Origtnes  Palatihae>^ 
fol.  2.  ^^  De  Inquisitionis  {Mocessu,-*  16>9^,  4to.  8.^  f^e 
«e  monetaria  veteriim  Ilomanor^m9  &e.**  Leydeii,  iWB^ 
.4to,  inserted  by  Grscrvhis  in  \0\.  PL  of  his  Retonan'Anti- 
qqities.  4.  ^f  Kemm  Bohemiearum  scriptores,"  Hiana^, 
1602,  fol.  5.  <<  Reram  Germanicarum  scriptores,"  fol. 
3  vols.  1600 — 1611,  reprint^  in  1717.  6;  **  Corpus  hts- 
xorisB  ErancisB,"  f<J.  &c.  S 

Paul  Feeher,  author  of  the  very  ttsefal  ^Tbeatmto 
yiroriifh  erudi'tione  singulari  clarorum,^^  Nbrib<  l^BB{  ^ 
vols,  fol^'  was  of. this  family*  ^  Of  him  we  have  no  aocouiht, 
ei^cept  that  he  was  a  physician  of  Noriberg,  where  he  was 
born  in  16 11,  and  died  in  161^2,  The  work  was  prepared 
for  the  press  by  a  nephew.^  »    - 

.  FBEIGIUS,  OF  FEEY  <Joiin  Tsomas^,  a  German, ^ho 
acquired  great  reputation  by  his  learned  labours,  was  h^ftn 
at  Friburg  in  the  16th  ccfUury ;  his  father  being  a'hoi- 
bandman,  who  lived  near  Basil.  He  studied  -  the  iaw^'iu 
;  bis  .native  country  under  Zaaius,'.  and  bad  likewise^  H^en¥y 
Glareen  and  Peter  Ramus  for  his  masters^)  He  wasstrohgly 
attached  to  the  principlea and*  method  of  Ramms.  Befifst 
.  ttftugbt  at  Friburg,  and  afterwards  at  Basil ;  but,  fitting 
!himself  not. favoured  by  fortune,  he  was  going  to  disen^sjge 

.•■■-.-.•      V    ... 
1  Moreri    in  Marquard. — Melchior  Adam.— Freheri  'fhieatrttiD,r'Nic«ron« 
vol. XXi,— Bailleti  Jt^semeos dei ^rtiju, -       ^  ^     < ,. 


J^itaself  iioia  the  r«puUic  of  letUrs^  and  to  turn  peasant. 
While  be  V9^$  medua^ag  upon  this  plan,  ib^  senate  of  Ntt- 
recubergy  u  the  desire  of  Jerom  Woifius^  offered  him  die 
fiectqrabip  of  tbe  uew  cpUege  at  Ailorf ;  of  which  place  lie 
.took  po6ses^qn  ia  November  157#.    He  discharged  the 
duties  of  it  with  great  aeal,  explaining  tbe  historians,  poets, 
Jastiuian's  insritutea,  &c.     He  returned  to  Basil,  and  died 
4here  of  tbe  plague  in  1583,  which  disorder  had  a  little 
before  deprived  him  of  a  very  promising  sou  and  two 
danghtecs.     One  of  tbe  latter  was,  it  seems,  a  very  ex- 
traordiaary  young  lady  ;  for,  as  he  tells  us  in  the  dedica>- 
tion  to  his  elegies,  or  ^^  Liber  Tristiuro,*'  though  scarce 
.twelve  years  old,  she  had  yet  made' such  a  progress  to  tbe 
Latin  and  Greek  grammars,  and  tbe  rudimeots  of  other 
.aeiences,  that  she  could  translate  out  of  her  mother  tongue 
into  LatiAi  decline  and  conjugate  Greek,  repeat  tbe  Lord's 
Pcayw  in  Hebrew,  ^d  soao  verses  :  she  understood  addi- 
'ttioi}  and  subtraction  io  arithmetic,  could  sing  by  note, 
sod  play. 09  the  lute.  And. lest  bis  reader  should  conclude 
Ivom  benof,  that,  she  had  none  of  those  qualities  which 
moke  her  sex. useful  as  well  as  accomplished,  be  calls  her 
in  the  aame  place,  ^*  Oeeonomi^  me»  fidelem  adminifitram 
tet  dispensairioem,**  that  is,  a  very  mtable  housewife. 
,    Freigiua  pobUsbed  a. great  number  of  books ;  among  the 
ve$t,  *\  Qu»stioiies  Geometric^  et  StereometricsB  ;*'  a  sup- 
plement to  the  history  of  Paulus  JEmilius  and  Ferron,  as 
jfar  IMS  tbe  year  15^,     <<  Logica  Coasultcwum  :*'  a  L^tin 
^traoalatiou  of  Frobisluer's  voyages,?  and- of  the  African  wars, 
in  which  Don  Sebastian,  king  of  Portugal,  lost  bis  life. 
V  Cieeroois  Orat«>fies  perpeluis  notis  logicis,   aritb^ie- 
Jticis,  etbicis,  politiiQisi  historkia,  illustratue,*'  S  vols.  8vo, 
at  Basil,   1583.' 

FREINO  (John),  a  learned  English  physician,  was  born 
ia  JQ75,  at  Croton  in.  .Northamptonshire^  of  which*  parish 
hia  father,  WilUam  Freind,  a  man  of  great  learning,  piety, 
and  integrity,  was  rector,  and  where  he  died  in  16€3.  He 
was.  sent  to  Westmioster  school,  with  his  elder  brother 
..Robert,  and .  put  under  tbe  care  of  the  celebrated  Dr. 
Busby.  He  was  thence  elected  to  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 
in.  1690,  over,  which  Dr.  Aldrich  at  that  time  presided  $ 
a^  under  hi^  auspicses  undertook,  in  conjunction  with 
another  young  man,  IVlr.  Foulkes,  to  publish  ao  edition  of 

^  Qto.  Pict,-— Morcri.-— j^xii  OnoAlKst. 

(lio  fit  e  t  N& 


well  re<iei ved)  und  bts  sinoe  hten  teprint^dit    A4><Mi«  the 
'ftame  time  be  w«t  preirailed  upon  to  revise  the  DelpMn 
oditioti  o(  Ond*fi  Metamorpkoses^  imprinted  in  Bto^  9it 
'Oicford,  in  1696,  wtiieh  Dr.  Bontley  has  seirerely  ciitlc^^; 
'Mr.  Freind  was  director  of  Mr.  Boyle*s  studieif,  ahd  wiM6 
the  Exaofinaiioii  of  Dr.  Bentley's  Dissertatidn  on  Xw^p-j 
^hieh  may  acooont  for  that  great  dritic'd  »peakfffg'iii<]r6 
^irespectfally  of  his  talents  tlMujtistfce  required.^    - 
•     Hitherto  he  bad  been  employed  in  reading  the  pd^ts; 
orators,  and  btMorians  of  antiquity^  by  wbieb'he  bad  mad^ 
•hiiBBelf  a  perfect  master  iil  tbe  Greek  langoage,  aild-had 
^acquired  a  gr^at  faeili^  of  writing  el^ant  Latin,  in  verse 
as  well  as  prose.     He  now  began  to  apply  himself  to'pby*- 
«ic  s   and  hid  flmt  care,  as  we  are  told,  was  to  digest 
-thoroughly  the  true  and  rational  principle^  of  natural  phi" 
losophy,  chemistry)  a^  anatoany,  to  which  he  added  a 
«aufficient  acquaintance  with  the  matbematicsi    Tb^  Arst 
public  specimen  tfaat  h^  gave  of  his  abilities  in  tl)^  way-of 
hh  profession  was  in  1699,  when  he  wroteaietterto  iDK 
(afterwards  sir)  HansSloane,  concerning  an  hydrocepbahis, 
or  watery  head;  and,  in  (70 1,  another  letter  in  Latin  to 
the  same  gentleman,  ^^  De  Spasm!  rarioris  Historia,^*  or 
concerning'  some  extraordinary  cases  of  persons  afflicted 
-wi^h  convulsions  in  Oxfordshire,  which  at  that  time  madd 
H  very  great  noise,  and  might  probably  have  been  mftgni^ 
lied  into  something  snpematural,  if  our  author  had  tiol 
•taken  great  pains  to  set  them  in  a  true  light     It  seems  A 
•little  strange    that   these  letters  should  not   have  been 
thongbt  worthy  of  a  place  in  the  collection  of  his  inedic&l 
works;  they  may  be  foand,  however,  in  the  "  Philoso^ 
phical  Transactions,"  the  former  being  Nb.  256,  for  Sep* 
tember,  1699,  the  latter  No.  970,  for  March  and  Apiril, 
<170l.     Mr.  Freind  proceeded  M.  Av  in  April  1701,  and 
B.  M.  in  June  of  the  same  year. 

Being  new  well  known  and  distinguished,  Freind  began 
to  meditate  larger  works.  He  observed  that  Sanotorins^ 
Borelli,  and  Baglivi^  in  Italy,  and  Pitcairne  aiid  Keil  here 
At  home,  had  introduced  a  new  and  more  certain  nietbod 
of  investigating  medical  troths  than  had'  been  formerly 
known ;  and  he  resolved  to  apply  this  way  of  reasoning^ 
in  order  to  set  a  certain  subject  of  grfeat  impori^nce,  of 
daily  use,  and  general  concern,  about  wb^ch  the  learned 
ba>'e  always  been  divided,  in  such  a  light  as  might  put  an 

IBHtKa  Itt 

^A  to  dispute*.  Tbis  he  did  hy  pttbliBliing^  ia  110$^ 
**  £tnoienolOf$ia :  in.  qua  fluxus  muliebris  menslrui  pb»<» 
nomena,  periodic  vitia^  cuiii  medeadi  methodo,  ad  ratiooet 
mecbanioas  exiguDtar/'  Svo,  This  work,  which  ia  founded  . 
ott  the  principles  of  the  mechanic  sect  of  physicians,  wh<^ 
ibea  floumbed  under  the  aaspices  of  Baglivi  and  otbors^ 
though  at.  first  it  met  some  opposition,  and  was  then  aa<l 
afterwards  animadverted  upon  by  several  writers,  has  aU 
ways  been  reckoned  an  excellent  performance;  and  is,  as 
all  our  author's  writing^  are,  admirable  for  tlvr  beauty  of 
itji  style,  the  elegant  disposition  of  its  parts,  its,wonderiiil 
succinctness,  and  at  the  same  time  perspicuity,  and  lor 
the  happy  concurrence  of  learning  and  penetration  Visible 
through  the  whole. 

.  In  1 704  he  was  chosen  professor  of  chemistry  at  Oxford  $ 
and,  the  year  after,  attended  the  earl  of  Peterborough  in 
Jiis  Spanish  expedition,  as  physician  to  the  army  there,  in 
which  post  he  continued  near  two  years.  From  thence  be 
made  the  tour  of  Italy,  and  went  to  Rome,-  as  well  for  the 
take  of  seeing  the  •  antiquities  of  that  city,  as  for  tbe 
pleasure  of  visiting  and  conversing  with  Baglivi  and  Lan* 
cisi,  physicians  then  in  the  zenith  of  theif  repuutiou.  On 
his  return  to  England  ia  1707,  he  found  the  character  of 
bis  patron  very  rudely  treated  ;  and,  from  a  spirit  of  gra* 
titude,.  published  a  defence  of  him,  entitled  <<  An  Accouiu 
of  the  earl  of  Peterborough's  Conduct  in  Spain,  chiefly 
ai^e  the  raising  .the  siege  of  Barcelona,  170$;''  to  which 
is  added,.  ^^  The*  Campaign  of  Valencia.  With  original 
|>aper8,  1707,"  $vo.  This  piece,  relating  to  party -mat* 
^ers,  made  a  gr^it  noise,  some  loudly  commending,  others 
as  loudly  conilemning  it ;  so  that  a  third  edition  of  it  wai 
published  in  .1703.  .  < 

.;  In  1707  he  was  created  doctor  of  physic  by  diploma* 
In  1709  he  published  his  ^<  Prsslectiones  CbymicsB:  in 
quibus  oinnes  fere  operationes  chymicse  ad  vera  principia 
et  ipsius  naturae  leges  rediguntur^  anno  1704,  Oxonii,  in 
Musaeo  Asbmoleano  habitss/'  These  lectures  are  dedi-; 
(;ated  to  sir  Isaac  Newton,  and  are  nine  in  number,  besides 
three  tables.  They  were  attacked  by  the  German  philo* 
aqphers,  who  were  greatly  alarmed  at  the  new  principles  -^ 
and  therefore  the  authors  of  **  Acta  Eruditorum,^  in  1710, 
prefixed  to  their  account  of  them  a  censure,  in  which  they 
trtiated  the  principles  of  the  Newtcniian  philoi»ophy  as  fig^ 
munts,'  and  the  metbod  of  arguing  made  usQ  of  in  these 

m  r.R  £  I  N  D. 

lectures  as  absurd;  betauae,  iu  their  opinioii^  it tMJIecl 
to.  recall  occult  qualities  in  philosophy.  To  thb  groendleiW 
charge  ,aa  answer  was  given  by  Freindy  which  was  puMisfaed 
iii  Latid,  in  the  '^  Philosophical  Transactions,"  aodaddedf 
Ixy  way  of  appendix,  to  the  second  edition  of  the  **  Prae^- 
leetiooes  ChymicsB/*  Both  the  answer  and  the- book  haf« 
been  translated,  and  printed  together  in  English.     .  * 

'■  In  1711  Dr.>  Freind  was  elected  a  member  of  the  royal 
society,  and  the  same  year  attended  the  duke  of  Oraioed 
into  Flanders,  as  bis  physician.     He  resided  mostly  afser 
}iis  return,  at  London,  and  gave  himself  up  wholly  to  tbtf 
cares  of  his  profession  ^.     In  17 16  he  was  chosen  a  k^M^. 
of  the  ccdlegeof  pbjfsicians,  and  the  same  year  published- 
the  first  and^bird  books  of  '^  Hippocrates  de  oiorbis  popuf 
laribus,**  to  which  he  added,  a  '^Commentary  upoii.fe*. 
vers,"  divided  into  nine  short  dissertations.    This  very 
learned  work  was  indecently  attacked  by  Dr.  Woodward^ 
professor  of  physic  in  Gresbamcollege^.in  his  '^  State  of 
Physic  and  of  Diseases,  with  an  enquiry  into  the  causes  of 
the  late i increase. of  them,  but  more  particularly  of  ibe« 
Small-ppx,  &c.  1718,'*  8vo:  and  here  was.  laid  the  fouo>r 
dationof  a  dispute,  which  was  carried  on  with  great  Bcti*' 
mooy  and  violence  on  both  sides.    Parties  were  formed 
under  these  leaders,  and  sevend  pamphlets  were  written^ 
Fceind  supported  his  opinion  *^  concerning  the  advantage 
of  purging  in  the  second  fever  of  the  confluent  hind  of 
small-pox'*  (for  it  was  On  this  aingle. point  that  the  dilute 
chiefly  turned)  in  a  Lsitin  letter  addressed  to  Dr.  Mead 
in  1719,  and  since  printed  among  hsa  worka^     He  was 
likewise  supposed  to  be  tlte 'author  of  a  pamphleti  entitled 
•^  A  i^etter  to  the  learned.  Dr.  Woodward,  by  Dr.  Byfield^^ 
in  17 IP,  in  wbich  Woodward  is  rallied  with  great  spmt  • 
and  address ;  for  Freind  made  no  aerions  answer  to  Wood^* 
ward^s  book,  but  contented  himself  with  ridiculing  hisian'^  * 
tagonist  under  the  name  of  a  celebrated  empyric*    !n^l7  IT 

*  In  \'t\3  l)r.  Freind  was  probably  I  am  told  is  Tery  abia  in  bis  ppHjfessicm* 

in  Irefond,  where  the  dnke  of  Shrews-  1  am  quite  ignorant  where  be  dengiis 

bary,w»s  tbe&  lord  lieutenaiKf  a«id  had»  to  retkie,  or  what  be  intends  lb  do^  i*ot 

it  would  appear.,  applied  to  lord  Bo-  having  these  several  moeibs  bad  j|py-  \ 

lingbroke  in  bis  behalf.     His  lordship  conversation  with  bim,  but  I  bear  ^e 

says  in  bis  answer/  dated  Deei  0  of  is  gone  to  attend  your  grace.-   Wtfen  1  * 

that  ycMir,  <<  As  to  Dr.  Freiud)  |  liare  bear  again  ih»t tit  is  ypurgrtfie^  piB^ 

known  bim  long,  and  cannot  be  with-  sure  I  should  do  so»   I   will  not  f^l    • 

out  some  partiality  for  bim,  since  be  to  speak  to  the  queen  in  the  manner  ~ 

was  o€.jChrist  Cbttreb.     He  has  taecel-  .you  direcL    I  am,  &c.  BoLtNeatHixs.^ 

letit  parts^  is  a  thorough  scholar,  and  «^Bohogbroke>s  Letters^  by  Pari^«  ,. 

f*  R  E  r  N  b.  ih 

n€riidS,  the  GtiUtbhian  lecture  in  lhec6l\6g4  of'physiciariV*; 
*^nd;  1W172Q',  spoke  the  H*arveian  oration;  wHicH  was  it- 
terwai^l  published.  In  1722  he  was  elected  into' parlia- 
meht  for 'Liu n Weston  iri  Cbrnwall ;  and  acting  in  His  sta- 
tv6u  ?is  ^  s^iiator  with  that  warmth  and  freedom  which  was 
Tiatiiiral  to  him,  he  distinguished  himself  by  some'  abl6 
speeches  ag^nst  measures  which  he  disapprovcjcl.  fle  was 
supposed  to  have  a  hand  in  AtterburyV  jilot.  as  it  <tas 
then  called,  fo^  the'restoration. of  the  Stuart*  family;  ^nd 
having'  been  also  one  of  thtJ  speakers  in  favbW  of  A  tter- 
bury,  thi&  di^ew  upon  him  so  much  resentment,  that^  the 
Viftbeas  Corpus  act  being  at  that  time  suspended^  i|e  was^ 
Mareii  15,  1722-3,  committed  to  the  Tower.  He  cou- 
titfued  a  prisoner  there  till  June  21,  when  he  was  admitted 
%o  bail;  hiir  sureties  being  Dr.  Mead,  Dr.  Hulse,  Dr.  Leveti 
and  Dr.  Hale;  ahd  afterwards,  in  November,  v^as  dis- 
charged fro'm  Ms  ri^cogni^nce.  Dr.  Mead*s  princely  cori- 
dfactdu  this  occasion'  must  not  be  forgotten-  Vhxeh  called 
to  attend  sir  Robert  Walpdle  in  sickndss,  hd  refused' to 
IMrescribe  until  Dr.  Freind  Was  set  at  liberty,  arid  afier- 
war'ds  pr^^nted  Dr.  Freind  with  5000  guineas,  which  he 
i»ad  received  in  fees  frotnbis  (Dr.  Freind's)  patients. 

^Tbe  teisure  afforded  hirii  by  this  confinement  was  not  so 
tnuch  .distOrbed  by  uneasy  thought*  and  apprehensions^ 
bti^:tbat  Be  eduld  emjifloy  bittiself  iti  a  manh^  sukable  to  - 
hih  abilities  and  profession  ;  and  accordirigly  tfe  wfbte 
^nothek*  letter  in  Latin  tb  Dr.  Mead,  "concerning  some^ 
parfctcfular  kind  of  Smali-pdx.**  Here'also  he  kid  the  plan 
of.bts  Iti^t  aiVd  most  elaborate  work,  <*  The  History  of 
Physic*^  -from  the  time  of  Galen  to  the  beginning  of  the 
sjjrteenth  cefttury,  chiefly  with  re*gard  to  pracllce:  in  a 
dtscrourse  written  to  Dri  Mead.*'  The  first  part  was  ptub^t 
lisbed  in  1725;  the  second,  the  year  following.  This  work, 
tliaugh  justly  deemed  a  masterly  performance,  both  for 
use  and  elegance,  did  not  escape  censure;  but  was  ani- 
madverted upon  both  at  home  and  abroad ;  at  hom6  by  sir 
CIW%On'^%tringhattt,  in  an  anonymous  tract, \*^  Obser- 
vations, oh  Dr.  Freind*s  History  of  Physic,  &c."  1726,  and" 
by  Jdhn'L^  Clerbiti  the"  Bibliothec|ue  Ancienne  et  Mp- 
deVne^**  buti^s  repiits^tioA  sufFefed  very  little  b^  either. 

SOQif  after  t^e  obtained  his  liberty  he  was  made  physician 

to  the  prlntp*  of  Waf^s ;  and,  on  that  priri6e*s  accession  to 

the  tbrciue  as  George  11.  became  phystcian  to  the  queen, 

i^ho  ^lofidured  hioi'V^ith  a  share  of  b^  cc^fidea'ce  and 

Vol.  XV.  I 

114  F  Jl  £  I  N  D. 

esteem.  .« Very  early .  in  1727-8,  bishop-  Attefbucy..  ad* 
dressed  to  Dr.  Freiiid  his  celebrated  '^  Letter  on  the  Cha? 
racter  of  Japis/'  of  whom  be  justly  considered  this  learned 
jpbysician  to  be  the  modern  prototype*  But  whatever 
opinion  he  entertained  of  bis  professional  abilities^  it  apr 
pears  from  ^^  Atterbury's  Correspondence^'  that  he  bad 
some  reason  to  regret,  if  not  resent,  Dr.  Freind's  becom* 
ing  a  favourite  at  court,  and  as  Mr.  Morice  informs  us» 
*'  an  absolute  courtier."  Dr.  Freiwd  did  not,  hoyvever, 
long  enjoy  ^his  favour,  but  died  of  a  fever,  July  26,.  1728, 
in  bis  fifty-second  year.  Their  majesties  expreti^ed  tbe 
utmost  concern  at  his  death,  and  settled  a  pension  upon 
bis  widow,  Anne,  eldest  daughter  of  Thomas.  Morice^  esq. 
paymaster  of  the  forces  in  Portugal.  .  Dr.  Freind  married 
this  lady  in  i709,  and  by  her  had  an  only  son,  John,  who 
was  educated  at  Westminster  school,  and  became  after- 
wards a  student  at  Christ  Church  iu  Oxford..  He  died  In 
1752,  unmarried.  Dr.  Freind  was  buried  at  Hitcbam  in 
Buckinghamshire,  near  which  he  bad  ^  seat ;  but  there  ia^ 
a  monument  erected  to  him  in  Westminster-abbey^  with. a 
suitable  inscription.  He  had  himself  rendered  the  like 
kind  oiKce  to  more  than  one  of  his  friends,  being  peculiarijf 
happy  in  this  sort  of  composition ;  for  the  inscriptioiv.ou 
the  monument  of  Sprat,  bishop  of  Rochester,  was  from 
bis  pen;  but  that  on  Philips,  which  had  been  ascribed. to 
bbuj  is  since  ascertained  to  be  by  Atterbury,.  pr»,Wigan 
{mhlisthed  his  Latiq  works  together  at.  London,  iu  1733> 
in  .folio,,  adding  to  them  a  translation  of  his  ^^  History  of 
Physic'^  into  the  same  language^  with  an  excellent  historic 
cal  preface;  and  to  the  whole  is  prefixed  an  elegant  d^* 
ilication  to  his  royal  patroness. the  late  qu^en^^  by  \\\&  bro* 
tber  Dr.  Robert  Freind.    His  wprks  were  reprinted  ,at 

Pjiris  in  1735,  4to.  

.  Dr.  Freind,  in  bis  last  will,  dated  March  1:2,  1727,,  di-* 
i^ects  all  his  pictures  to  be  sold  (except  those  of  his  wife» 
bis  don,  the  bishop  of  Rochester  and  his^on,  andhis^ewn 
brother)..  ^He  gives  100/.  a.  year  to  hts  brotber^JVilliaint 
and  1 000/.  to  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  to  found,  an  Anato- 
mical lecture.  The  greater  part  of  his  fortune. be  be* 
queathed  to  his  nephe^v  William,  spn  to  his  brother .  Ko- 
..bert.  His  widow  died  in  Sept.  1737.  The  manor  of 
Hitcham  was  purchased  by  the  Freinds  in  1700^  jand  c6n« 
tinned  in  that  family  until  the  death  of  Robert  Freind,  esq.' 
Jan.  2^,  1780^  soon  after  which  it  was  purchased  by  the 

FiRririNix  lis 

pMti^ot  lord  Greoville,  «fho'  bus  a  home  in  'stliat  Migh*^ 
boiHrbood.     .  " 

Tbere  is  liltle  oeoasioa  to  <)uote  authorities  in  firaue  of 
DriiFreind,  whose  workr  are/  a  lanting  testimony  of  bis 
iH^eoRiQ^on  abtiUies  iti  his  profession.  He  was  net  only 
venerated  in  this  coantry,  but  on  the  continent^  by  ytoii 
iiuun>  Helvetiusy  Heoqnet,  and  B^oerbaave.  •  His^bars^ter 
is  perbaps  drawn  with  most  fidelity  and  elegance  by  titi 
Edward  Wilmot  in  the  Harveian  oration  of  i735;  ^ ' 

FREIND  (Robert),  eldest  brother  of  the  precediiig; 
was  bom  in  1667,  and  admitted  in  1680  at  Westminster 
sehool,'  wfaeoce  he  was  elected  to  Christ  Chifreb,  Oxfoird» 
in-l6M.     While  a*  student  there  he  wrote  sooie  good 
veiMs  on  the  inauguration  of  king  William  and  queen 
Mary,  which,  wc^re  printed  in  the  Oxford  collection.     In 
the*  celdita^d  dispute  between  Bentley  and  Boyle,  Mr. 
Freind.  was  a  warm  partisan  for  the  honour  of  his  college, 
butrWas^eTetttually  more  lucky  with  Bentley  than  big  bro- 
'ther^  Dr.<John.    A  neiceof  our  author's  was  married  to 
meon  of  Dr.  Bentley,  who,  after  that  event,  conceived  a 
better  opinion  of  the  Christ  Church  men,  and  declared 
^Itbat  •<<  Freind  had  more  good  learning  in  him  than  ever  be 
had  imagined.'*   Mr.  Freind  proceeded  M.  A.  June  1, 1693, 
keoame'seeondmaster  of  Westminster  school  in  1699,  and 
^oenmiiiated  the  degrees  of  B.  and  D.  D.  July  7,  1709.   In 
1711  he  published  a  sermon  preached  before  the  house  of. 
eoinalons^  Jan.  ^O,  1710*11,  and  in  the  same  year  he  sne- 
ee^ded'Duke,  the  poet,  in  the  valoabte  living  of  Witney, 
in  O'Xfordriiire ;  became  bead  master  of  Westminster  school, 
and  is  said  either  to  have  drawn  up,  or  to  have  revised  the 
j^reamble  to  the  earl  of  Oxford's  'patent  of  peerage.    In 
%jVbireh  1723,  the  day  after  *his  brother,  Dr.  John,  was  com- 
mitted to  tbe  Tower,  be  caused  much  speculation  in  West- 
-  ininster  sehool  and  its  vicinity,   by  giving  for  a  theme, 
^  Prater,  ne  desere  Fratrem.'^     In  1724  he  pubKshed  Ci- 
eeno's  ^^  Orator,"  and  in  172S«Mr.  Bowyer,  tli^  celebrated 
printer^  waa  indebted  to  him  for  theWes^iAinster  verses 
en  the'coronation  of  George  II.   In  April  1729,  Dr.  Freind 
obtained  a  canonry^  -  of  Windsor, ,  which  in  1 79 1   be  ex- 
rel^anged  for  a  prebend  of  Westminster,  and  in  1733  he 
•  .quitted  Westminster  school     In  1784  be  was  desirtas  df 
resigtiing  Witney  to  his  son  (afterwards  dean  of  Canter- 

:. \ '  Bkv.  Snt.-»Ward'ft  OijmImiib  Profei9on.-^NMhol«*s  Attttbory,  tnA  Bowyer, 


hfityh  bi»«.€<Hll(l  i^t  4)q  it^  witbolit  i^  ptnmsMi  of1riilNf|^ 
Hoadly,  which  be  had  little  reason  to  expects  (^  iqifitl-* 
t/|t»o|i^  'bQ«vev^<»  td  thai  prelatr^i  Lbipngh  queen  OtMRne 
and  lady  Sniidot^  be  received  tbtt  iaconte  unwrntsff  *^  If 
Prw  Freind  can  atb  it|.  1  caa  «rao«  it.?'  Dr .  Fretmlfa  laCNM 
ti^  Udy  Supdon  are  still  e»isuog»  aad  prove  ttnt  be  bad  atf 
^ttte  scruple  in  asking,  aa  bisbop  HoadUiji  bad  iti  flaitt«l<«g 
li*  Udy9  (f^b^i  by  her  infinence  with  qaeea  Canriine,  be-* 
came  for  a*  C99^derabfe.  time  %he  sole  aALtness  6t  ebnitlb^ 
pr^efeiMD^&iits.  Ift  I74t4f  Dn  Freiiid  cesigMed  4iia  stadi-  at 
W'^Mi^^M  in  ^voi)r  of  bis  sun,,  and  died  AuffUsil^9i'lT9T: 
9y  Jaoa  bi«  wife,  one  of  the  twodaagfaaersol'  Dk  Samii«l 
Detanfleb.  |l  prabeuciary  of  WesUBsaater,  b^  bad  ta^  soim) 
CbarJieSy  wh»  iHgd  iirlTi2Sf.  and  WiUiam^  hb  auaiBe^flisr  at 
^yitney^  and  aftiera^ards  desui  of  Cancerbiory . .  . 

Pr,«  Fmnd  )»rro^.  »  good  <bfal  of  ^oetii^,  Ltuin  mA 
iCngliabf.  Ibe  ft>f m^r  tboiiglvt  preCe«nbip.  His  aamos  <pieeea 
are  infjeri^  in  Mr.  Nicbel»'i celicoiianw  Hearts  a«  oMiti 
0f  mMp^9>iQJI«bW  learning^  biit  bskL  in  ices  esiteia^tieift 
ihta  l^bi'>atbt»r  tba  pbyaician/  oe  tbe  teore  .of  persMiA 
(skMB^^r.  Hi^^^n,  I>r.  Wiliiaiia  Frdnd^deen  tffCiiUlM^ 
b^ryi  fOQie  fWM^a^ars  of  mh<un  may  be  faaad  in  ocrr  m^ 
tborkyi  died  in  I'^^fi*'  .     - 

FR£INS«l£Mi][UI$  (iom),  a  leamad^  dassical  ed«Mr^ 
m^  born  in  |603,  an.  tbe  city  o£  Ubn  i«i  Saitaibla,  aiidafMf 
jlU^yiqg  l^ar*  ii|  |]^  unii/^rsitiea  of  Maiipui<g  aa4  6ietoer^ 
joame  tp  Sirasbargb^  where  sonvei  paetibal  attempts  tti  tb0 
(German  Jang^agp  reeoaunended  biiii*ao  MatdtiastBenii^g'fc 
j^r,  who  made  him  his  libi^M'ian.  Wilb  this  adi«iniag<^,  M 
applieicl  tq  tbos^  ^la^AJc^l  pusmiu^tm  which  im^tkmefem'i 
if e  came  aftecwarda  to  France,  whan  be  was  adntiitidii 
among  the  bing>  interpreter^  hot  did 'nut  remain  1iei<# 
above  rbne^y€a^%  returmng  ia^l^M  to^Sivasborgbv  *  v^b^e^ 
he  married  the  daughter  oi  his  poison  <  Bemeg^ev^;^' ^6% 
university  of  Upsal  makaig  bi«i ^very  lifaefial.oifers^  W  M* 
cep^  tbo  preifessorabip  oi  ek>qiiteeey  ondHlied  tUitfl 
oiSce  for  five  yic^cs.  Qaeien  Cbnetina;tiiieniiiivi«ed<bMi>to 
bor  ceupt,  appQintadbim  her  UbraaantMidrJitseaf3ogm|rtiW^ 
vith  9OQQ  cronAns  salary^  and  astaUe^bsH  tharai^  af^Mie 
country  optagfeisiog  witb  him,  be  una  obli|je4  toM|iiit  ttHa 
,  profitable,  ^ituatiofi  in  i  64 j^,  and  return^  hixn&  Fi«ln)lb#^ 
9»HK»  ^^ska  ma^  of  (^^lamver  learning;  fair;:]j>esi^%itkf^ 

*  Kiob^ls't  Bswjsr.r»To4a'# J)e«is  of  Csatsrlninr's^Ni^Uolf^^PMaai. 

F  R  E  I.Xr  8  11  E  M  I  U  S.  HI 

CfMdti  jud  Hebrew,  lie  #at  familbr  mtk  tfkbbfl  all  tM 
liviug  languages  of  £uropey  aod  hit  fame  iniduced  th# 
elector  Pabnitie,  wben  h«  projected  fbe'  re&toiratioli  of  tike 
v»W€tHty  of  Heiflkslberg,  to  appeiot  him  lioDoif*Ty  pi«<^ : 
Umpr^  mtiA  dectoraJ  coimseUor.     He  acoordiiigl j  t^til^ved  > 
#tb/lHa  faootly  to  Heklelberg  in    1656,  aod  died  ^er^  • 
ia  I66Q. 

JFreie^emtos  rendered  anmny  services  to  the  repubRo  of: 
iMften^  fint  bjr  bk  ednion  of  Flferusy  wbotti  be  correiifi^^ . 
amt  expkiAed  irery  bappily.     Hit  lMher-in^la«»i  Berffe|^^ 
gfitf  CDfagod  bim  ifi  tbis  work ;  and  wat  afeemriiMte  so»*'  > 
pfimed*  at    Ibe  grMc  peseuaiion  and  jqpdgiti^nlt  wbipb 
Fjmosbeimiie  bad  sbewn  in  dbceirering^vbinbaMt^acirfiM' 
all  ibe  ienmed  hefoee  bim.    This  wai^  ftpt*  pn&l  mbaid  #he^ 
he  waa  a  very  ywmfg  mao,  in  16S>2»  8vf^  aMif  fafis  4ft>ie8  ^ 
baw  beeopviiiftaden^reiii  tbe  best  editions  ef  this  fluM^. 
Sq  bitye  bbttotea  upon  TacitAls;  ifrbieh,  tboegh  aboi^)  tire 
-v^tgy  judicio^i  i-elaiiog  to  «iieli.  purticdlarra^  Lipsbisarld 
tfae-ialbflr  crilict  eith^  kirew  net  or  omMbed;    Tbiii'  veati 
ilttUisbed  in  iB3S  i»d«  I6S4^  witb  an «d^i«ab4e  iftdex* 
.  B^  tidB  wetfks  by  arbieh  he  has  hkett  mostdmuafg^isliitfiy 
9m  bk  fitfttoea  anppienxeots  teQiiiftt«»  CilitiMi  aod  Livy. ' 
Tbere  vas  a  aapplenieikt^  indeed,  to  Quentaa  Curtiiia'  be** 
t^m;  but  as  that  iwas  notbing  move  dsaiy  a  tiaisc^aMtf  dotn- 
jM^atioik  from.  JuaiMa  and  Arrian^  (vfiriiout  eicfae»  jadgiMM 
QET:  md&9i  FretfidbemiuB  ibonght  it  expadiemtte diMi^ tipa 
Qihr^e,  .'jFoir.thift  pttrpoie  be^  iconsiilced  ev^y  tftn^kW^ 
Greek  and  Latin,  ancient  and  modern,  which  C6mM  be  of 
ttm  koaat  uary  and  executed  bis  task  sc  mueb  ta  €he  apptfo- 
iMksv  aed  eeia&ckUGiin  ^  of  the  pnMicy  tbat  they  aittie^C- 
OMM«i  10  depLons  ibbe  Ios»  of  tbe  tvo  first  boobs  oi( ^is*  eav 
teatoiain^  bistsirian.     His  edition  appeared  at  t9eiaib«l«gb^< 
l^tfh  S  mis*     Some,  however,  have  stilt  more'  adnvhrlrd^ 
hi$V^i^npte<Miit  to  Liay,  whieb  is  compeeed  wMi  iiqaat 
JAidggafio*  and  Jieacoinf,.ai»d  ntast  haTebeen-d  H^evaeleiii^ 
]bdH>i»&    he  Clero  has  printed  this  sttpptomeet  wlcto  tiie 
miniate  edkienl  o£  Lifry  at  AaMteadam,  17IO*  '  Hie  de-^ 
jjentl  tbe  whole  to  be  rery  ingeoious  and  lesArned,  biMf 
tfciek^  tbat  there  is  most  parity  and  elegance  im  tbie  fi^M 
Hen  be0ka  of  it;  some  speeches  i»  wbk;b  are  ineempiMM^; 
lI'M^lax^  is,  ifaaa  tthose  jusa  books  wevepubbshed'tfrtmp 
,l|Utbor's  life  time;  the  others  after  his  death.     Besides 

Wbat  bas  beei)  mentioaed  abovc;  Fvein$h^U(mu  wrvte  i^^teti 

^  I 

118  F  R  E  I  R  E. 

upon  Phflilrasy  iiiieited  in  Hobtius^s  edit.  Amst.  1664,' 
and  other  philological  performances. ' 

FHEIRE  D£  Akdeada  (Hyacinthe),  an  el^ant  Porta-  • 
guese  writer  io  prose  and  verse,  was  bom  in  1597,  at  Beja 
10  Portugal,  and  became  abb^  of  St.  Maiy  de  Chans.     He 
appeared  at  first  with  some  distinction « at  the  court  of 
Spain,  but  bis  attachment  to  the  house  of  Braganza  i^*  ^ 
peded  his  advancement     In    1640,  when  John  IV.  watf 
proclaimed  king  of  Portugal,  he  went  to  his  court,  aifd 
was  well  received.    Yet  it  was  found  difficult  to  advance » 
him,  for  he  was  of  too  light  and  careless  a  character  tobe . 
employed  in  diplomatic  business;  and  though  the  king^ 
-would  have  goue  so  far  as  to  make  him  bishop  of  Visieu, 
this,  dignity  he  had  the  wisdom  to  refuse,  well-knowing 
that  the  pope  who  did  not  acknowledge  his  master  as  king, 
would  never  confirm  his  appointment  as  bishop.     He  did 
not  choose,  he  said,  merely  to  personate  a  bishop,  like  an 
artor  on  a  stage.     He  died  at  Lisbon  in  1657.     Notwith- 
standing the  levity  of  his  character,  he  had  a  generctus- 
heart,  aud  was  a  firm  and  active  friend.     He  wrote  with, 
n^i^h  success;   his  ^^  Life   of  Don  Juan   de   Castro,^'  is 
eateeofied  one  of  the  best  written  books  in  the  Portuguese 
language.     It  was  pubKsbed  in  folio,  and  was  translated 
into  Latin  by  Rotto,  an  Italian  Jesuit.     He  wrote  also  a 
small  number  of  poems  in  the  same  language,  which  hive 
considerable  elegance,  and  are  to  be  found  in  a  cpllectioti 
published  at  Lisbon  in  17 IS,  under  the  title  of  <' Feoiir 

FREITAG  (John),  a  learned  physician,  was  born  ai 
Nieder  Wesel,  in  the  duchy  of  Cleves,  Oct.  30,  1581 ;  Ktit 
his  relations  being  compelled,  by  the  troubles  of  the  tilhei^.^ 
to  retire  to  Osnaburg,  he  began  his  classical  studies  the^ta 
He  was  afterwards  sent  to  Cologne,  Wesel,  and  Heldist'adt  J 
but  his.  dispQsition  being  early  turned  to  medicine,  as  a, 
profession,  be  studied  at  Rostock,  afterwards  returni^cl  to. 
Helrastadt  to  attend  the  lectures  of  Duncan  Liddiell  and  of 
Francis  Parco.viu;i;  be  likewise  derived  much  advantag6 
from  .the.  lectures  of  th&  celebrated  Meibomiu^,  in  whose 
bouse  he  resided  in  the  capacity  of  tutor  to  bis  stfn,  and 
was  soon  thought  fit  to  give  private  lectures  to  the  younger 
students  on  the  practice  of  physic.     He  afterwards  lectured 

'  Moreri. — Baillet  Jj^^pmfiM  des  Savans. — Saxii  OoeiDast. 
^  •  Mor«ri.^Dict;  Blst-^^e  moiv  bf  this  family  uBd«r.  Andradai  yol  II.       * 

F  It  E  i  T  A  G.  lid 

in  public  as  professor  extraordinary;  and  in- 1604,  at  the^ 
^e  of  twenty-three,  be  obtained  the  ordinary  professor- 
ship in  the  universityi  which  office  he  filled  during  fonr^ 
yeaurs.     He  then  took  his  degi^ee  of  doctor,  and  went  to 
the  court  of  Philip  Sigisround,  duke  of  Brunswick  Lunen*', 
bqrg,  and  bishop  of  Osnaburg,  who  had  appointed  him 
his   principal   physician.     About    1622,  Ernest,    duke  of 
Holstein  and  earl  of  Scbawenburg,  offered  him  the  same ' 
office,  with  the  addition  of  the  chief  medical  professorship  * 
in  the  university  which  he  had  lately  founded  at  Rintelir; 
but  his  patron  would  not  permit  him  to  accept  it.     This 
pnnce-bishop  dying  in  1623,  his  nephew,  duke  Frederic 
Uiric,  gave  Freitag  the  option  of  being  his  chief  physician, 
or  of  renaming  his  professorship  at  Helmstadt.     He  con- 
tinued  at  Osnaburg^  where  the  new  bishop  retained  him 
as  his  physician,  and  also  appointed  him  one  of  his  cham-  * 
berlains.     He  also  served  his  successor  in  the  same  capa- 
city, but  was  dismissed  in  1631,  on  account  of  his  refusal 
to  become  a  catholic.     He  found  protection  and  patronage, 
however,  under   Ernest   Cassinrir,  count   of  Nassau,  and 
the  county  of  Bertheim,  who  procured  for  him  the  vacant' 
professorship  in  the  university  of  Groningen.     He  fulfilled 
this  new  appointment  with  gr^at  reputation,  and  continued 
to  distinguish  himself  by  Ihe  success  of  his  practice  till  the  . 
decline  of  his  life,  which  was  accelerated  by  a  complica- 
tion of  maladies.     Dropsy,  gout^  gravel,  and  fever,  termi- 
nated his  life  Feb.  8,  1641. 

Freitag  was  a  follower  of  the  chemical  sect,  and  also  a 
parusan  of  the  philosophy  of  the  ancients,  to  which  in- 
deed he  retained  his  attachment  with  so  much  bigotry,  that 
DO  efforts  of  his  friends  could  ever  prevail  upon  him  to 
change  his  opinion.  He  published  several  works.  I .  '*  Noctes 
M^dicse,  sive  de  Abusu  Medicinaa  Tractatus,*'  Francfort, 
J616.  2.  ^'Aurora  Medicorum  Galeno-chemicorum,<  seu 
de  rect&  purgandi  methodo  e  priscis  sapienties  detoretis- 
pbstliminio  in  lucem  redacta,^*  ibid.  1630.  3.  <^  Disputa- 
tio  Medica  de  morbis  substantise  et  cognatis  qusestionibus, 
contra  hujus  temporis  Novatores  et- Paradoxologos,*'  Gro- 
ningen, 1632.  4.  ^'Disputatio  Medica  calidi  innati  esseu- ^ 
tiam  juxta  veteris  Medicinae  &  Philosophiae  decreta  expli- 
cahs,  opposita  Neotericorum  et  Novatorum  Paradoxis,** 
ibid.  1632.  5.  '*  De  Ossis  natura  et  medicamentis  opiatis  ' 
Liber  singularis,  &c.^*  Groningen,  1632.  6.  **  Disputatio  Formaruin  origlne,**  Groningfin, 
1663.     7.  <<  Oratio  panepTica  de.  persona  et  officio  Phar^ 

idQ  F  JK  JE  i  T  A  G. 

5i,'*  ^.  ibW.  -1633.    8.  ''Bet^c^p  et  ^ii^'|lef 
futatio  n^so  Sectaa  ^eni^erto-P^racelsicsB/'   Aiygij^RJ^a^ .; 
16^6,*  *     ,      , 

F^EMINET  (Martin),  ^  celebr^t©;!  French,  painter  5, 
WM  ^oni  at  P^Ls  in   1567.     When  he  xras  3t\vdyi^  at 
Ropife,  the  ^uffragc^  of  that  place  were  divided  betvy^eu 
Mjchf^  An|;eIo  Caravaggi^,  ^.nd  Joseph  of  Arpino^  c9Ue,d 
Giu£|epph)o;  ^nd  be  succeeded  in  imit^ipgibe  excellep-* 
cic^s  of  both.     He  was  a  gre^it  master  of  design^.  f}tfi  of  the  ^ 
sci|ence>s  €onnecl;ed  with  bis  art,  perspective  aad  archueo* 
t^re  I  but  tbei'e  is  a  bolduess  in  hi$  mannei%  ^pproac^ng, 
tp  hardness,  which  is  not  filways  approved.     ^?Pry  iV' 
how.evier,  appoiMed  him  bis  chief  painter,  and  L9^isXJtl. 
hoiipyred  him  with  t^e  order  of  St.  Michel.     E(e  P^M^f  ^ 
th(^  c^ejix]^  in  th^  chapel  a^  Fontainbleau,  an^  died  at  Pari^^ 
Ju^  16,  1619.* 


Fj?.ENCH  (JOB^),  an  English  physician,  the  son  pf  Job«  > 
French,  of  Brou^hton,  nfar  J&anbury  in  Oxfordsbirey.wjias 
born  there  in  1^16,  and  entered  Ne\j?-In,n-haU,  Oxford,  4^ 
Jj^33,  idb/^n  he  topk  his  degrees  in  arts^     He  aftei^^.af  d& . 
sti,idied  ^ie<^icine,  and  acted  as  physician  ^  the  par|^a- . 
mentary  am^y,  by  the  patronage  qf  tb/e  Fienaes,  10^9  of 
great  in^ueo^e  ^  ^bat  tingie ;  he  ^as  a^^  oUte  of  the  ItWQ 
physicians  to  the  whole  army  under  general  Ffiirfax.     I^., 
lg.43,  wKe,i?  fhfi  earl  of  Pen^h'oJ^?  visiiei^  the  wvev^iity  if 
Oxford,  he  was  created  M.  D.  ayid  w^  al^pnt  ihj^^  ^^9,^ 
ti^iip  physician  to  the  Savoy,  ^pd  one  of  tbe.c/?l))ege.     l|e 
w^nt  abrQ^d  afterw^^rds  as  phy^i^i^  tQ  tb^  j^i^'^^^  ^rm^  ^., 
Bji^Upigpe,  and  died  there  in  Oct,  ^r  Nov.  1667.    ,Besi^  . 
ti;ap$)^tio{is  of  SQime  mjBdical  j^r.orks  f\:qixf  P^'ac^el^^  f^^i 
Qlj^ub^r,  be  published  '^TJi^e  A^l^  of  Disjull^udou/'  LoJ^d,^ 
1651,  4I;q.;  apd  ^^  TbP  yprkstor/e  .Spaw,  9?  a  Treatise  v^> 
Fpmr  Ci^pos  fl^4icinal  wells :  vi?.  the  ^p^Wf  9^  yii^rioUng  ^ 
w]eU;  ^h?  ^ii>Mp^  i>^  st^lphpr  wejl;  the  dropping  o^.pef  rU  . 
fying  sfeil;  and   St.  JVl^gnus-well,  pear   Knare^bpf;9W  y^t 
YQ^ksbiri^.     'jPoge^ber  jvvitb  the  C9.u^es,  yertiie^,.  ^i^d  n^  ^ 
tlietFeof,"   J-ond.    lj?5J  and  165f,   42pap,   riepublisbed .  ^  , 
Hi^lifax,  I76P,  lawp.?  .. 

rUENICLE  DE  ftESSV  (BER^f ARp),  a  celebrated  French . 
m&thiin)a|:ici|in  of  tbe  seventeenth  pei^tury^  Yf^&  the.  cpp'*^ 
tc;i?)PPr#ry  and  compauipp  pf  Des  jCarte^,  Fermat,  ^^i  t^^ 

'  Rees^i  Cvcl(^papdia.-i-Mangret. — Haller  Bibl.  Med.  Pract* 
?  Dioi  Hr8t.~Pilkiiigrt09.-^D'Argenvfi1e,  ^1.  It.' 

FRENICL£    D£    BESSY.       121 

otiiei*  Jearoed  matbeomticUns  of  their  time.    He  was  ad^ 
nihted  geometrician  of  the  French  academy  in  1666  ;  and 
died  fn  1675.     He  had  many  papers  inserted  in  the  ancient, 
niemoirs  of  the  academy,  of  1666,  particularly  in  vol.  V. 
of  tb^t  collection,  via.  1.  ".A  method  of  resplving  .pro-. 
bieitis  by  Exclusions.'*     2,  "  Treatise  of  right-angled  Tri-  Number^.'*     3.  "  Short  tract  on  Combinations/* 
4.  **  Tables  of  Magic  Squares,"     5.  **  General  method  of 
making  Tables  of  Magic  Squares." — His  brother  Nicolas 
Frenicle,  a  poet  of  the  seventeenth  century,  born  160Q,.> 
ac  Paris,  was  counsellor  to  the  court  of  the  mint,  and  died 
dean  of  the  same  court,  after  ihe  year  166 1,  leaving  seve-; 
ral  children.     Frenicle  wrote  many  theatrical  pieces;  as.- 
^*  Pfilemon,"  a  pastoral,  8vo;    "  Niobe,"  Svo;     "  L'En-, 
tretien  des   Bergers,"  a  pastoral,  which  is  contained  ia 
'*  Les  Illustres   Bergers,"  8vo.      Also  a  poem,  entitled, 
"  Je&us  ^rucifi«i"    a  *' Paraphrase  on  the  Psalms,"    in 
verse,  &c.*  .  ^ 

FRERET  .(Nicolas),  ^n  autlujr  of  profound  learnings 
and  considerable  abilities^  grossly  misapplied,  was  born  at. 
PaiK  in  l6Sd.  He  was  bred  nominally  to  the  laW|  but  bi«. 
inclinations  and  talents  not  being  suited  to  that  professioji^^ 
lie  devoted  himself,  from  an  early  period^  to  his  favouri^te . 
studies  of  chronology  ^lud  history.  At  twenty-five  he  w^.. 
admitted  into  the  academy  of  i^^scriptions,  where  be  ^fo^.f 
duced  at  t^  same  time  '^  A  Discourse  on  the  "Qrig^n  of; 
the  French."  This  treatise,  at  once  bpld  apd  .^e^s^^^f^Kt 
added  ^to  ,svme  indiscreet  conAersations^  04;cai^ioii€^d  hit(< 
b^ing  qon&ned  in  tli,e  Bastille.  I^  his  oonfinement,  h.e{ 
cfM;|ild  ob^in  v}0  book  bnt  the  dictionary  of  Bay le,  wliiichx 
he  consequently  read  so  earnestly  as  almost  to  learn  it  Jby  i 
he^^.  |i^  imbibed,  at  the  same  time,  the  scaptif^ism  pf 
Bayle^  ,^i^  even  went  beyond  him  ki  the  grossn^ss  aii4  * 
iq[)pu4enGe  of  his  infide)  sentiments,  as  clearly  appe^ins  ]^y, 
S90^e  of  b^ 'Waitings*  These  were,  i.  ^^  JleM^rs  of  Thr^y^' 
bi^lus  to  Leuqippe,"  in  which  atheism  is  re^i^ed  to  a  ^ys-** 
teija.  2,  ^>  Examination  of  the  Apologift^  for  C^ristia^ty,*^' :  wprk  (not  published  till  1767),  99  less,  ^b-f- 
no4ci0ns  than  th^  other.  Be^id^  ^hese,.  he  was  the  •author 
o^  3.  Several  very  learned  memoirs  in  the  voliw^s  of  the,, 
aps^my,  to  jivhich  bis  name  is  preQx^sd ;  and  a  few  Ug}>(. 
pid^Ueal^ofis  of  ao  consequence*     ile  died,  in  1749^  in  hi% 

>  MorerL^Dict.  I|iU,-rHutU>n'8  Dictionary. 

122  F  R  E  R  E  T. 

61st  year.  His  works  were  revived  afterwards,  and  eagerly 
disseminated  by  Voltaire  and  his  associates  in  their  hostili- 
ties against  religion  and  morals.  * 

FRKRON  (Eue  Catherine),  a  French  journalist,  ge* 
nerally  known  for  having  been  the  constant  object  of  the 
satire  of  Voltaire,  was  born  at  Quimper,  in  1719.  His 
talents  were  considerable,  and  he  cultivated  them  in  the 
society  of  the  Jesuits,  under  fathers  Brumoy  and  Bougeant. 
In  1739,  on  sohie  disgust,  he  quitted  the  Jesuits,  and  for 
a  tinie  assisted  the  abb6  des  Fontaines  in  his  periodical 
publications.  He  then  published  several  critical  works  on 
fai/sown  account,  which  were  generally  admired,  but  sonie- 
times  suppressed  by  authority.  His  "  Letters  on  certain 
writings  of  the  time*'  began  to  be  published  in  1749,  and 
were  extended,  with  some  interruptions,  to  13  volumes. 
Iq  1754  be  began  his  "  Anti6e  Litieraire,"  and  published 
in  that  year  7  volumes  of  it ;  and  aiterwards^  8  volumes 
every  year  as  long  as  he  lived,  which  was  till  1776.  In 
this  work,  Fr^ron,  who  was  a  zealous  enemy  of  the  modern 
philosophy,  attacked  Voltaire  with  spirit.  He  represented, 
faim  as  a  skilful  plagiary;  as  a  poet,  brilliant  indeed,  but 
inferior  to  Corneillej  Racine,  and  Boileau  ;  as  an  elegant^ 
bat  inacburate  histWian ;  and  rather  the  tyrant  than  the 
ting  6f  literature.  A  great  part  of  this  Voltaire  could  bear 
with  fortitude;  but  a  very  skilful  and  victorious  attack 
upon  a  ba3  comedy,  "La  Femme  qui  a  raison,'*  drove 
him  beyond  all  bounds  of  patience ;  and  henceforward  his 
pen  was  constantly  in  motion  against  Fr6ron,  whose  very 
ifame  at  any  time  would  put  him  in  a  rage,  nor  was  Fr6r6n 
more  a  favourite  with  the  encyclopedists,  whose  principles, 
he  exposed. 

Fr^ron,  though  very  skilful  in  his  criticisms,  and  of  uii- 
cominon  abilities  (as  Voltaire  himself  confessed  before  he 
was  irreconcileably  provoked]  suffered  by  the  perpetuat 
hostihties  of  an  antagonist  so  high  in  reputation.  His 
**  Ann^e  Litt^raire,*'  being  constantly  accused  by  Voltaire 
of  partiality,  began  to  be  suspected,  and. the  sale  in  some 
measure  decreased.  In  foreign  countries  his  talents  were 
not  well  understood.  He  is  the  hero  of  Voltaire's  Dun- 
ciad,  and  nothing  more  is  known  about  him.  He  was,  bx 
truth,  a  man  of  great  natural  genius  and  liveliness,  with 
a  correct  taste,  acute  powers  of  discriminatioBi  and  a  pe^« 

»  VU^  Hist, 

F  H  E  R  O  N-  12S  • 

ctrliir  talent  of  entei*taintng  his  reader,  while  he  pointed 
out  the  faults  of  a  work.  He  had  an  active  zeal  against 
false  philosophy,  innovation,  and  affectation,  and  was 
steddtly  attached  to  what  he  considered  as  sound  principles. 
In  private  life  he  was  easy  and'  entertaining.  Such  were, 
tfae'real  talents  of  this  formidable  journalist.  It  must  be 
owned,  also,  that  he  had  hii  partialities;  that  he  was 
sometimes  too  precipitate  in  his  judgments,  and  too  severe 
ill  his  censures.  Too  strong  a  resentment  of  injustice 
sometimes  rendered  him  unjust.  His  language  also  was ' 
sometinteis  over-refined,  though  always  perfectly  pure.  The 
academies  of  Angers,  Montauban,  Nanc}^,  Marseilles, 
Caen,  Arrai,  and  the  Arcadi  at  Rome,  wer6  eager  to  have 
bitn  enrolled  amons:  their  members.  He  died  in  March 
1776,  at  the  age  of  fifty-seven. 

*  Besides  his  periodical  publications,  FrSron  left  several 
works.     I.  "Miscellanies,"  in  3  vols,  comprising  several 
poeins,  to  \Vhich  it  has  only  been  objected  that  they  are 
rktber  over-polished.  2.  **  Les  Vrtiis  Plaisirs,"  or  the  loves* 
oif  Venus  and  Adonis ;  elegantly  translated  from  Marino.    3.  * 
Part  of  a  translation  of  Lucretius.     He  also  superintended ' 
and  retouched  Beaumelle's  critical    Commentary  on  the* 
Henriade,  and  assisted  in  several  literary  works.-^His  son, 
Stanislaus  Freron,  was  one  of  the  most  active  accom- 
plices in  the  atrocities  which  disgraced  the  French  revo- ' 
llition,  arid  appears  to  have  had  no  higher  ambitiotl-  than ' 
t6  rival  Marat  and  Robespierre  in  cruelty.   He  died  at  St. 
Domingo  in  1 802.^ 

■FRESNAYE  (John  VAuauEUN  de  la),  an  early  poet  of 
France,  fother  of  the  celebrated  Iveteaux,  and  the  first 
wh^  wrote  satires  in  French,  and  an  Art  of  Poetry,  was 
bom  of  a  noble  family  at  Fresnaye,  near  Falaise,  in 
1534;  He  wais  bred  a  lawyer,  and  became  the  king's  ad« 
Vd^Cate  for  the  bailliage  of  Caen,  and  afterwards  lieutenant- 
g^enperal  and  president  of  that  city,  where  he  died  at  the 
a*ge  of  seventy -twa,  in 4-606.  He-  wrote,  I.  ***  Satires,'* 
vi^hich  though  esteemed  less  strong  than  those  of  Regniei^ 
and  less  witty  than  those  of  Boiieau,  have  truth  and  na- 
ture, and  contain  simple  narratives,  the  style  of  which  has 
something  pleasing.  2*.  "  The  Art  of  Poetry.'*  -Copious 
specimens  of  this  performance  may  be  seen  in  the  notes 
of  St.  Marc,  on  Boileau's  Art  of  Poetry.     It  has  cousider» 

'        -     .       >  J)ic\,  Hist.        '  •    '  ■  ■■'  ' 


F  KtliV  Ar  ^. 

al^W  cttftFit,  I^ut  fk  merit  wbnsb  has  been  mf^^^  hy  l«Mf 
efforu.  3.  Two  book»  pf  Idyllia,  and  ibn^e  of  epigfl«ii9# 
epiukpbsy  and  sonnets.  4<  A  poem  oi>  |he  moi^r^by*  AH 
tb^^e  wj^re  ^spliect^  by  hioaself  m  an  edttioo  of  pOeiiM^ 
p4>blubed  Ht  Caen  in  1605.' 

FRESJ^S  {CvkAfRVBS  Du  Canoe  ihj),  oommeiily  eali«idi' 
Dy  Cange,  a  learued  Fcenobqiafi,  was  desK^^niJed  fjfifnnm 
gjQod  &afti^y»  %ni  born  at  Am^w  in  161Q.    Aft«r  being 
ta^gbt  polite  literature  in  the  Jeanils  oeJIege  tb^r^^  be  Vitnft 
t9  study  tbe  law  at  Orleans^  and  wfiaiswpru  ^aecate  ^  %hn 
parliament  of  Paris  in  163l«     |i<d- pr.aciised  so9>e  ti«ie«ii' 
tltfi  bar^  but  witboiH  i\H^ndia»g  to  make  k  ihf  bi»«Miies$  of. 
bis  life*     He  tben  retn^*n^  to  AmeiiSj  wber^  be  develj^ 
hioKHelf  to  study 9  >fid  .r^n  tibrougb  91II  sorts  of  le^rjMn^ 
languages  and  philosophy,  law^  physic,  divinity,  and  hi^-'i 
tory.    In  If 6#»  b0.w.ent  and  eeitM  &t  (Paris;  «knd  soon 
afier  a  pFQpoj»fti  nm^  laid  b^fone  Coltief  t«  to  €<^e5>t  all  i%\kef^ 
ai)tb€^s  wbo  H-  'diffsrjant  itina^s  b»d  >wntten  d3M»  iNStory  9i- 
F^E^cej  and  to  form  a  body  .ooi  of  the».    Tbis  QHnif««r 
lill^ng  tbe  proptosalt   andMi^v^iog  JH  Fre^M  tbe  b^« 
cyi^li^ed  &>r  ^e  Mnd^Haking,  funnii^hed  him  wUb  meip^i)! 
and  qiiinvspripta  jha^  t\4§  pwpo««[^    I>n  Fresne  wroti^l^: 
vj^  tbese  inHerials,  Md  di^^w  up  a  largie  pf^hc^^  Mn* 
t^ink^  tb^'iiMMne#  of  tbe  ai^onit  tbeir  ctbaraei^r  and  imh*^ 
n^Ty  tjti^  twe  ill  wb^ob  !tbey  ii^ri^i  iand  tbe  order  ii»  wbinb 
tbey  ought  in  bn  arfaiiged.     j^ing  iEHfj^rmed  from  :lb0 
minisiief  tbatbls  plan  w^  n^  appov^,  a«Kl  tbaft  he  tf^iat 
adopt  another,  and  convinced  that  if  be  followed  tbe  ordtfc 
pr^esG^ibed^  die  whole  woxk  would  be  ispeUed^  b^  frfpMy 
t^d  bia^mploy^s  tbat  sin^e  b^bad  motbeen  bappy  ^noiigb 
tp  ple^s^  tbose  .19  ajw^boFiiyjf  bis  advif:e  wa«»^  ibat.tbfDiL. 
sjjikQuld  looifi  out  i^oi.e  of  tl^.  h^t  bands  in  tbe  kidgdem;* 
Bpii  a^  tk^  saw^  ijm^  b^  r^Hir««d  them  nil  ^r  liemoM^ 
(S^  ppugirgT),.    Biping  thjis  difi^ngftged  *fo»  *  lodWHtt' 
aji^4  Ubori^di^  undartubin^^  be  gnii^bed  bi$ -Glossary  .^*  tovi; 
LatbV'9r  ^''  GIo^s^riMfl^  Mediae  ^t  injSiinfe  Latinita^>''^ 

'  Diet.  Hist.<i-Moreri  in  Vaqquelin. 

*  The  following?  a^iecdote  is  rel.ited 
of  Mr.  Du  Cange  :  He  seat  for  oertaiii 
|i^^S«llert  of  Paris,  aad  aft/sr  Tf^i/oi" 
ii|g  to  an  old  tninW  vhich  stood  ia  9 
cdroer  of  bis  cabinet,  be  told'  tbem 
tlMit  it  .coQtwiitd  aiatermls  mfl- 
deqt  to  make  a  book,  and  if  they 
would  undertake  to  priat  it,    h^  «s<t 

ready  to  treat  with  them.  With  plea- 
sure  they  embraced  Ills  offer  |  but>efft<¥ 
t|iey'ba:d  seavetK^d  €01*  tfao  mafMfiGiiipIV 
tbey  f^od  only  a  heap  of  small  bite, of 
paper  not  larger  than  tbe  breadth  0^ 
a  kager^  Mid  vhica  ajBctted  to  IM^C 
been  torn  to  pieces  as  of  no  naoner  6f 
iif^.    Du  Cans?  Uoghed  at  their  Um^ 



iAAilk  i¥ii«Ye^eked  with  general  cotetnendatiofi ;  andthotigfr 
Hadkrkkn  Valechifl,  in  his  prefhee  to  the  Valesiatia,  nV>te^ 
iftveraLiiiifttakes  in  h,  it  is  nevertheless  a  very  excfeHenif 
and  useful  work.  It  was  afterwards  enlarged  by  the  additlonT 
«f  more  Tdluines ;  and  the  edition  of  P^ris,  by  Carpentier^ 
ill  i733y  make?  no  less  than  six  vi  folio ;  to  which  Car- 
^etHS^  afterwards  added  four  of  supplement.  Both  bavef 
bee6  -since  excellently  abridged,    consolidated,  and  ina- 

SJt^*,  in  6  vols.  8vo,  published  at  tfalle,  \1T2 — ^^1784. 
s  tf»ext  peribrmance  was  a  ^  Greek  Glossary  of  the  middle 
dge^**  consisting  of  (furious  passages  atid  remarks,  mo3t 
6f  which  are  drawn  from  manuscripts  very  little  knowtu 
This  wetrh  is  in  2  tok.  folio.  He  was  the  author  add  edito# 
$^  of  several  other  performances;  He  drew  a  genealo* 
gieal  map  of  the  kings  of  France.  He  Wrote  the  bidtx)ry 
b(  Conatantinople  under  the  French  emperot^,  which  wa$ 
flrinfed  at  the  Louvre,  and  dedicafted  to  the  kitig.  Hb 
puMisbed  an  historical  tract  concc^rnmg  John  Baptist'^il 
h^adi  some  relics  of  which  are  supposied  to  be  at  Aniens: 
He  published,  lastly,  editions  of  Cinnamus,  Niceph'brus, 
Anwa  Commena,  Zonams,  and  the  Aleicaddrlan  Cbro- 
nicbn,  with  learned  dissertations  and  noties* 

Du  Cange,  as  be  is  more  commonly^  called/ died  ill 
1688^  aged  seventy-eight;  and  left  four  clrildren,  on' whom 
touisXIV.  settled  good  pensions,  in  consideri^ion  of  thelir 
fhther^s  meint. 

Though  the  general  merits  and  abilities  of  this  profound 
Mid  accurate  etymologist  have  been  oft^en  recorded.  Dr. 
Sufney  pays  tribute  to  bis  memory  for  the  assistance 
which  he  has  fi^aetitly  afforded  musical  historiatls;  when 
aiH4)lher  resources  failed.  lu  the  slow  progress  of  the  art 
«f  muisic  from  the  time  of  Guido,  whose  labours'  were 
^wholly  devoted  to  the  facilitatihg  the  study  of  canto  fermp 
%y  the  monks  and  choristers  ;  in  the  glossary  ^*  De  la  Basse 
LatiiiYt6,^*  6  volumes  folio,  we  find  the  derivatidn'  and 
^rly  use  of  musical  terms  and  phrases,  particularly  in 

if^fy  9iMipoiitiviely  anitred  ttemtliat 

t^  nuuMscript  wa«.  in  Uie  trnuk.    Ai 

Icirgth,  one  of  tbem  haring  viewed 

-wMk  ptttt   attemion  tome  of  ibeit 

tfirapf  of  pafver,  he  di9eofered  some 

«bser?ations  whicH  he  knew  to  be  the 

4»Mk  <rf  Uto  Canfe.    fl»  famKJ^toa, 

that  itwai  not  impotsible  to  place 

them  in  nfimt  Ipocn^Me  at  this  btfinning 

ef  crer/  wurd  which  the  learoed  author 

nodertook  to  e«ptain»  he  hid  rang^A 
Uiem  a^babetically.  With  this  kef* 
and  the  knowledge  he  had  of*  the  ex- 
teative  eruditieo  o#  Mr.  Du  Cange,  da 
did  not  hesitate  a  moneat  ^e  bidmoac|r 
for  the  trunk  and  the  riches  it  con- 
tained; The  treaty  was  concluded 
without  further  explanation ;  and  such 
WMi  iht  o«igiD  of  the  faiBOus  **  Qlos« 
sariom  Medio;  &  inQmae  Latinitatis«" 

126-  F.R'ESNE. 

France  and  neighbouring  states;  and  there  is  •scarcdly.'a^ 
tero)  connected  with  the  music  of  the  church,  of  which  an 
early  use.  may  not  be  found,  either  in  this  Glossary,  ^r-.ia 
its  continuation  by  Carpentier,  4  vols,  folio.* 

FRESNO Y  (Charles  Alphonsus  du),  a  celebrated: 
French  poet  and  painter,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1611.  .Hiy. 
father,  who  was  an  eminent  apothecary  i  a.  that  city,  intended 
bim  for  the  medical  profession,  and  during  the  first  year. 
which  he  spent  at  college,  he  made  very  oon^iderabte 
progress  in  his  studies ;  but  as  soon  as  be  was  wse4 
to  tbe  highest  classes,  and  began  to  contract  a  ta^te  fot 
poetry^  his  genius  for  it  appeared,  and  he  carried  all  the 
prizes  of  it,  which  were  proposed  to  excite  the  emulatiae 
of  his  fellow-students.  His  inclination,  for  poetry  was 
heightened  by  e;xercise ;  and  his  earliest  performai^es^ 
shewed  tliat  be  was  capable  of  attaining  very  oonsiderabte 
fame  in  tbis  pursuit,  if  his  love  of  painting,  which  eq«alljf^ 
possessed  him,  had  not  divided  his  time  and  application* 
At  last  he  laid  aside  all  thoughts  of  the  study  of  pbysie^ 
and  declared  absotutely  for  that  of  painting,  notwithstanding 
the  opposition  of  his  parents,  who  by  all  kinds  of  severitj 
endeavoured  to  divert  him  from  pursuing  that  art,  the  pre- 
cession of  which  they  unjustly  considered  in  a  verycon- 
temptible  light.  But  the  strength  of  his  inclination^  do» 
feating  all  the  measures  taken  to  suppress  it,  be  took  the 
first  opportunity  of  cultivating  bis  favourite  study.  .  \ 

•  He  was  niueteen  or  twenty  years  of  age  wbea  he  begtfh 
to  learn  to  design  under  Francis  Perier,  and  baving-speUt 
two  years  in  the  school  of  that  painter,  and  of-  4iMiioii 
Vouet,  he  thought  proper  to  take  a  journey  .into  Italy, 
where  he  arrived  at  the  end  of  1633,  or  the  begii^ning  #f 
1634.  As  he  had  during  his  studies,  applied  himscrlf 
very  much  to  that  of  geometry,  he  began  upon  his  coming 
to  Rome  to  paiut  landscapes,  buildings,- and  ancient  rtii«isi. 
But,  for  the  first  two  years  residence  in  that  .city,  he  hltd 
the  utmost  difficulty  to  support  himself,  being.  aJbandoned 
bv  his  parents,  who  resented  his  having  rejected  their  ad- 
vice in  the  choice  of  his  profession  ;  and  the  little  ^ckbf 
money  which  he .  had  provided  before  he  left  T^t^niSe, 
proving  scarce  sufficient  for  the  expences  of  bis  journey 
to  Italy.  Being  destitute  therefore  of  friends  atid  ui:- 
quaintance  at  Rome,  he  was  reduced  to  such  distress,  that 

^  Moreri.— Diet.  Hift  io  Cange.^-Chsttfepie.— Ssxii  OnsBtet.        . 

F  R  E  SN  O  y.  lat 

lib  chief  subsistence  for  the  greatest  part  of  that  ttme  was 
bread,  and  a  small  quantity  of  cheese.  But  he  diverted 
the  sense  of  uneasy,  circumstances  by  an  intense  and  inde* 
fatigable  application  to  painting,  until  the  arrival  of  the 
celebrated  Peter  Mignard,  who  had  been  the  companion 
of  bis  studies  under  Vouet,  set  him  more  at  ease.  They 
immediately  engaged  in  the  strictest  friendship,  living  to- 
gether in  the  same  house,  and  being  commonly  known  at 
Rome  by  the  name  of  the  inseparables.  They  were  em- 
ployed by  the  cardinal  of  Lyons  in  copying  all  the  best 
pieces'  in  the  Farnese  palace.  But  their,  principal  study 
was  the  works  of  RafFaelle  and  other  great  masters,  and  th^ 
antiques ;  and  they  were  constant  in  their  attendance  tve^lf 
evening  at  the  academy,  in  designing  after  noodels* 
Mignard  had  superior  talents  in  practice  ;  but  Du  Fresnoy 
was  a  great  master  of  the  rules,  history,  and  theory  of  his 
profession.  They,  commuuicated  to  each  other  their  re- 
marks and  sentiments ;  Ou  Fresnoy  furnishing  his  friend 
with  noble  and  excellent  ideas,  and  the  latter  instructing 
the  former  to  paint  with  greater  expedition  and  ease. 

Poetry  shared  with  painting  the  time,  and  thoughts  of 
Du  Fresnoy,  who,  as  be  penetrated  into  the  secrets  of 
the  latter  art,  wrote  down  his  observations ;  and  baying 
91  last  acquired  a  full  knowledge  of  the  subject,  formed  a 
design  of  writing  a  poem  upon  it,  which  he  did  not  finish 
till  many  years  afterwards,,  when  he  had  consulted  the  best 
writers,  and  examined  with  the  utmost  care  the  most  ad- 
mired pictures  in  Italy.     Wbile.he  resided  there  he  painted 
several  pictures,  .particularly  the  ^^  Ruins  of  the  Campo 
Vaccino,''  with  the  city  of  Rome,  in  the  figure  of  a  woman: 
a  young  woman  of  Athens  goUig  to  see  the  monument  of 
her  lover,  &c.     One  of  his  best  pieces  is  ^^  Mars  finding 
Lavinia  sleeping.^'     He  bad  a  peculiar  esteem  for  th^ 
works  of  Titian,  several  of  which  he  copied,  imitating  that 
excellent  painter  in  his  colouring,,  as  he  d^d  Caracci  in  bis 
designs.     About  1653  he  went  to  Venice,  and  travelled 
through  Lombardy,  after  which  he  returned  to  France. 
,  He  bad  read  his  poem  to  the  best  painters  in  all  places 
.  through  which  he  passed,  and  particularly  to  Albano  and 
GuerciuQi,  then  at  Bologna»  and  he  consulted  several  meo 
famous  for  tbeir.  skill  in  polite  literature.     He  arrived  ^t 
,  Paris  in  l656,  where  he  painted  several  pictures,  and  cour 
tinned  to  revise  his  poem,  on  which  he  bestowec^  so  much 
attention  as  frequenUy  to  interrupt  his  professional  la* 

•lis  F  ft  E  is  N  O  ir. 

'  bours.     But,  tbougb  he  wis  ctepirdiis  to  se6  hU  work  pfloV 

fished,  he  thought  it  JrjijiVoper  to  print  the  tdtln  itithotit 

a  French  transiatton,  vtfhich  was  dt  length  ilikde  by  Die 

''Piles,  'Du  Fresnoy  had  just  begun  a  confimerttar/upon  it, 

'v^benhewas  sei2red  with  a  palsy;  and  after  languishing 

four  or  five'  months  under  it,  died  at  the  house  of  onfe  of 

'his  brothers,  at  Villiers-le-bd,    four  leagues  froni  Paris, 

-in- 1665,     From  the  time  of  Mijrnard's  return  to  Pslri^  ih 

1658,  the  two  friends  continued  to  live  together  uatil  deatti 

separated  them. 

His  poem  was  not  published  till  three  years  after  hh 
death,  at  P^iris;  12mo,  with  the  French  version,  and  re* 
HK^rkflr  of  Motis.  pu  Piles,  and  it  has  been  iustly  admired 
for  its  eieganee,  perspicuity,  and  the  utility  of  the  in- 
iftruction  it  contains*  In  169*4,  Dryden  made  a  prose 
translation  of  it  into  Englrsh,  Which  he  accompanied  with 
his  ingenious  pardlel  between  poetry  and  pilinting.  It 
was  again  translated  into  English  by  Mr.  Wills,  a  painter, 
who  gave  it  in  metre  without  rhyme.  He  attempted  to 
produce  the  sense  of  his  author  in  an  equal  numbetdf 
lines,  and  thus  cramped  hts  own  skill;  and  produced  a 
work  imequal  in  itself,  in  whic^,  however  well  he  appears 
lo  baVe  understood  the  original  text,  he  fails  to  impress  it 
on  bis  reader.  It  is  now  almost  totally  forgotten.  More 
«mple  justice  has  been  done  in  our  language  td  the  talents 
i>f  Du  Fresnoy,  by  our  late  skilful  poet,  William  Mason^ 
M.  A. ;  by  whom,  in  1782,  he  was  first  clothed  in  an  Eng^ 
)ish  dress  suited  to  his  elevated  pretensions.  And  stilt 
greater  honour  was  done  to  him  by  the  hand  of  that  extra* 
ordinary  genius  of  our  isle  in  the  art  of  painting,  sir  Joshua 
Reynolds^  for  whose  more  valuable  remarks  upon  the  mosi^ 
important  points  in  the  poem,  Mr.  Majjon  was  induced  tQ 
discard  those  of  Mons.  Du  Piles.  By  the^  union  of  the  ta« 
lents  of  two  mep  so  renowned  in  the  arts  of  poetry  and 
painting,  Du  Fresnoy  is  reridefed  for  ever  dear  to  the 
English  reader ;  and  the  thorough  knowledge  be  has  ex- 
hibited of  the  best  principles  of  the  art  of  paintihg,  is  be^ 
come  more  agreeably  and  more  extensively  diffused.* 

FRESNY  (Charles  Hivieke  du),  a  French  poet,  chiefly 
celebrated  for  his  dramatics  writings,  was  born  ^V Paris  in. 
1^4$.     He  had  a  good  natural  taste  for  music,  painting, 
sculpture^  art^hitecture^  and  all  the  fine  arts.      He  bad  , 

>  laft  preft)MnliaMas<m'ttraii8lstieD»<-«M6ireri«'--^I)'Ar^nVB)e. 

,  F  R  £  B  N  Y.  ia» 

^lioa.tasle  for  laying-out  gardes,  and  this  prooured  him 
the  place  of  ov^rfteer  of.gardem  to  the  kingi  which  he  solA 
f»r  a  moderate  sum,  aa  a  supply  to  his  extravagancCy 
*af^icb  was  uabounded.  He  was  Yalet^de-ehambre  to  Lou» 
Xiy.  and  highly  in  favour  with  him ;  but  his  love  of  ex^ 
penue  outwent  even  the  bounty  of  bis  master.  ^*  There 
are  two  n>en,'^  said  Louis^  '<  whom  I  shall  never  enrich^ 
Fresoy  and  Bontems.*'  These  were  bb  two  vaiets-de- 
chaosibret  who  were  well  matched  in  extravagance.  At 
length)  Fresny  sold  all  his  appointments  at  court^  and  flew 
tfQm  thte  ooiistraint  of  Venuulles .  to  the  liberty  of  Paris, 
where  he  became  a  %vriter  for  the  stage.  He  is  the  person 
wbo;is  humourously  represented  by  Le  Sage  in  his^^  Diable 
.  JBieiteqx/'  as  macryieg  his  laundress  by  way  of  paying  her 
kilL '  He  was  twice  married,  and  both  times,  it  is  aaid^  in 
a  similar  .way.  He  wrote  many  dramatic  pieces,  some  of 
wtiich  «j«ere  long  established*  on  the  stage.  These  were, 
^^tLaiReooociliation  Normande,  Le'  Double  Voyage^  La 
Coquette,  de  ViUage,  Le  Marriage  rompu,  L'£sprit  de 
Gontradictiony  Le  Dedit."  He  was  diso  Ae  anthor  of 
oamtatas,  whidhiie  set  to  music  himseif ;  several  aongs^ 
aome^  which > were  famous;  a  little  work  often  reprinted, 
43alkd  '^  Les  Amusements  serienx  et  ecxniques/*'  and 
'^Noavelles  Historiques  ;*'  all  enlivened  by  asingnhtr  and 
gay  fancy.  He  died,  aged  seventy^six,  in  1724.  D'Aiem- 
Uisft  has  drawn  a  parallel  between  Desiouches  and  him  as 
comic  writers.  His  works  were  collected  in  6  volumes, 
^BAEYTAG  (FaBDBBic  Gotthilv),  an  eminent  literary 
*ian,  was  the  son  of  a  learned  schoolmaster,  who  is 
▼ery  highly  celebrated  by  Ernesti,  and  was  bom  at  Schulp* 
forten,  in  1 729.  Ail  we  know  of  his  personal  history  is^ 
that  be  studied  law,  and  became  a  burgomaster  of  Nurem^ 
berg,  where  he  died  in  1776.  His  principal  writings  are^ 
1.  ^^  Rhinoceros  veterum  scriptorum  monumentis  descrip* 
tus^*  Leipsic,  1747,  8vo.  2.  ^^  AnalectaliterariadeLibris 
raiioribus,''  iUd.  1750,  Svo.  3.  ^*  Oracorom  ac  Rbetorum 
Gnecbrum,  quibus  status  honoris  causa  positse  fuerunt,  de^ 
caa^V '^id.  1752.  4«  ^*  Adpstratus  litterarius^  obi  libri  partim 
antiqui  partim  rari  recenseatur,'*  ibid.  1752-^1755,  3  vols*. 
8ve.  This  is  a  continuation  of  the  ^^  Analecta  literaria,^ 
and  Jboth^are  of  the  highest  value  to  bibliographers.     They- 

'  I  Diet  Hi«t.—NieenB,  voL  XVII.<*-l(<»«ri. 

^    Vol.  XV,  K 


aSbrd  astrildngproof  of  awidnityy  dose  appUcatioil,  mA 
a  dtsciiininatki^  judgoient:  in  appreciating  die  valise  of 
what  are  termed  rate  and  eniio«is  books.  5.  **  Specimen 
historian  literate,  qtio  vironiin,  fefninammque  peiigAipuSt^ 
4iieinoria  recoiitur,^*  ibid.  I7€5,  Svo.* 

f  REZIER,  orprobaMy  FRAZER,  (Amadevs  Frawis)^ 
was  bom  at  Ckambenri,  1682,  descended  from  a  distin- 
g«ii<sfaed  family  of  tlie  robe,  originally  of  Scotland.  He 
was  intended  for  the  oSioe  of  magistrate,  but  his  fantiify, 
in  compliance  widt  hts  inclination,  permitted  him  to  go 
into  the  military  service,  from  which  he  entered  the  corps 
of  engineers  in  1707.  He  was  sent  by  the  conrt,  in  17  it, 
to  examine  the  Spanish  colonies  at  Peru  and  Chili;  and 
employed  his  talents  for  fartt6cations  at  St.  Malo,  at  St. 
Domingo  1719,  and  at  Landau  1728,  in  which  year  he 
also  Yeceived  the  cross  of  St.  Louis,  and  married.  Freeier 
was  afterufards  employed  in  Btetany,  but  rose  no  higher 
than  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel,  the  various  oooiinis^ 
sions  in  which  he  had  been  engaged  having  prevented  his 
being  present  at  mote  than  two  sieges;  and  the  number  of 
sieges  at  which  the  officers  of  ^gineeti  have  been  pre- 
sent, are  the  steps  by  which  they  rise  to  superior  stationc 
He  died  October  16,  1772^  leaving  two  daughters  nfar^ 
ried,  and  a  grandson,  his  son's  child.  This  son  died  be- 
fore Frezier,  on  board  a  king's  ship,  in  the  storm  of  17^S, 
which  sunk  him  with  all  his  property.  His  works  arei, 
<*  Tn  des  Feux  d' Artifice,"  1747,  6vo.  «  Voyage  d^  la 
Mer  du  Sad/'  1716,  4to.  **  Theorie  et  Pratique  de  la 
Coupe  des  Pierreset  des  Bois,'*'  Strasburg,  1769,  S  vols. 
4to ;  an  abridgment  of  this  woric,  by  the  title  of  ^'fii6mena 
de  Stereotomie,'*  Paris,   1759,  2  vols.  Svo.* 



FRiSCHLIN  (NtcoDEMUs),  a  learned  critical  andpoetii^* 
cal  writer  of  Germany,  was  born  at  Baling,  in  Suabia,  in 
i  547.  His  father  being  a  minister  and  a  man  of  letters, 
taught  him  the  rudiments  of  learning,  and  then  sent  him 
to  Tubingen,  where  he  made  so  amazing  a  progress  in  th^ 
Greek  and  Latin  tongues,  that' he  is  said  to  have  written 
poetry  in  both  when  he  was  no  more  than  thirteen  yearn 
of  age.  He  continued  to  improve  himself  in  compositions 
of  several  kinds,  as  well  prose  as  verse ;  and  ac  twenty 

i  DWt  Hist— Saxti  Oiioma«t.  *  DlcU  Bi^t 

•  FKI  S  C  H  LIN.  :t31 

*^fmLTs  (M  was  made  a  professor  in  the  unmrsity  bf  Tubin^ 
gen.  Thovgh  his  turn  lay  principally  towards  poetry^  in- 
•aonmeb,  that  as  Melchior  Adam  tells  us,  be  really  coilld 
make  verses  as  fast  as  he  wanted  them,  yet  he  was  ac*- 
quainted  with  every  part  of  science  and  learning.  He 
Osed  to  moderate  in  philosophical  disputes ;  and  to  read 
poblic  lectures  in  mathematics  and  astronomy,  before  he 
bad  reached  his  twenty-fifth  year.  In  157d,  his  reputation 
being  much  extended,  he  had  a  mind  to  try  bis  fortune 
^abroad,  and  therefore  prepared  to  go  to  the  ancient  uni»- 
versity  of  Friburg,  where  he  had  promised  to  read  lectures. 
Bot  he  was  obliged  to  desist  from  this  purpose,  partly  be- 
'oause  his  wife  refused  to  accompany  him,  and  partly  be* 
cause  Ae  duke  of  Wirtemberg  would  not  consent  to  hh 
going  thither,  or  atiy  where  else. 

Hitherto  Frischlin  had  been  prosperous;  but  now  an  af*- 
ffAr  happened  which  laid  the  foundation  of  troubles  that 
did  not  end  but  with  his  life.  In  1580  he  published  an 
oratiooin  praise  of  a  country  life,  with  a  paraphrase  upon 
VirgiPs  Eclogues  and  Georgics.  Here  he  compared  the  . 
4ives  of  modern  courtiers  with  those  of  ancient  husband* 
men  ;  and  noticing  some  with  great  severity,  who  bad  de* 
generated  from  tbe  virtue  and  simplicity  of  their  ancestors^ 
mad^  himself  so  obnoxious,  that  even  his  life  was  in  danger. 
He  made  many  public  apologies  for  himself;  his  prince 
even  interceded  for  him,  but  he  could  not  continue  safe 
any  longer  at  home.  With  his  prince's  leave,  therefore^ 
be  went  to  Laubach,  a  town  of  Carniola,  in  tbe  remote 
part  of  Germany,  and  kept  a  school  there ;  but  the  air 
not  agreeing  with  bis  wife  and  children,  he  returned  in 
about  two  years,  to  his  own  country.  He  met  with  a  very 
ungracious  reception  ;  and'  therefore,  after  staying  a  little 
while,,  be  went  to  Francfort,  from  Francfort  into  Saxony^ 
and  fvcMn  thence  to  Brunswick^  where  he  became  a  schooU 
iwster  af^in.  There  he  did  not  continue  long,  but  passed 
fifom  place  to  place,  till  at  length,  being  reduced  to  ne-  , 
cessity,  be  applied  to  the  prince  of  Wirtemberg  for  i^eliefi 
His  application  wais  disregarded,  which  he  supposing  to. 
proceed  from  the  malice  of  his  enemies,  wrote  severely 
against,  tbem.  He  was  imprisoned  at  last  in  Wirtemberg 
caatie ;  whence  attempting  to  escjspe  by  ropes  not  strong" 
enough  to  support  him,  he  fell  down  a  prodigious  preci* 
pice,  and -was  dashed  to  pieces  among  the  rocks. 

x;  2 

Htt  death  haj^ned  in  1590,  and#«t'i»iMiiftll]r^Mfl 
just)y  lataented ;  for  he  wim  certainly  tngeaioiiaaiid  learned 
in  a  great  degree.  He  left  a  great  maoy  woi^ht  of :  ▼arioiii 
kindfy  as  tragediei,  cooiedies,  elegies,  tmnaktioiis  of 
Latto  anid  Grleek  aothovs,  with  notes  upon  them^  i  orations, 
&c.  These  were  poblisfaed  1598-^16079  in  4  toIs.  ft^^ 
He  faad^^Iso  «rritten  « translation  of  Oppian,  but  this  wss 
ne? er.  p«iblisfaed.  His  scholia  and  torsion  of  **  Callimaelwis,** 
with  his  Gredk  life  of  that  poiet^  are  in  Stephens's-  edi^li 
of  1577.  4to.  While  he  was  master  of  the  school  at  La* 
hacuoi,  or  Laubach,  he  composed  a  new  grammar;  mt 
there  was  no  gprammar  estaat  that  pleased  him.  This  was 
more  methodical,  and  shorter  than  any  of  them ;  and,  in- 
deed, was  :generalfy  approved ;  but,  not  oootemt  witfaf  gi^hig 
a  grammar  of  bis  own,  he  drew  up  another  pieeei  eidled 
^^'StrigilGrammMica,''  in  which  he  disputes  wiUi  some 
ItttleecriiBonyagauist  all' other  gfammarjims;  and- this,  as 
was;  natural,  increased  the  number  of  lus  enemies.  With 
all  his  parts  and  learning/ he  -aeemattot  a  Httle  to  Imire 
wanted  prudence.^   . 

FHI5CHMUTH  (Jo»n),  an  eaMnent  scholar,  and  in* 
gen ious  philologist,  washorn  i619,rRt  Wertfaeim,  in  Fran-^ 
Cdi^ia.     He  was  teacher  and  afterwards  professor  of  lan- 

E'uages  at  Jet>a,  in-Mvioh  ^ity  he  died  August  19,  16S7^ 
eaving  smne  veryexoelieoD  explieaticms  of  several  dvfieuk 
passages  in  vHoly^^  Scripture,  and  above  sixty >pfailc^logiecd 
and  theological  dissertations,  aU  much  esteemed  ;> printed 
at  different  times  at  Jena/ in  4to.' 

FRIBI  (PA&L),'a  very  eminent  philosopher  atid  mathe« 
matician,  was  born  in  Milan,  April  13,  1727»  'He  was 
first  educated  in' the  schools' of  •  the  Barnahite  finabem  fas 
that  metropolis; 'jand' so  un<$ommon  was  his  progress  in 
the  classes,  Ibat  it  was  soon  pcedioted  by  -bis  teaebets  and 
s^sboolfellows,  thttt  he*  would  one  day  excel  in  police  Ute«* 
lature,  in- poetry^  and  in  pulpit  irioq^tience;  natutej  how*: 
ever,  bad  more  unequivocally  designed'  htm<  to  be  whatrhe 
really  proved,  a  philosopher  and  41  mutbetaMtieian.  In*174d^ 
(the  sixteenth  of  bis  age)  he  embmced  the  moaastic  M^ 
among  the  Barnabites>wf  Lombardy,  ^wherehepassediao 
iupidly  through  ail  the  remainder  of  his  studies,  that  W 
bad  the  honour  of  beiqg  appointed,  while ^tUl  in  thetsft* 

^  • 

>  Melcbior  Adam,  in  titis^  Oernir  Pb}loi.*-Bai)lftt  ^9|te«ns«f^ioert«rwA. 
XIX  «  jp?ct  rilrt. 

ierior  orden^  to  ibe  profeiBorihip  ^JF  pUioiopbgr  in  th« 
ooUege  of  Lodi^  and  afterwards  pvomottd^  in  tiio  san^ 
c^paci^,  to  tbo  royal  school  of»  Caiaie^  in  M«»Dferrat$  as 
a^niooesaar  tothe  late  oelebirated'oardtDal  Gerdil. 

Edsi  unfortunately  posaessed  a^ Tsotont  aadatrabilarieiii 
temper^  and*  a  lo%,  disdamfttl^  andv  independjmtefaaracter ; 
and  honoe  be  was  never  raited  to  eaiinent'Stations^in  chundi 
or  state^  but  was-  perpetually  involve  in  tbe  most  dia* 
ai^reeable  oodtesta  with  e?eiy  peraon  with  whom  he  b»fh» 
peeed' to  be  cooneoted;  Ereii  as  soon-  as  he  had  taken 
possession  of«  bi»  chair  in  Gasale,  be  quarrelled  with  bis 
coUeagueS)  and  was'OompeHodby  bis  Sardinian  majesty  lo 
witbdrnw.  His  superiors,  not  cboesing*  to  employ  fatbee 
Fiiei  any  more  in-  tbe-  sebolastio  department^  sent  him  to* 
Moaara,  in  the-  capaoity  of  annual-  preacher.  His-  meitt, 
howererv  as  a^  soientifie  man,  bad  already  become  so  co4i« 
apiouousy^  that  in  1755,  (tbe  twenty^'oightb  of  bis^age)  hs^ 
was  requested  by  tbe  superintendant  of  tbe  university  of 
Pisa^tp^fiU  tbe  vacant  obair  of  metaphydNcsand  etbios<  in 
that  Kterary  corpemtton^  tben-  in  tbe  zenith-  of-  its  glory. 
He  had  indeed  given  some  specimens  of  bis  knowledge  in- 
the.  piuflosopby  of  the  human  mind  by  his  essays-  on  morat 
pliilosopby,  published  at  Lij^no  in  17J3  ;  but  he  had  ex-^ 
hibited  before  that  time  still  greater  proofs  of- his  superior 
abilities'  in  mathematics'  and  natural  philosophy,  by  his 
two  ezceilenl  works  ^^  Disquisteio  Mathematilsa  in  eausanii 
phy«icam  figwrs  et  magnitiMlinis  teUwis- nostrie,''  and  tbe 
/^Nova  Electricitatis  tt^ria/*  &o.  which  were  published 
atMUan,  theformerin  1T51,  and  the  latter  in  1755  ;  aiid^ 
itvia  earious  that  be  was  thus  indebted  for  bis  first  step  in 
tfae  higfaer  patibaof  Ikerary  bonours^  to  other  pursuits  than 
tkoae  which  were  bis  ftiveuritef  and  which  have  so  deser*' 
vmily  immortalissed  bi»  naase. 

It  vk,  perhaps,  equally  curious,  that  even  when  nnQta- 
physic»  and  e^ics  had  become  his  professed,  avocations, 
b#  never  «o  much  indulged  in  the  study  of  fhem  as  to  prp^ 
dtttte  any  other  work  in  their  several  departments.  He 
maber  availed  himself  of  his  situation  at  Pisa,  in  cuitivating 
mMMiral  science  witb  greatea  ardour  than  before;  and  he 
aisemodi  ix>  have  the  best  opportunity  for  the  purpose^ 
The  atteran^  professor  PereliA  was  still  alive,  and  stili  re* 
tained  his  amiable  disposition  of  communicating  «o  hia 
friends  tbese<viahiaMe  dtiscovertes  wiiich  were  the  frmts  of 
hia  long  meditations,  and  which,  Arem  his  great  modesty^ 

lU  F  R  I  S  L 

bad  nerer  be^o  published  under  bis  own  name.  Bj  Ibis 
powerful  assistance,  and  by  bis  own  extensive  learnin^^ 
Frisif  whilst  at  Pisa,  was  enabled  to  publish  the  two  to** 
lumes  of  dissertations  which  appeared  at  Lucca  under  the 
title  of '^  Dissertationum  Variarum,*'  &c.  1159  and  1761^ 
and  the  two  hydraulic  performances  relative  to  the  pre* 
servalion  of  the  provinces  of  Ferrara  and  Ravenna,  from 
the  inundation  of  rivers,  which  were  likewise  published  at 
Lucca,  in  1762.  Among  his  dissertations,  the  most  re- 
markable were  that  ^'  De  AtmosphsBra  Ccelestium  corpo-^ 
rum,"  which  in  115%  obtained  the  prize  from  the  royal 
academy  of  sciences  in  Paris,  and  that  ^^  De  insequalitate 
MoiOs  Planetarum,"  which  in  176B  received  the  honour 
of  the  accessit  from  the  same  corporation.  The  last  work 
published  by  Mr.  Frisi  at  Pisa^  was  a  tribute  to  the  me« 
mory  of  his  worthy  and  beneficent  friend  Perelli,  which 
appeared  in  the  53d  volume  of  the  Journal  of  that  uni- 

The  Milanese  government,  duly  sensible  of  the  superior 
merit  of  Mr..  Frisi,  and  most  likely  jealous  of  so  many  ho- 
nours received  by  him  in  Tuscany,  induced  him  to  return 
%o  bis  native  place,  by  tendering  him  the  chsur  of  mathe- 
matics in  the  Palatine  schools  of  that  metropolis.  This 
offer  was  made  in  1764,  and  was  soon  accepted  by  Mr* 
Frisi,  who  flattered  himself  that  he  abould  there  be  of 
greater  assistance  to  his  family  than  he  had  been  in  a  fo- 
reign place ;  it  was  bere  he  wrote  his  two  capital  works, 
**  De  gravitate  universal!,"  in  three  hooks,  and  the  "  Cos- 
mographia  Physica  et  Mathematica,"  in  2  vols,  both  of. 
which  were  afterwards  ptiblisbed  at  Milan,  in  1768  and 
1774.  Many  years  had  now  elapsed  without  his  being  in- 
volved in  any  of  those  quarrels  which  were  the  result  of 
his  temper ;  but  as  be  was  threatened  with  an  event  of  tint 
kind  soon .  after  his  return  to.  Milan,  he  was  advised  by 
his  friends  to  escape  the  storm  by  a  temporary  peregrina- 
tion^ He  consequently  made  the  tour  of  several  European 
countries ;  and  it  was  during  this  excursion,  that  he  at* 
tained  the  friendship  of  some  of  the  greatest  characters  in . 
those  times,  especially  in  England  and  France,  and  ac« 
quired  many  literary  honours ;  but  the  danger  of  incurring 
new  evils  was  inherent  to  his  nature.  The  famous  perio- 
dical work  entitled  ^<  The  Coffee-house,*'  was  at  that  time 
publishing  by  some  of  the  most  eminent  Milanese  literati, 
i^mong  whom  was  Mr*  Frisi  himself,  who  had  already  beeii 

F  B  1  S  1.  1^ 


jafpolmed  royal  censor  of  aew  Ulerary  poblicatioofw    Ip. 
this  capacitjf  be  did  moi  scntple  to  give  his  approbakioD  U> 
a  peraiciotts  work  wbicb  waa  soppoeed  to  bare  is$«ied  from 
ibe  above-iBentioned  society^   and  when  tbe  book  wa^ 
afterwards  suppressed  by  eccJesiastical  and  civil  antbority, 
be  bad  tbe  itpprndeacey  or  rather  tbe  efirontery,  to  be- 
cofBe  its  apok^ist.     Sensible,  perhaps  at  last,  of  tbe  dan-« 
gers  to  which  be  bad  exposed  binoself,  be  resolved   ta 
spend  some  years  in  retireDoent     A  new  field  of  exertions, 
bowever,  was  opened  to  bim  in  his  retreat,  wbicb  prored 
nore  beneficial  to  society,  and  more  bonoiunUe  to  biin* 
Jielfy  than  any  he  had  be  Core  cakivated.     His  uncoa»DioR 
.talents  in  bydronymics  were  already  celebrated .  in  Italy, 
and  as  many  bydrostatical  operations  bad  been  projected 
at  the  time  by  tbe  several  Italian  governments,  be  becacne 
the  chief  director,  and  almost  tbe  oracle  of  sncb  under* 
takings.     Tbe  Venetian  senate,  and  the  late  Pius  YL  also^ 
wished  in  latter  times  to  have  his  opinion  on  the  projects^ 
wbicb  they  had  respectively  adopted  for  the  coorse  of  the 
river  Breiua,  and  for  the  draining  of  the  Pontine  noarshea. 
But.  even  in  these  honourable  commissions,  be  disgusted 
every  person  in  power  with  whom  he  had  to  deal,  and  ibe 
necessity  of  applying  to  a  man  of  his  temper  was  frequently 
tbe  subject  of  regret.     In  >777,  the  Milanese  government 
.recalled  bim  from  obscurity,  and  appointed  him  dirc^ctor 
of  tbe  newly- founded  school  of  arc  hi  tec  lure  ^  and  from  ^his. 
period  he  became  as  active  in  ibe  republic  of  letters  as 
.ever.     He  published  in  the  same  year,  1777,  his  ^^  Course 
-of  Mechanics,^'  for  tbe  use  of  the  royal  school;  in  17B1 
bi^  ^^Philosophical  Tracts,''  and  from  17a2  to  1784,  bis 
/•^v, Opera  Varia,''  ^  vols.  4to  ;  and  in  the  interval  from  1778 
to  1783,  be  wrote  tbe  eulogies  of  Galileo,  Cavalieri,  New- 
:ton,.  tbe  empress  Maria  Theresa,  and  of  count  Firmian. 
His  eulogies  on  Galileo  and  Cavalieri  have  been  pronounced 
.by  Montucla^  ^^  two  finished  specimens  of  scientiBc  bio* 
'gcapby.'*     Frisi  died  Nov.  22,  1784,  a  man  of  unquestion*- 
.aj^lelearniDg,  but,  unhappily  for  himself,  of  an  impetuous' 
«nd  turbulent  dbposition. ' 

^  FRITH,  or  FRYTH  (John),  a  learned  preacher  and 
martyr,  was  tbe  son  of  an  Seveno^ks,  in 
lilent,  where  be  was .  born  (or  as  Fuller  says,  at  Wester- 
.bam,  in  tbe  same  county)*     He  was  educated  atKing^^*- 

>  Saldiriq'f  literary  JqxuraaJl,  toI.  1L  from  Fri»i'g  MnniNTsi,  by  Counf  Vckt'i. 

&A\egjBf  Cambridse,  where  he  procseeded  B.  A;  but  afiM^ 
wards  went  CO  Oxrord,  wzs  aAmitied  ad  amdetnt  aRdnpori'. 
ftccount  of  (lis  extraordinary  learning,  was  chosen  one  of 
die  junior  canons  of  cardinal  Wolsey^s  new  college^  now 
Christ  church.  About  1525  be  was  instructed  in  the  prio'^ 
ctples  of  the  reformation,  according  to  the  Lutheran  sys>^ 
tern,  by  the  celebrated  Tyndale.  These  be  openly  pro- 
fessed, and  with  some  other  young  men  c^  the  same  per«^ 
suasion  and  boldness,  was  imprisoned  by  the  commissary 
of  the  university.  The  hardships  of  this  imprisonments 
proved  tatai  to  some  of  his  companions,  but  he  obtained 
his  release^  and  about  1128  went  abroad^  where  be  re* 
mained  about  two  years,  and  became  more  seriously  con« 
firmed  in  bis  new  opinions.  On  his  return,  he  was  nar^ 
Vowly  watched  by  the  lord  chancellor,  sir  Thomas  Morey 
whose  resentment  was  said  to  have  been  occasioned  by  a 
treatise  which  Fryth  wrote  against  him.  Simon  Fish,  of 
Gray*s-inn,  had  written  his  ^^  Supplication  of  the  Beggatis/* 
against  the  begging  friars,  and  against  indulgences,  kcd 
(See  art.  Fish)  This  work  was  highly  acceptable  to  Henry 
VIIL  as  favouring  his  quarrel  with  the  pope.  The  lord 
chancellor,  however,  who  was  a  more  consistent  catholic 
than  bis  majesty,  answered  it,  and  Fryth  answered  More^- 
denying  the  doctrine  of  purgatory.  His  opinions  on  the 
sacrament  were  also  highly  obnoxious,  and  after  a  strioi 
search,  be  was  betrayed  into  the  hiands  of  the  civil  power 
by  a  treacherous  friend,  and  sent  prisoner  to  the  Tower. 
He  was  several  times  examined  by  the  lord  chancellor^ 
M^o  uniformly  treated  him  with  contempt  and  cruelty,  but* 
refusing  to  recant,  he  was  ordered  to  be  burnt,  which  sen* 
tence  wai  executed  in  Smitbfield,  July  4,  1 533,  in  the 
prime  of  his  life.  He  had  a  very  remarkable  opportunity, 
some  time  before,  of  making  his  escape,  the  servants  who 
Were  to  convey  him  to  the  archbishop^s  palace  at  Croydon^ 
offering  to  let  him  go.  But  this  he  refused,  witbaiove  zeal 
than  prudence.  He  was,  according  to  all  accounts, «  scbo* 
lar  of  great  eminence,  and  well  acquainted  with  ttte  learned 

His  works  are  these :  ^^  Treatise  of  Purgatory;  Antithesia 
between  Christ  and  the  Pope ;  Letters  onto  i^e  fiiithf^rt 
feUowers  of  Christ's  Gospel,  written  in  the  Tower,  1 5%^  ff 
Mirror,  or  Glass  to  know  thyself,  written  in  the  Tower,* 
1532;  Mirror  or  Looking-glass,  wherein  you  may  behold 
Ihe  Sacrament  of  Baptism  i  Articles,  for  which  be  died. 

FRIT  I|.  157 

wuHum  m  ICsirgsle^pmoOf  June  St,  ISSSy  Aoswcnr  to 
^  ThooM  More*s  Dialogues  concerning'  Heresies ;  An- 
Mwer  to  John  Fisher,  bishop  of  Rochester,  &o.**  all  which 
treatises  were  reprinted  at  London,  1575^  in  MiOj  with  the 
works  of  Tyndale  asid  Bamesi    He  also  wmte  some  trans- 

FRIZON  (P£TEB),  a  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  bom  in 
the  diocese  of  Rheims,  was  penitentiarf  of  that  church, 
and  afkerwaids  grand-master  of  the  ooH^ge  of  Nav^arre  nt 
Paris.  He  died  in  1651.  He  pttblisbed  in  1629  a  histoiy 
of  the  French  cardinals,  entitled^*  Gallia  Pnrpurata,**  1639, 
fot.  M.  Bainze  has  pointed  ont  a  great  aaitibett  of  fiailts 
in  thb  work,  in  his  <*  Antifriaonios,'*  and  his  *<  Bistoiy 
of  the  Popes  of  Arignon.'*  Frison  also  published'  an  edi<^ 
tion  of  the  Bible  of  LooFsin,  with  a  method  of  distitigaish^ 
iog  the  Catholic  French  tnmslations  of  the  Bible  from  the 
Fiotestant,  1621,  fol.* 

FROBENIUS  (John),  an  eminent  and  learned  Gerncian 
printer,  was  a  native  of  Hammelburg,  in  Franconia,  where 
he  was  from  his  childhood  trained  to  literature.  After- 
wirds  he  went  to  the  otiiversity  of  Basil,  where  be  acquired 
the  repatatton  of  being  uncommonly  learned.  With  a 
view  of  proaioting  ilteful  learning,  fcM*  which  be  wad  ^ery 
awloos,  he  applied  himsdf  to  the  art  of  printing ;  and j 
beoomittg  a  master  of  it,  opened  a  shop  at  Basil. «  He 
waa  the  first  of  the  Garman  printers  a4ki  brought  the^ 
art  t»  any  -perfection ;  and,  being  a  man  of  great  probky 
and  piety,  as  well 'as  skilf,  bewas,  What  very  few  have 
bessK^  pandcolviy  choice  in  the  a«ehors  he  printed.  Hd 
would  nerer  soffer  libels^  or  any  thing  ihat  might  hurt  thef 
reputation  of  another,  to  go  through  Ms  press  ror  the  sakef 
of.  profit ;  but  very  justly  tbooght  all  such'  pfactioes  dis- 
graceful to  his  art,  disgraceftil  t<l  letters,  and  kifinitely 
pernicious  to  rehgion  and  society.  Tlie  great  reputation 
and  character  of  this  printer  was  the  principal  mofive  which 
led  Erasmok  to  fix  his  residence  at  Basil,  in  order  to  have 
his  own  worics  printed  by  him.  The  connection  between 
Erasmus  and  Frobenius  grew  very  close  and  intimate ;  and 
wasaconnectbn  of  friendship  afid  the  sincere^t  cordiality. 
Erasmus  loved  the  good  qualities  of  Frobenius,  a^  much  as 
Fiobenius  could  admire  the  great  ones  of  Erasmus. 

1  Fox's  Acts  Mid  Monuments*— Burnet's  Reformmtion.— Clark's  Ecel.  Hifltoiy. 
-^Fuller's  Abd  Redivivas,— Tann^s  Bibliotheca.       *  Konri.— ]>iot.  Hist. 


There  h  an  epistle  of  Erasmos  extant,  which  contsiw 
ao  full  an  account  of  this  printer,  that  it  forms  a  verj  cu*^ 
riouft  memorial  for  bis  life.  It  was  written  in  1 537,  on  theocu- 
casion  of  Frobenius's  death,  which  happened  that  jrear ;  and 
which,  Erasmus  telU  us>  he  bore  so  extremely  ill,  that  he 
really  began  to  be  ashamed  of  his  grief,  since  what  he£ek 
upon  the  death  of  bis  own  brother  was  not  to  be  compaved 
to  it.  He  says^  that  he  lamented  the  losa  of  Froben,  noc 
so  much  because  he  had  a  strong  afFeetion  ior  him,  but 
because  he  seemed  raised  up  by  Providence  for  the  pto'« 
motiug  of  liberal  studies.  -  Then  be  proceeds  to  describe 
bis  good  qualities,  which  were  indeed  very  great  and  na^ 
merous ;  and  concludes  with  a  particular  account  of  his 
death,  which  was  somewhat  remarkable.  He  relates,  that 
about  five  years  before,  Frobenius  bad  the  misfortune  to  fidi 
from  the  top  of  a  pair  of  stairs,  on  a  brick  paveniei>t ; 
which  fall,  though  be  then  imagiiTed  himself  not  mnoh 
hurt  by  it,  is  thought  to  have  laid  the  foundation  of  his 
subsequent  malady.  The  year  before  he  died,  he  was 
seized  with  most  exquisite  pains  in  his  right  ancle;  but 
was  in  time  so  relieved  from  these,  •  that  he  was  able  to  go 
to  Francfort  on  horseback.  The  malady,  however,  what'* 
ever  it  was,  was  not  gone,  but  had  settled  in  the  toes- of 
his  right  foot,  of  which  he  had  no  use.  Next,  a  numbness 
seized  the  fingers  of  bis  right  hand ;  aud  then  a  dead  palsyi, 
which  taking  him  when  be  was  reaching  something  frosii 
a  high  place,  he  fell  with  his  bead  upon  the  ground^ 
and  discovered  few  signs  of  life  afterw^ards.  He  died  at 
Basil,  in  1527,  lamented  by  ail,  but  by  none  more  than 
Erasmus^  who  wrote  his  epitaph  in  Greek,  and  Latin* 
Both  these  epitaphs  are  at  the  end  of  his  epistle. 

A  great  number  of  valuable  authors  were  printed  by  Frop> 
benius  with  great  care  and  accuracy,  among  which  were 
the  works  of  Jerome,  Augustin,  and  Erasmus.  He  had 
formed  a  design  to  print  the  Greek  fathers,  which  had  w»t 
yet  been  done;  but  death  prevented  him.  That  woxk, 
however,  was  carried  on  by  his  son  Jerome  Frobenius  and 
bis  son-in-law  Nicolas  £piscopi«s,  who,  joining  in  parr^ 
nersbip,  carried  on  the  business  with  the  same  reputatioUy 
and  gave  very  correct  editions  of  those  fath^s.' 

FROBISHER  (Sir  Maktin),  an  enterprizing  English 
navigator,  was  born  near  Doncaster,  in  Yorkshire,  of  low 

^  Mor^ri. — ^Jottin's  Erasmus. — ^Patttaleoms  Prosopograpbia,  part  III.  p.  94, 
95.-^Saxn  Onomast 

F  R  O  B  I  S  H  £  R.  U9 

]»f0iita^  but  it  i»  Dot  kuowu  in  wbmt  year.  Being  brought 
up  to  Dangalion,  be  very  early  displayed  the  talents  of  aa 
eminent  sailor,  and  was  the  first  Englishman  that  attempted 
to  find  out  a  north-west  passage  to  China,  He  made  offers 
of  this  to  several  £nglisb  mercbants  for  fifteen  years  to« 
gether ;  but  meeting  with  no  encouragement  from  them, 
he  at  length  obtained  recommendations  to  Dudley  earl  oif 
Warwick,  and  other  persons  of  rank  and  fortune.  Under 
their  influence  and  protection  he  engaged  a  sufiicient 
number  of  adventurers,  and  collected  proper  sums  of 
money.  The  ships  he  provided  were  only  three ;  namely, 
two  barks  of  about  twenty*five  tons  each,  and  a  pinnace  of 
ten  tons.  With  these  he  sailed  from  Deptford  June  %y 
1576  ;  and  the  court  being  then  at  Greenwich,  the  queen 
beheld  them  as  they  passed  by,  ^'  commended  them,  and 
bade  them  farewell,  with  shaking  her  hand  at  them  out  of 
the  window.^' . 

Bending  their  course  northward,  they  came  on  the  24tfa 
within  sight  of  Fara,  one  of  the  islands  of  Shetland ;  and 
on  the  lUh  of  July  discovered  Friezeland,  which  stood 
high,  and  was  all  covered  with  snow.  They  could  not. 
land  by  reason  of  the  ice  and  great  depth  of  water  near 
the  shore;  the  east  ppint  of  this  island,  however,  they 
named  *^  Queen  Ehzabeth's  Foreland.'*  On  the  2dth  they, 
had  sight  of  Meta  Incognita,  being  part  of  New  Green* 
land  i  on  which  also  they  could  not  land,  for  the  reasons 
just  mentbned.  August  the  10th,  he  went  on  a  desert 
island  three  miles  from  the  continent,  but  staid  there  only 
a  few  hours.  The  next  day  he  entered  into  a  strait  which 
he  called  <<  Frobisher's  Strait ;"  and  the  name  is  still  re*> 
tained.  On  the  12tb,  sailing  to  Gabriel's  Island,  they 
came  to  a  sound,  which  they  pamed  Prior's  Sound,  and 
anchored  in  a  sandy  bay  there.  The  1 5tb  they  sailed  to 
Prior's  Bay,  the  i7th  to  Thomas  Williams's  Island,  and 
the  18th  came  to  an  anchor  under  Burcher's  Island.  Here 
they  went  on  shore,  and  had  some  con)Diunication  with  the 
natives ;  but  he  was  so  unfortunate  as  to  have  five  of  his 
men  and  a  boat  taken  by  those  barbarians.  They  were 
like  the  Tartars,  or  Samoeids,  with  long  black  hair,  broad 
faces,  fiat  noses,  and  tawny ;  the  garments  both  of  men 
and  women  were  made  of  seal-skins,  and  did  not  differ  ib 
fashion ;  but  the  women  were  marked  in  the  face  with  blue 
streaks  down  the  cheeks,  and  round  the  eyes.  Having 
endeavoured  in  vain  to  recover  hi&  men,  he  set  sail  again 

140  F  R  O  B  I  Sf  HER; 

for  EnglftU'd  the  26th  of  August;  ftiid,  ncHwitlMtaftditi]^'  t 
tetrible  storm  on  the  7tb,  arrhr^d  safe  at  Harwich  dq^the 
iad  of  October.  "^ 

He  took  possesAoo  of  thatconntiy  in  the  queen  of  En^-* 
laad*9  name;  aiid^  in  token  of  saefa  .possession,  ordered 
bis  men  to  bring  whatever  they  conM'  first  find.  One  among 
the  rest  brought  a  pteee  of  black  stone,  moeh  like  seat- 
coal,  but  very  heavy.     Havihg  at  his  return   distributed 
fra^mentB  of  it  anoong  his  friends,  one  of  the  adventurer's 
wives  threw  a  fragment  into  the  fire;  which  being  taken 
out  againi  and  quenched  in  vinegar,  giitiered  like  gold ; 
aad^  being  tried  by  some  refiners  in  London,  was  ^litfd 
to  contain  a  portion  of  that  rich  metal.     This  circumstance 
nking  prodigious  expectations  of  gold>    great  numberi' 
earnestly  pressed  Frobisher  to  undertake  a  second*  voyirg^ 
tiie^  next  spring.     The  queen  lent  him  a  ship  of  theroyat 
navy  of  200  tons ;  with  which,  and  two  barks  of  afeout  90 
tons  each,  they  feU  down  to  Gravesend  May  26,  1577» 
and  there  received  the  sacrament  together ;  dn  act  of  rey 
Kgion  not  so  frequently  performed  as  it  ought  tO'  be,  among 
inen  exposed  to   so  many  perils,  and  more  particularly 
under  the  protection  of  heaven.     They  sailed  i¥oai'  Wat^ 
wich  on  the  5 1st  of  May,  and  arrived  in  St.  Magnus  SountiP 
at  the  Orkney  Islands,  upon  the  7th  of  June ;  fir^m  whence 
they  k-ept  their  course  fijr  the  space  of  twenty -«x  daysy 
without  seeing  any  l«Dd;     They  met,  howeirer,  with  greats 
drifts  of  wood,  and  wbol^  bodies  of  trees;   which  were' 
either  blowa^  off  the  eliflb  of  the  nearest  lands  by  violent 
sbormBf  or  vooteA  up  and  carried  by  floods  into  the  sea.' 
At  length,  on  the  4tb  of  Jlily,  they  discovered  Friezelahd';; 
aioag  the  coasts  of  which  they  found  islands  of  ice  of  in-^ 
Gsedible  bigness,   some  being  70'  or  80  flsithoms^  tind^r^ 
water,  besides  the  part  that  stood  above  water,  and  tiMfriS^' 
tb«i  half  a  tmle  in  circuit.     Not  having-  been  able  safi^Ijr 
to  land  in  this'piaee,  they  proeeeded  for  Frebisber's  Straittj 
aiid^oQ  the  ii7^bof  the  same  month  otade  the  North  Fore* 
land  in  them,  otherwise  called  HaH^s  Island;  as  a4^  af 
snafler  island  of  die  same  naime,, where  they  bad'inf  their 
laat  voyage^fiMMMl  the  ore,  b«t  could  not  now  get  apiece" 
so  large  as  a  waliiun.    They  met  with  some  of  it,  however, 
i»r  o^r  ad^oetit  islandis,  but  not  enough  to  merit  tfa^tr** 
attention. .    Th^  sailed  abeuv  to  make  what  dhKxyvet^ecr* 
tbi^  eould>  and  gave  «ames  to  severs^  bayv  and  isl^ ;  ad*^ 
J%dmwi^M  Smin^   8mitl^*s  Matfd>  Beare^tf  9wmi,  Lei^ 

F  S  O  B  I  S  H  S  K.  141 

^est^Ps  Isle,    lAnne  countess  of  Warvrick's  Soiind  and 
Jj^laodi  York  Sound,  &c. 

The  captain^s  commission  directed  him  in  this  voyage 
only  to  search  for  ore,  and  to  leave  the  further  discovery 
of  the  north*wQst  passage  tiil   another   time.      Having, 
therefore,  in  the  countess  of  Warwick's  Island,  found  a 
good  quantity,  he  took  a  iading  of  it ;  intending  the  first 
.^opportunity  to  return  home.    He  set  sail  the  23d  of  August^ 
and  arrived  in  England  about  the  end  of  September.     He 
was  most  graciously  received  by  the  queen ;  and,  as  the 
gold  ore  he  brought  had  an  appearance  of  riches  and  profit, 
and  the  hope  of  a  north-west  passage  to  China  was  greasy 
increased  by  this  second  voyage,  her  majesty  appointed 
commissioners   to  make    trial  of  the   ore,    and  examine 
thoroughly  into. the  whole  affair.     The  commissioners  did 
so,  and  reported  the  great  value  of  the  undertaking,  and 
the  expcfdiency  of  further  carrying  on  the  discovery  of  the 
north-west  passage.    Upon  this,  suitable  preparations  were 
made  with  all  possible  dispatch;  and,  because  the  mines 
newly  fb^nd  out  were  sufficient  to  defray  the  adventurevs' 
charges,  it  was  thought  necessary  to.  send  a  select  nuoiber 
of  soldiers,    to  secure  the  places  already,  discovered,  to 
make  further  discoveries  into  the  inland  parts,  and  to  search 
^ain  for  the  passage  to  China. .  Besides  three  sbipd  a« 
before,  twelve  others  were  fitted  out  for  this  royage,  which 
weiie  to  return  at  the  end  of  the  summer  with  a  lading  of 
gold  ore.    They  assemblexl  ai  Harwich  the  27th  of  May, 
and   sailing  thence  the  31st,    they  came  within  sight  of 
]friezeland.on  the  20th  of  June ;  when  the  general,  going 
on  shore,  took  possession  of  the  country  in  the  queen  of 
England's  name,  and  called  it  West-Englaad.     They  met 
with  many  storms  and  difficulties  in  this  voyage,  -  which 
jTietarded  them  so  much,  that  the  season:. was  too  far  ad* 
vftnced  to  undertake  discoveries;  ao  that,  after  getting  as 
much  ore  as  they  could,^  $bey  sailed  for  £nglaod,  where, 
4fter  a  stormy  afnd  dangerous  voyage,  tbey  arrived  about 
the  beginning  of  October. 

It>does  not  appear  bow  captain  Frobisher  employed  hiia* 
self  .from  this  time  to  1585,  when  he  commanded  the  Aid, 
in  sic  Francis  .X>rake's  expedition  to  the  West  Indies.  In 
i588,  be  bravely  «xerted  himself  against  the  Spanish  Ar« 
inada,  commanding  the  Triumph,  on^  of  the  three  largest 
ships  in  that  service,  and  which  had  on  board  the  greatest 
number  of  men  of  any  in  the  whole  English  fleet    July 

143  F  R  O  B  I  S  H  £  R. 

^26th^  he  received  the  honour  of  knighthood,  from'  the 
hand  of  the  lord  high  adnniral,  at  sea,  on  board  his  own 
ship;  and  when  afterwards  the  queen  thought  it  necessary 
to  keep  a  fleet  on  the  Spanish  coast,  he  was  employed  in 
that  service,  particularly  in  1590,  when  he  commanded 
one  squadron,  as  sir  John  Hawkins  did  another.  In  1594» 
he  was  sent  with  four  men  of  war,  to  assist  Henry  the 
Fourth  of  France,  against  a  body  of  leaguers  and  Spaniards 
then  in  possession  of  part  of  Bretagne,  who  bad  fortified 
themselves  very  strongly  at  Croyzon  near  Brest.  But  iti 
an  assaiUt  upon  that  fort,  Nov.  7,  he  was  wounded  with  a 
ball  in  the  hip,  ot  which  he  died  soon  after  he  bad  brought 
the  fleet  safely  back  to  Plymouth;  and  was  buried  in  that 
town.  Stow  tells  us,  the  wound  was  not  mortal  in  itself, 
but  became  so  through  the  negligence  of  his  surgeon,  who 
only  extracted  the  bullet,  without  duly  searching  the 
wound  and  taking  out  the  wadding,  which  caused  it  to 

He  was  a  man  of  great  courage,  eTtperience,  and  con- 
duct, but  accused  by  some  of  having  been  harsh  and  vio- 
lent There  is  a  good  painting  of  him  in  the  picture  gal- 
lery at  Oxford. ' 

'  FROELICH  (Erasmus),  a  learned  medallist,  was  bom 
at  Grat;?  in  Stiria  in  1700,  and  entered  the  society  of  the 
Jiesuits  in  1716.  His  reputation  afterwards  procured  him 
the  professorship  of  belles  lettres  and  mathematics  at 
Vienna,  where  he  employed  his  leisure  hours  in  the  pur- 
suit of  medallic  history.  He  died  in  1758.  His  works  are> 
i.  ^^  Utilitas  rei  nummariae,  et  Appendiculie  ad  numos 
coloniarum  per  CI.  Vaillantium  editse,'*  Vienna,  1733,  8vo. 
2.  **  Quatuor  Tentamina  in  re  numaria  vetere,"  ibid.  1737, 
4to.  3.  **  Animadversiones  in  quosdahi  numos  veteres  ur- 
bium,"  ibid.  1738,  8vo,  reprinted  at  Floi-ence  in  175I,, 
4.  *^  Appendicul^  duee  *  novs  ad  numismata  antiqua  a  CI. 
Vaillantio  edita,"  ibid.  1744,  8vo,  reprinted  at  the  end  of 
**  Opusculum  posthumum  de  familia  Vaballathi,*'  where- 
there  is  also  an  eulogium  on  Froelich.  5.  "  Annates  com« 
pend.  regum  et  rerum  Syrrae,"  ibid.  1744,  folio.  6.  **  Re- 
gum 'veterum  numismata,**  ibid.  1753.  7.  *' Dubia  de. 
Minnisari,  aliorumque.Arnieniae  regum  numis  et  Arsaci- 
darum  epocha  nuper  viilgatis  pi'oposita,"  ibid,  1754.     8% 

1  Bi<*g.  Brit.— »la  Pednant's  Introduclioo  to  his  Arctic  JZoolofy,  art  fOOM  ttf' 

JDark^  on  tMe  errors  in  the  original  map  of  Frobisber's  voyages. 

IF  R  O  E  t  I  C  H.  H% 

^  Diplomatorittoi  Garstensium  emendatum,    auctum,    et 

illustratum/*   ibid.   1754,  4to«     9.  ^^  Casultt  S.  Stephani, 

re^is  Hungaris,  vera  imago  et  exposition*  ibid.  1754,  4to. 

10.  '^  Ad  numismata  regain  veterum  anecdota  aut  rariora 

^ccessio  nova,"  ibid.  1755,  4to.     11.**  Notitia  elementaria 

-antiquorum   illonim,    quae  urbium  liberarum,    regum   et 

principum,  ac  personarum  illustrium,  appellantur,"  ibid. 

1758,  4to,  a  work  which  Mr.  Pinkerton  pronounces  **  most 

excellent  and  useful,"  although  not  altogether  without 

iatilts.     He  particularly  mentions  that  the  list  of  Greek 

cities  of  which  we  have  coins  is  defective  in  about  a  third 

of  the  number;    and  he  censures,  in  strong  terms,  the 

plan  of  splitting  the  series  of  kings  of  every  realm  into 

different  epochs.     After  Froelich's  death  was  published, 

^i  already  mentioned,  the  **  Opusculum  posthumum  de  fa- 

milia  Vaballathi  numis  illustrata,^*  with  an  appendix  to  the 

'^^  Numismata  antiqua,'*  edited  by  Joseph  Khell,  1762,  4to. 

Saxius  gives   us  the  title  of  another  work  by  Froelich 

printed  the  year  of  his  death  in  4to,  "  Specimen  Archon- 

tolograe  Carinthi«."  * 

FKOISSART  (John),  an  eminent  and  ancient  French 
historian  and  poet,  was  born  in  Valenciennes,  about  1337. 
OF  his  parents  we  know  only  that  his  father,  Thomas  Frois* 
sart,.  was  a  painter  of  arms,  and  although  our  historian  it 
titled  knighty  at  the  beginning  of  a  manuscript  in  the 
abbey  of  St.  Germain  des  Prez,  it  is  thought  that  the 
copyist  had  given  it  to  him  of  his  own  authority.  His  in* 
ftncy  announced  what  he  would  one  day  be:  he  early 
fhanifested  that  eager  and  inquisitive  mind,  which  during 
the  course  of  his  life  never  allowed  him  to  remain  long  at* 
tached  to  the  same  occupations,  and  in  the  same  place ; 
and  the  diiferent  games  suitable  to  that  age,  of  which  he 
gives  us  a  picture  equally  curious  and  amusing,  kept  up 
in  his  mind  a  fund  of  natural  dissipation,  which  during  his 
early  studies  tried  the  patience  and  exercised  the  severity 
of  his  masters.  He  loved  hunting,  music,  assemblies, 
feasts,  dancing,  dress,  good  living,  wine  and  women  ; 
these  tastes,  which  almost  all  shewed  themselves  from 
twelve  years  of  age,  being  confirmed  by  habit,  were  con- 
tinued even  to  his  old  age,  and  perhaps  never  left  him« 
The  mind  and  heart  of  Froissart  being  not  yet  sufficiently 
occupied,  his  love  for  history  (illed  up  that  void,  which 

^  l^ict  Hist.-«Saxu  Ooomait— Plnkertoa's  Bstty  on  Medals,  Praface,  {>•  xt. 

144  F  R  O  I  8  S  A  R  T. 

tiif  passkmfor  pleasure  left ;  aad  became  u>  him  an  ioe^ 
baoatible  source  of  anuaeoieDt 

He  bad  hiut  just  left  #cbool,  and  was  scarcely  twenty 
years  obt^  wbeo  at  tbe  iotreaty  of  *^  his  dear  lord  and  mas* 
ter  air  Robert  de  Napmr,  lord  of  Beaufort^"  be  undertook 
to  write  tbe  bistory  of  the  wars  of  bis  own  time,  more  pat* 
ticiilarly  of  tbose  wbicb  ensued  after  tbe  battle  of  Poitiers* 
Four  y^acs  afterwards,  haying  gone  to  £ogland,  be  pre* 
)Seoted  a  part  of  this  bistory  to  queen  Pbilippa  of  <Hajinault» 
tbe  wife  of  ]£dward  III.  However  young  be  might  tb^i 
be,  be  had  already  travelled  into  the  most  distant  provinces- 
of  France.  Tbe  object  of  bis  visit  to  England  was  to  tear 
himself  from  tbe  pains  ef  an  attachment  which  had  tor- 
mented him  for  .a  long  time.  This  passion  took  possession 
of  bis  heart  from  bis  infancy.;  it  lasted  ten  years,  and 
•parks  of  it  wece  s^ain  rekiiodled  in  a  more  advanced  age. 
The  history  of  this  attachment  may  be  s^ien  in  our  autho«- 
rity.  .It  appears  to  have  been  first  childish,  and  then  ro* 
mantic,  and  for  bis  feelings  in  either  state,  we  have  only 
poetical  evidence,  and  from  that  we  leam  tha:t  he  bad 
more  mistresses  than  one.  He  had  made  two  jouraies  to 
England,  but  on  which  occasion  he  presented  his  bistory 
to  queen  Pbilippa  is  not  certain.  It  was  well  received^ 
boiwever,  and  probably  gained  him  tbe  title  of  Clerk  (se- 
evetary  or  writer)  of  tbe  chamber  to  that  prineess,  which 
be  ^as  in  possession  of  from  1361.  She  is  said  fiequeatly 
to  have  amused  herself^  in  that  age  of  romantic  gaUanjtry» 
by  making  Froissart  compose  amorous  ditties;  but  ^a 
occupation  must  be  coinsidered  solely, as  ^a  relaxation  that 
no  way  impeded  more  serious  works,  since  during  tbe  %ig» 
years  he  was  attached  to  tbe  service  of  queen  Pbilippa,  be 
travelled  at  her  expence  to  various  parts  of  Europe,  the 
object  of  which  seems  to  be  a  research  after  whatever 
might  enrich  bis  history. 

Of  all  the  particulars  of  Froissart^s  life, during  bis  resi- 
dence in  EogUnd,  we  only  know  that  he  was  present  at 
tbe  separation  of  tbe  king  and  queen  in  1361,  with  their 
son  the  prince  of  Wales  and  tbe  princess  his  lady,  who 
were  going  to  take  possession  of  the  govertuaent  of  Ac^ 
quitaine ;  and  that  be  was  between  Eltbam  and,  West^ 
minster  in  1S63,  when  king  John  passed  on  his  return  to 
England.  There  is  in  his  poems  a  pastoral  which  seema 
to  allude  only  to  that  event.  With  regard  to  his  travels 
during  the  time  he  was  attached  to  tbe  service  of  tbe 

F  R  O  I  S  S  A  K  T.  145 

<|^en,  be  employed  six  months  in  Scotland,  ^d  pen^ 
trated  as  far  as  the  Highlands.  He  trayelled  on  horaeba^k 
with  his  portmanteau  behind  hiin,  and  followed  by  a  grey-" 
hound.  The  king  of  Scotland,  and  many  lords  whos^ 
names  he  has  preserved  to  ns,  treated  him  so  handsomely^ 
that  he  could  have  wished  to  have  returned  thither.  Wil« 
Itam  earl  of  Douglas  lodged  him  during  fifteen  days  in  his 
castle,  of  Dalkeith,  near  Edinburgh  ;  but  we  are  ignorant 
of  the  date  of  this  journey,  and  of  another  which  he  made 
into  North  Wales.  It  may  be  inferred,  however,  that  he 
was  at  this  time  no  ordinary  character,  and  that  he  must 
have  possessed  talents  atid  accomplishments  to  entitle  him 
to  so  much  respect. 

He  was  in  France,  at  Melun  sor  Seine,  about  April  20, 
1366  ;  perhaps  private  reasons  might  have  induced  him  to 
take  that  road  to  Bourdeaux,  where  he  was  on  All  Saints* 
day  of  that  year,  when  the  princess  of  Wales  was  brought 
to  bed  of  a  son,  who  was  afterwards  Richard  H.  The  prince 
of  Wales  setting  out  a  few  days  afterwards  for  the  war  ia 
Spain,  Froissart  accompanied  him  to  Dax,  where  the  prince 
resided  some  time.  He  had  expected  to  have  attended 
him  during  the  continuance  of  this  grand  expedition  *,  but 
the  prince  would  not  permit  him  to  go  farther;  and  shortly 
afi^r  his  arrival,  %efit  him  back  to  the  queen  his  mother. 
Froissart  could  net  have  made  any  long  stay  in  Englaitdi 
Ance  in  the  following  year,  1368,  he  was  at  different  Ita-^' 
lian  courts.  It  was  this  same  year,  that  Lionelduke  of 
Clarence,  son  of  the  king  of  England,  espoused  Joland, 
daughter  of  Galeas  II.  duke  of  Milan.  Froissart,  whb  pro- 
bably was  in  his  suite,  was  present  at' the  magnificent  re- 
ception which  Amadeus  count  of  Savoy^  surnamed  the 
count  Verd,  gave  bkn  on  his  return :  he  describes'  the 
feasts  on  this  occasion^  which  lasted  three  day s ;  and  doea 
not  forget  to  tell  us  that  they  danced  a  virelay  of  his  com<*' 
poution^  From  the  court  of  Savoy  he  returned  to  Milan^ 
where  the  same  count  Amadeus  gave  him  a  good  cotardicj 
a  sort  of  coat,  with  twenty  florins  of  gold ;  and  from  thence 
to  Bologna  and  Ferrara,  where  he  received  forty  ducats 
from  the  king  of  Cyprus,  and  tt^en  to  Rome.  Instead  of 
thehiodest  equipage  he  travelled  with  into  Scotland,  he 
wasiUQw  like  a  man  of  importance,  travelling  on  a  hand* 
UPBCMOf  horse  attended  by  a  hackney* 

;   It  was  about  this  time  that  Froissart  experienced  a  loss 
which  nothing  could   recompense,   the  death  of  queen 
Vol..  XV.  L 

149  F  B  O  I  S  S  A  B  T, 

PhiU|E]|pa,  ivbicb  todk  flaoe  ia  1369»     He  ccdonposed  a  lajr 
on  ithU  oielancAioly  event,  of  ^hiob,  tbowmfoci  be  was  not 
SLyvk^QBfk'^  for  Jke  Bays,  in  ancMher  place^  that  in  4.3id*S  k 
was  twentynseveo  yea«»  siiice  he  had  seen  Eiigland.    Acf 
CQrcUng  to  Vqssiim  and  BuUsgit  he  wiote  the  Ule  of  queen 
Bbilippa ;  but  this  aasertion  is  not  foundod  on  any  proMia. 
Independently  of  the  employment  of  cler^  of  the  chamhcr 
to  the  queen  of  EngJaQd,  which  Froiaaart  had  held^  he  had 
tieon  ako  of  .the  household  oS  Edward  III.  and  even  of  that 
of  J.ohn,  king  .of  frmtioe.     Having,  however^  loeA  his  pa^^ 
U-ooeasi  be  did  not  return  to  Englantd,  bat  went  into  hie 
own  country,  where  he  .djNtaioed  the  Iiv,iug  of  Leatiaes.  Oi 
all  that  he  performed  during  the  time  he  eKeccised  this 
jQunistry,  he  testis  us  notbiog  asnore  than  that  the  4avern- 
keapees  of  Lestines  had  &ye  hundred  feancs  ,q£  his  money 
in  the  short  space  of  time  he  ^as  their  rector.    It  is  msa^ 
taoned  in  a  MS  journal  of  the  bidiop  of  Chartres^  chan-i 
eeUor  (to  the  duke  of  Anjou^.tbat  accoixLing  to  letters  sealed 
Dee.  12,  13Sd,  this  prince  caused  to  ihe  aeised  i&y^sis^ 
%u4rfis  of  the  Chronicle  joi  Fxoiasait,  cector  of  the  p«rkh 
church  of  Lestines,  which  tbe  faistoriaB  had  sent  to  ha 
illuminated,  and  then  to  he  forwa^rded  to  the  bis^  of  £og«« 
land,  the  enemy  of  France.     Froissart  attached  kimsiiiS 
afterwards  to  Winceslaus  of  LuxAmbourg,  dake  <of  Bra* 
bant,  perhaps  in  quality  of  secretary..    I'hia  pranoe  had. a 
taste mr  poetry;  he  had  made  by  Froissart  a  coUecdan  of 
his  songs,   rondeaus,  and  vireiays,  and  Froissart  adding 
aome  of  his  own  pieces  to  those  of  the  prince,  forined  a 
sort  of  romance,  under  the  title  of  ^^Meliador,    or  the 
Knight  of  the  Sun  f^  but  the  duke  did  not  live  to  see  tb€ 
eompletion  of  the  work,  .for  he  died  in  LS^4. 
*     Almost  immediately  after  this  event  Feoiss|ir(  found  aoo*' 
dber  patcon  in  Guy  count  de  Blois,  who  soadehiai^iflerfc 
of  his  chapel;  and  he  testified  his  gratiittde  by  a  f^i^stoad, 
and  epithalamium  on  a  marriage  in  the  family.     Hofiassied 
the  years  1S85, 13S6,  and, 1^87,  sometioBes  in  the  Blaisois, 
aometimes  in  Touraine ;  but  the  count  de  Bikns  haviag 
•ngaged  him  to  continue  his  history,  which  be  left  iin** 
finithed,  he  determined  in  138i  to  t|ika  a^hwitagfi  4»f  die 
peace  which  was  jui^  concluded,  to  visit  tbe  court  of  iGas*^ 
ton  Phoebus  count  de  Foix,  in  order  to  gain  full  h 
tion  in  whatever  related  to  foreign  countries,  and  the 
distant  provinces  of  the  kingdom.     His  health  and  age  still 
ftUowfd  him  to  bear  gr^at  fatigue  i  his  memory  was  4ut£«^ 

r  R  O  I  S  S  A  R  T.  147 

ctetidy  strong  to  retiim  whatever  he  should  hear;  and  his 
jadgneBt  dear  enough,  to  point  o«t  to  him  the  use  he 
sboitld  make  of  iL  In  his  journey  to  the  count  de  Foix, 
km  met  on  the  road  with  sir  E^aing  du  Lyon,  a  gallant 
knight  who  had  served  in  the  wars,  and  was  able  to  givfe 
luin  moch  information.  At  length  they  arrived  at  Ortes 
in  Btmm^  the  ordinary  residence  of  cbe  count  de  Fois*^ 
where  F4X>issart  in^  with  a  society  suited  to  his  views^ 
i^oaiposed  of  brave  captaiiiis  who  had  4istiog«ished  them- 
selves  Hi  coiirtiats  or  tournaments.  Here  Froissart  used  to 
entertain  Gaston,  after  supper,  by  reading  to  him  the  to* 
Inanoe  of  ^  iMeliador,"  which  he  had  brought  with  him. 
After  a  conuderable  residence  at  this  court,  he  left  it  in 
the  suke  of  the  young  duchess  of  Berry,  whom  he  accom* 
panied  to  Avignon.  His  stay  here,  however,  wm  uiyfor* 
tanate,  as  he  was  robbed ;  which  inctilent  he  madethe  ^siA- 
ject  of  a  long  poem,  nepresenting  bis  loss,  and  his  expend 
si^e  turn.  Among  other  filings  he  says  that  the  composi-- 
lion  of  his  works  had  cost  him  706  francs,  but  he  r^rel3te4 
not  tbis  OKpence,  for  he  adds,  **  I  have  composed  many  a 
history  ^hich  witt  be  spoken  of  by  posterity." 

After  a  series  of  travels  into  different  countiies,  for  the 
sake  of  obtaining  infonmation,  we  find  him  in  1390  in  bis 
owB  country,  soiely  ocnqpied  in  tbe'cotnpletion  of  hSA 
history,  at  least  until  1392,  when  he  was  again  at  Paris. 
From  the  year  1378  he  had  obtained  from  pope  Cloai^mt 
V^.  the  ireversion  of  a  csiDonry  at  Lille,  and  in  the  ctil^ 
leeaon  of  bis  poetry,  which  was  completed  in  1393,  and 
elsewhere,  he  calb  hiobelf  caooa  of  Lille ;  but  popie  Cie* 
meat  dying  in  1394,  he  gsrre  up  his  eHpectations  of  the 
reversion^  aad  began  to  ^qualify  himseif  as  canon  and  treii- 
sumr  of  the  eoUegiate  churoh  of  Chsaoay,  which  be  pro- 
bably dwed  to  ite  ^iendship  of  the  coant  de  Slois.  In 
1395,  -after  an  absence . of  twenty^seviaB  yeanrs,  be  returned 
to  England^  where  he  was  reconwd  with  marks  of  high 
fvvour  and  affection  by  Richard  IL  and  the  r<yfal  fatfiiiy ; 
tod  here  he  went  on  c6Uectiog  infornia)tion  for  his  history, 
and  had  <the  iibnaar  to  <pissenthis  *^  Meliador'*  to  the  king, 
%ho  wBssnuchdtslighted  with  it.  After  a  .residence  of  tbree 
wnoiths,  he  was  dismissed  with  mai4cs  of  princely  favoui", 
which  foB  dxteaireared  to  retarn  by  his  arffec&iot^te  and 
grateful  lamentation  on  the  death  of  his  royal  patroo,,  at 
3ie  end  of  the  fourth  volume  bf  his  histpyry. 

The  time  of  the  death  of  Froissart  has  not  been  decided 

L   2 

148  F  R  O  I  S  S  A  R  T. 

by  his  biographers.  He  relates  some  events  of  the  year 
1400,  and  by  some  is  thought  to  have  lived  considerably 
beyond  that  period,  but  nothing  certain  can  be  affirmed. 
He  probably  ended  his  days  in  his  own  chapter,  and  was 
interred  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Anne  in  the  collegiate  church. 
Although  he  was  die  author  of  SO, 000  verses,  his  poetical 
character  is  forgotten,  and  he  is  now  celebrated,  and  most 
justly,  as  a  historian.  His  Chronicle,  which  is  divided 
into  four  books,  comprehends  the  period  between  1326 
and  1400,  and  relates  the  events  which  took  place  not  only 
in  France,  but  in  Flanders,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  with 
numerous  details  respecting  the  papal  courts  of  Rome  and 
Avignon,  and  collateral  particulars  of  the  transactions  in 
the  rest  of  Europe,  in  Turkey,  and  even  in  Africa.  .  Hit 
reputation' stands  high  as  a  faithful  and  diligent  narrator  of 
what  he  saw  and  heard.  By  the  French  he  has  been 
charged  with  gross  partiality  towards  the  English;  they 
bring!  against  him  the  crime  of  making  Edward,  and  his 
son,  the  Black  Prince,  the  heroes  of  his  history.  But  it 
cannot  be  denied  that,  they  were  the  heroes  of  the  age  in 
which  they  flourished,  and  therefore  an  impartial  historian 
was  obliged  to  represent  them  in  their  true  colours,  and  to 
make  them  the  leading  characters  of  the  day.  Mr.  Johnes,' 
to  whom  the  public  is  indebted  for  an  admirable  editioiv  of 
Froissart's  Chronicles,  has  successfully  vindicated  the  cba* 
facter  of  the  historian  from  the  charge  of  partiality :  through-^ 
out  the  whole  work,  he  says,*  there  is  an  evident  disposi- 
tion to  give  praise  to  valour  on  whatever  side  it  was  em- 
ployed. The  historian  mourns  over  the  death  of  each 
valiant  knight,  exults  in  the  success  of  every  hardy  enter- 
prize,  and  seems  carried  away  almost  by  his  chivalrous 
feelings,  independently  of  party  considerations.  Till  the 
publication  of  Mr.  Johnes's  translation,  the  best  edition  of 
the^^  Chronicles'*  was  that  of  Lyons  in  four  Tolumes  folio, 
1559  ;  and  Mr.  Johnes  has  since  gratified  the  public .  wish 
by  an  equally  accurate  and  well  illustrated  edition  of 
Froissart's  continuator,  Monstrelet.  ^ 

FRONTEAU  (John),  canon  regular,  of  the  congrega- 
tion of  St.  Genevieve,  and  chancellor  of  the  university  ^f 
Paris,  was  born  at  Angers  in  1614.  His  father,  wa^  a  no*" 
tary  x>f  that  place.     He  was  first  educated  under  a  private 

1  life  of  Froissart)  by  St.  Palaye,  translated  and  edited  by  Thomas  JohneSy 
esq.  M.  P.  ISOl,  8to,  a  work  which  supersedes  the  necessity  of  referring  to  any 
other  avtbority. 

F  R  O  N  T  E  A  U.  149 

ecclesiastic  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Angers,  and  is  said  to 
have  made  such  rapid  progress  in  these'  his  early  studies, 
that  in  less  than  five  years  he  could  readily  translate  into 
Latin  and  Greek.  On  his  return  -to  Angers  he  studied 
three  years  in  the  college  of  the  oratory  there,  and  was 
afterivards  sent  to  that  of  La  Fleche,  where  he  completed 
his  classical  course.  In  1 630  he  took  the  habit  of  a  canon 
regular  of  the  abbey  of  Toussaint,  at  Angers,  and  made 
profession  the  year  following.  Having  dedicated  his  phi- 
losophicikl  thesis  to  father  Favre,  this  led  to  an  acquaint* 
ance  with  the  latter^  by  whose  orders  he  came  lo  Paris  in 
I€S6,  and  in  16*37  was  chosen  professor  of  philosophy  in 
the  abbey  of  St.  Genevieve*  His  first  course  of  phiioso^ 
phical  lectures  being  finished  in  1639,  he  was  employed 
to  lecture  on  divinity,  which  he  did  with  equal  reputation, 
following  die  principles  of  St.  Thomas,  to  which  he  was 
much  attached;  but  his  lectures  were  not  dry  and  scholas* 
tic,  but  enlivened  by  references  to  the  fathers,  and  to 
ecclesiastical  history,  a  knowledge  of  which  he  thought 
would  render  them  more  useful  to  young  students :  and 
besides  his  regular  lectures  on  theology,  he  held  every 
week  a  conference  on  some  subject  of  morals,  or  some  part 
of  the  scriptures.  Jansenius  having  published  his  *^  Au* 
gustinus,''  he  read  it^with  attention,  and  thought  he  dis- 
covered in  it  the  tf ue  sentiments  of  St  Augustine.  Some 
time  after,  the  Jesuits  having  invited  him  to  be  present  at 
the  theological  theses  of  the  college  of  Clermont,  and 
having  requested  him  to  open  the  ceremony,  he  delivered 
a  very  learned  and  eloquent  discourse,  which  was  at  first 
well  received,  but  having  attacked  a  proposition  concern- 
ing  predestination,  he  was  suspected  of  inclining  towards 
innovation.  In  a  conference,  however,  with  twp  fitthers 
of  the  congregation,  he  explained  his  sentiments  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  satisfy  them.  In  1648  he  was  made  chan- 
cellor of  the  university  of  Paris,  although  with  some  oppo* 
sition  from  the  members  of  the  university,  not  upon  his 
own  account,  but  that  of  the  fathers  of  the  congregation 
in  general,  who  had  rendered  themselves  obnoxious  to  the 
university  by  the  erection  of  a  number  of  independent 

•  After  passing  some  years  in  the  quiet  prosecution  of  his 
studies,  he  encountered  some  opposition  in  consequence 
of  the  five  propositions  condemned  by  the  popes  Innocent 
X.  and  Alexander  VIL     He  was  now  suspected  of  favour** 


iag  the  Jan^enUts,  and  af  asserting  tbal  ncr  one  e6uAd  sign 
the  formulary  witbaut  distinguiahing  the  fact  fioa  the 
right  This  induced  him  to  quit  his  office  of  regent  ia 
1  ^54,  and  aeeept  of  the  conventual  pricey  of  Benay,  ini 
the  diocese  of  Angers,  Here,  however,  he  did  not  con* 
stantly  reside^  but  preached  frequently  in  some  cathedrab^ 
a«id  performed  the  duties  of  his  office  as  chancellor  of 
the  university,  until  1661,  when  happening  to  be  at  Benay, 
he  received  an  order  from  the  court  to  remain  there  untii 
farther  orders.  This  was  occasioned  by  the  afpprobation 
be  had  given  to  a  French  translation  of  the  Missal  of  M. 
Yoisin,  which  at  first  be  did  not  choose  to  revoke.  It  does 
not  appear^  however,  idiat  while  he  i^eiltured  to  express^ 
liberal  notions,  he  had  the  courage* to.  maiataiat  them; 
against  the  authority  of  his  superiovs,  for  he  soon  concededr 
every  pointy  and  odered^to  sign  the  formuhiry  att>ove<- 
tiaentioiied,  virfaicb  he  had  hitherto  refused^  aikl  accord^ 
iiigly  was  permitted  to  return  to  Paris  in  166^,  where  the) 
sircbbishop  of  Sens  bestowed  on  him  the  office  of  pvioiK 
our6  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen>  of  Moiitargis ;  but  t&is  he  en^ 
jo3^d  but  a  very  few  daysy  being  seized  with,  a  diaorder 
which  carried  him  ofTy  April  17,  1662,  whom  only  forty <^ 
eight  years  of  age.  He  was  a  man  of  extensive  reading  \w 
ecclesiastical  and  profane  history  ;  and  as  a  preacher  wa» 
lively  and  eloquent.  He  obtained  much  reputation  for  his. 
discourses  when  bestowing  the  degree  of  master  of  antSy 
which  was  his  province  for  fifteen  years.  He  was  an  abler 
linguist,  not  only  in  the  modern,  but  ancient,  and  partis 
cularly  the  Eastern  languages.  Dupin,  who  gives  him  in- 
other  respects  a  very  high  character,  observes,  that  ho' 
never  attached  himself  so  closely  to  any  subject  as  to» 
handle  if.  tjiorougbly,  but  was  always  making  discoveries, 
starting  conjectures,  and  formjng  new  ideas,  and  giving 
his  subject  a  turn  altogether  uncommon. 

His  works  were,  1.  ^^  Summa  totius  philosophiee  e  D. 
Thomas  Aquinatis  doctrina,''  Paris,  1640,  fol.  2.  "  Tho^ 
mas  a  Kempis  vindicatus  per  unum  e  Canonicis  regulari* 
bus  congregationis  Gallicanae,''  Paris,  1641,  8-vo.  The 
purpose  of  this  is  to  prove  that  Thomas  a  Kempis,  and  noti 
Gerson,  was  the  author  of  the  celebrated  "  Imitation,^'  &c» 
and  it  produced  a  controfiersy,  of  which  some  notice  will 
be  taken  in  our  article  on  that  writer.  3.  "  Ivonis  Carno^ 
tensis  Episcopi  opera,''  Paris,  1 647,  fol.  This  edition  oS 
tlie  works  of  Ives  de  Cbartres  gave  some  offence  to  Souchei^i. 

F  11  O  N  T  E  A  U.  151 

^kose  notes-  he  hadb  adufited;  and  he  WM  o}>lig^d  to  d\^)d 
himself  iiy  a  letter  adcbeMecf  to  cbe  bishop  of  Pay.  4. 
^  BissertmiD  pfaiiolegtca  de  virginkate  hotiorata,  e^uditiay 
adortHOai^  foecunda/'  'MA.  1651.  5. '*  Antitheses  Aiigus^ 
tini  et  Calvin V  ibidi  1651,  16nio.  In' this  be  give^-  the 
pMrallel  paarfagerof  St.  Aueu^in  and  Galvin  on  the  subject 
ef  grace.  The  general  of  the  coagi^gation^  thinking  it 
iiight  tiekm  smne  noise  in  the  world,  stippri^sed  ail  the 
cofiiea  except  one,  from  which  a  friend  of  Fronteau  bad  a 
new  edition  printed.  %,  '^Kalendarium  Romanum,"  tzk^n 
froto  an  ancient  MS.  and- illustrated  by  a  preface  and  two 
diasertrntiDiiB,'  on  festiral  days,  and  saints'  days,  ibid*,  \651tf 
tro^  7.  '^  Oiutio  in  obituni  Mutthaei  Mol^,'*  ibid.  1656, 
4(0.  Mol6  w«B  Keeper  of  the  seals.  He  pnblished  also 
TarioiiB  epistles  and  tract*  on  subjects  of  ecclesiastical  his« 
tory.  His  own  liiiie  was  pubNshed  in  1663,  4to,  undet*  the 
tkte  ^  Joiin,  Frontonis  Memoria  disertis  pei^  ainkos  visrosque 
ebMrissini09  encomiis  celebrata.^  ^ 

FRONTINU8  (Sextus  Jones),  a  Roman  writer,  who 
floiivisbed^  in  (be  first  cetitary,  and  was  in  high  repute 
undM  Vespasian,  Titus^  Dotniti&til>  Kerva,  atid  Trajan^ 
was  a  man  of  consular  dignity,  a*  great  officer  wIm>  com^ 
manded  the  Rooian  armies  in'  Englainl,  and  elsewher^^  with 
aucoess  ^  and  he  is  mentioned  m  high  terms  of  panegyric 
by  all  the  writers  of  his  time.  He  vma  city- praetor  when 
Vespasian  and  Titus  were  consuls.  Nerva  made  hihi-  tVL^ 
lairor  of  the  aqu«educts,  which  occasioned^  htm  to  write' his 
treatise,  <<  &e  Aqoseductibus  Urbis-  Roins."  He  wrote 
also  <<  Tres  libros  Stmtagematum,"  or,  coiKierning'  the 
strattatgems  used  in  war  by  the  most  eminent  Greek  and 
Romam  commanders ;  and  afterwards  added  a  fourth,  con- 
taining examples  of  those  arts  and  maxims,  dii^oursed  of 
ki'  the  foro»er.  These  two  works  are  still  extant,  together 
with  a  piece  *'  De  Re  Agraria ;"  and  another,  <*  De  Limi^ 
libuB."  They  have  been  often  printed  separately,  but 
were  all  published  together  in  a  neat  edition  at  Amsterdam 
in'  1^661,  with  note»  by  Robertus  Keuchenius,  who  has 
pieced' at  the  end  the  fragments  of  several  works  of  Fron-i* 
cinos  that  are  lost.  This*  eminent  man  died  in  the  year 
10^6,  under  Trajan,  and  was  succeeded  as  augur  by  the 
younger  Pliny,  who  mentions  him  with  honour.  He  for* 
bade  any  monument  to  be  erected  to  him  after  his  deaUi^ 

'  Dupin.— Niceron^  toLXXL — Moreri, 


declaring,  that  every  man  was  sure  to  be  remembered 
without  any  such  testimonial,  if  he  had  lived  so  as  to  de- 
serve it  His  words,  as  Pliny  has  preserved  them,  were 
these:  '^Impensa  monumenti  supervacua  est;  memoria 
nostri  durabit,  si  vita  meruimus.'" 

FRONTON  (Du  Due,  or  Le  Due),  known  by  the  name 
of  Fronto  Due^us,  a  learned  Jesuit,  was  the  son  of  a 
counsellor  of  Bourdeaux,  where  he  was  bom  in  1558,  and 
made  a  Jesuit  in  1577.  He  studied  with  unwearied  appli^ 
cation  the  Greek  tongue,  and  became  one  of  the  ablest 
translators  and  editors  of  Greek  works  in  his  time.  He 
published  notes  and  corrections,  both  on  the  text  and  on 
the  translations  of  many  of  the  works  of  the  Greek  and 
Latin  fathers,  particularly  St.  Clemens  Alexandrinus,. St. 
Basil,  St.  Gregory  de  Nazianzen,  and  St.  Gregory  of  Nyssa, 
Zonaras,  Balsamon,  &c.  But  his  principal  work.  is.  his 
edition  of  the  works  of  St.  Chrysostom,  6  vols,  foU.  Paris^ 
1609 — 1624,  and  reprinted  there  in  1636,  and  at  Franc-^ 
fort  in  1698.  He  was  also  engaged  in  controversy,  and 
wrote  against  Philip  du  Plessis  Moroay.  He  died  at  Paris, 
pec,  12,  1624.  Dupin  informs  us  that  he  was  as  much 
esteemed  for  his  prudence  and  modesty  as  for  his  learning 
and  judgment,  that  his  merit  was  equally  acknowledged  by  > 
catholics  and  protestants,  and  that  there  was  scarcely  a 
learned  man  in  either  communion  with  whom  he  did  not 
correspond.  ^ 

FROWDE  (Phiu?),  an  English  poet,  was  the  son  of  a 
gentleman,  who  had  been  post-master  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Anne,  and  the  grandson  of  sir  Philip  Frowde,  a  loyal  officer 
in  king  Charles  I.*s  army.  He  was  sent  to  the  university  of 
Oxford,  where  he  had  the  honour  of  being  distinguished 
by  Addison,  who  took  him  under  his  protection.  While 
be  remained  there  he  became  the  author  of  several  pieces 
of  poetry,  some  of  which,  in  Latin,  were  pure  and  elegant 
enough  to  entitle  them  to  a  place  in  the  ^^  Mussb  Angli* 
canae.*'  He  wrote  likewise  two  tragedies :  "  The  Fall  of 
Saguntnm,''  dedicated  to  sir  Robert  Walpole ;  and  "  Phi- 
Jotas,"  addressed  to  the  earl  of  Chesterfield.  Neither  of 
these  were  very  successful  on  the  stage,  to  which  they  were 
thought  less  adapted  than  to  the  closet*  He  died  at  his 
lodgings  in  Cecil-street  in  the  Strand,  Dec.  19, 1738  ;  and 

*  Taciti  Agtco1a.«~Vos»ius  dc  Scient.  Math.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat. — A  list  of  the 
editions  of  his  woi|is  is  given  in  Dr.  Clarke's  Bibliographical  Dictionary.— Sax^ 
O^omast.  *  Moreri  in  Dae,— NiceroQi  yol.  2Qpcyi|l. 

F  R  O  W  D  E.  15S 

in  the  London  Daily-Post  had  the  following  character 
given  him :  "  Though  the  elegance  of  Mr.  Frowde's  writ- 
ings has  recommended  him  to  the  general  public  esteem, 
the  politeness  of  his  genius  is  the  least  amiable  part  of  his 
character  ;  for  be  esteemed  the  talents  of  wit  and  learning, 
only  as  th€iy  were  conducive  to  the  excitement  and  practice 
of  honour  and  humanity.  Therefore,  with  a  soul  chearful, 
benevolent,  and  virtuous,  he  was  in  conversation  genteelly 
delightful,  in  friendship  punctually  sincere,  in  death  Chris- 
tian ly  resigned.  No  man  could  live  more  beloved;  no 
private  man  could  die  more  lamented.^'  ^ 

FRUGONI  (Charles  Innocent),  an  Italian  poet,  was 
born  November  21,  1692,  at  Genoa,  of  a  noble  family, 
which  ended  in  him.  He  was  persuaded  by  his  tutors  to 
enter  the  order  of  regular  clerks  of  Somasquo ;  but  that 
confined  life  was  so  contrary  to  his  gay  temper,  and  fond- 
ness for  pleasure,  that  he  obtained  leave  from  the  pope  to 
quit  the  order,  and  remain  a  secular  priest  Frugoni  then 
setti^  at  Parma,  where  the  different  sovereigns  procured 
him  all  the  conveniences  of  life;  but  the  infant  don  Philip 
showed  yet  greater  attention  to  him  than  the  rest.  He 
gave  him  the  titles  of  court  poet,  inspector  of  the  theatres, 
and  secretary  of  the  fine  arts.  He  died  at  Parma,  Decem- 
ber 20,  1768.  His  poems  are  much  esteemed  by  the  Ita- 
Kans,  and  his  songs,  in  particular,  were.the  delight  of  his 
contemporawes.  An  edition  of  this  author's  works  was 
published  at  Parma  in  1779,  in  lOvols.  8vo.  They  con- 
sist of  every  species  of  minor  poems. ' 

FRUMENTIUS  (St.),  a  Romish  saint,  is  usually  called 
the  Apostle  of  Ethiopia,  on  account  of  bis  having  first  pro- 
pagated Christianity  in  that  country,  in  the  fourth  century. 
He  was  the  nephew  of  one  Meropius,  a  philosopher  of 
Tyre,  who  being  induced  to  travel  to  Ethiopia,  carried  with 
him  his  two  nephews,  Frumentius  and  Edesius,  with  whose 
education  he  had  been  entrusted.  In  the  course  of  their 
voyi^e  homewards,  the  vessel  touched  at  a  certain  port  to 
take  in  provisions  and  fresh  water,  and  the  whole  of  the 
passengers  were  murdered  by  the  barbarians  of  the  coun- 
try, except  the  two  children,  whom  they  presented  to  the 
king,  who  resided  at  Axuma,  formerly  one  of  the  greatest 
cities  of  the  East.  The  king,  being  charmed  with  the  wit 
and  sprightliness  of  the  two  boyssi  had  them  carefully  edu- 

1  9iog.  Dniin.-!!i-Clbber'8  Lirei.  *  Diet  Hist,  , 

I5i  F  R  U  M  E  N  T  f  U  S. 

^ale(i>  dBd;  when'  ggown  up,  nsftde  Ed^us  bib  eu^^b^rer^ 
and  FrtimQotms,  who  was  the  elder,  bis  ti«|i9«irev  fttid-  se^ 
Gffetavy  of  s^aie,  eHtr«9tiDg  bim  witk  ali  the  fmbUe  ivriti^s 
and  ac€<Hui43.  Nop  were  t^ey  lesfrbig^y  boiiaiii^  after 
tbe  kiag's  d^s^hr  ^y  tbe  q^e<H)|  who  ym»i  veg^et  dump  hits 
son's  {Biiion^y.  Frumenuusr  bad  tbe  priacipal  maoageioenfc 
of  affairs,  and  soon  tui^ned  bi^  attention-  to  bi^er  objecto 
tb^n  tibe  p(^ii^s  of  tbe  •  <$oaatvy.  He  met  wttb  some  Re^ 
luan  ii>0FobaB€s  wbo  traded  tbere,  died  hating  by  theiv 
«ieans  disQQVQred  soi»9  Cbmtians  wb(r  wejfe  in  the  king-» 
dom,  be  encouraged  tbem  ta  associate  for  the  purposes  of 
feUgious  wQcsbip ;  aind  at  length  erected  a  cbiir^k  for  their 
u^e;  and  certain  natives^,  ii^trueted  in^  the  gospel,  were 
converted.  Oa  the  young  king's  accession  to  the  goveto** 
pieat,^  Fri|aienti;us,  though  Wiib  much  f^lneli8«ic0  on  the 
part  of  %be  king  and  bis  aiatber,  obtained  lea?e  to  return 
%Q  bis  own  country,  £desiu»  accordingly  mtumed  to 
Tyre  I  buf;  Frunoentins-,  on  bis;  ai^rival  at  A^ssaadvia^  ceon 
taunicated  bis  advenitures  tx>  Atbanasius  ibe  bishepy  and 
informed  bim  of  tb^e^  probability  of  ce^veftiii^  tbe  counttjr 
%o  Christianity,  if  rai^isianaeies'  wc^e  aent  tbither.  Ola 
pature  consideration,  Athansisi.'Oft'  cold  biiii>  that  none 
was  so  fit  fine  the:  office  as  faijBiaelf>  He  consecrated  him 
therefore  ficst  bisbopf  of  the  Indians^  and  Frumentras  re^ 
^^ning  to  a  people  who-  had  bee^  ae(|Maint<id  with  bis 
iniegmy  and  capacity,  preached  the-  gospel  with*  moeb 
aiAQcess,  and  erected  many  churches,  akhou^  the  em"* 
peror  Constantius  endeivv^eu^redtO' introduce  Ariant^mv.  and 
^tmally  ordered  that  Frumentius.  should  be  deposed;  and 
an  AriaiL  bishop:  appGanted;bittr  the  country  was  happily 
put  q(  his  reach.  Frunpentkis  is  sdipposed  to  bate  died 
about  the  year  360^  The  Abyssinia^^  boi»eur  Mmas  the 
apostle  of  tbe  country  of  tbeAxuufiite&»,  which- is  tbeniase 
eon  sid  arable  jiart  of  their  enipire.  ^ 

F{IV£  (TjKOfiiAis),.  an  ingenious  artist,  was  anative  e£ 
Ireland,:  where  be  w^  born  in  1710.  He  came  very  earlj^ 
ta  London^  when  he  practised  portrait-paiatiog  in  oil^ 
crayons,  and  in  niuMature.  In  173^^  be  bad  the  honour  oS 
painting  bis  royal  highness,  Frederick  prince  of  Wales^  ai 
All!  leoglh>  now  in  Sadler's<>hall,  Gheapside.  But-  biisl 
geniiis  was*  not  confined  to  this  arty  and  k  is  said  that  be 
was  the  inventor  and  first  manufacturer  of  porcelain  ia 

k  Butler's  SaiDts.-*Milae('j(  Cb.  Eist,  .   > 

F  E  Y  E.  153 

Ifiigbinid,  aod  lliat  be  spont  flfi^iaii  yeani  of  hit  life  m  brings 
Hig  tl^  to  p«r£ectioB  at  a  mairafectory  at  Bow,,  ducing 
whiQb,  bis  opi)k9t4tutio»  being  iiapaired  by  coastaady  work* 
V)g  ia  fornnce^,  1^  ^ettped  ioto  Waller,  witb  little  bopje.  of 
reeovery.  Here,  however,  bis  healjth^  wa,s  perfeetly  re-« 
at^red,  ^nd  bet  returned  again  to  London,  and  resumed  hin 
pFQfessio%  to  which  he  now  added  the  art  of  mezzotiatat 
eageaving,  ai^d  had  coiisider^le  employment  and  aoceess^ 
botb  asr  a  patpter  and  engravet*.  He'  died  o(  a  decUnei,, 
bpongbt  QU  by  intense  application,  ApnUt  9,  1762. 
.  I«*  the  first  e&habition  in- 1760  there  was  a  balf-leogtb 
poc^r^it  of  the  famous  singer,  Leteri^ge,,  which  was^  painted!' 
by!  Fiye,  and  possessed  very  coosid^able  mevk ;  and  in 
tho  exbibition  of  tb^  following  year  be.  also  bad  pictures  iur 
all  tbe  different  processes  of  oil-colours,  cvayOns,  and  mi*^ 
ijiature.  Qf  bis  mezzotiato  productions,,  there  ares  siit 
heisKis  ais  large  as  life ;  one  of  tbem  ihe  porti^tof  the  artist 
bkni^elf ;  to  which,  may  be  added  two  oilier  portraits  o# 
Mieii^  majesties,,  the  ^ame  size  with  the  former,  but  iitferiop 
i»  exeoutioi).  He  bad  issued  pcx>posals  in  1760  for  twelve 
beads  in  the  above'  maaneff,  btU  we  presume  bis  iHness  and 
sfibsequent  death  prevented  bis^  completing  more  than  six  ^ 
ip,  these,  however,  be  shewed  rather  more  inidMstry  thanl 
JMdgnaaiit;  fiw  no  branch  of  efigraviug,. whether  in  mezzo- 
tinto,  or  in  strokes,  can  be  suited  to  the  display  of  portraits) 
of  such  niiagnitude.  ^ 

FBYTH.     See  FRITH. 

FUCH8,  or  FUCHSIUS  (Leona«d),  an  eminent  Ger- 
man physician  and  botanist,  was  bora  at  Wembding,  iu< 
BsMi^aris^  in  15Q1.  After  a  cla^cal  education  aJb  Haalbfun» 
a0d  £rfurt,  be  went  in  his  nineteenth  year  to  Ingoldstad«, 
where  he  pursued  the  study  of  the  learned  languages  under 
Gapnius  and  Ceporinus,  two  eminent  professon^  who  hact 
embraced  the  doctrines  of  the  reformation,  which  they 
imparted  ta  their  pupil.  He  received  the  degree  of  master 
of  arts  in  1521,  and  having  also  studied  medicine,  was 
admitted  to  his  doctor's  degree  in  1524.  He  first  praC'-^ 
tised  at  Munich,  where  he  married,  and  had  a  large  family, 
and  in  1526  he  removed  to  Ingoldstadt,  and  was  made 
professor  of  medicine;  but  his  religion  occasioning  some 
trouble,  be  settled  at  Onoltzbach  about  two^  years  after- 
wards^ under  the  patronage  and  protection   of  George, 

)  Edfvards's  Paiiitcrs. — StroU*6  DIctieaary.^Geut,  Mag.  vol.  X^IV. 

156  F  U  C  H  S. 

margrave  of  Bayreuth.  Here  he  was  very  suocessful  as  a 
practitioner,  and  published  some  treatises  on  the  healing 
art.  In  1533,  the  management  of  the  university  of  Ingold-' 
stadt  being  committed,  by  William  duke  of  Bavaria,  to 
Leonard  Eccius,  a  celebrated  lawyer,  acquainted  with  the 
meri^  of  Fuchs,  he  procured  his  return  to  his  former  profes- 
sorship ;  but  his  zeal  for  the  reformed  religion  was  still  too 
prominent  not  to  give  offence,  especially,  we  should  sup- 
pose, to  John  Eccius  (see  Eccius),  then  a  professor  there, 
and  he  returned  to  Onoltzbach.  Two  years  after,  how- 
ever, he  found  an  honourable  asylum  in  the  university  of 
Tubingen,  which  Ulric,  duke  of  Wirtemberg,  had  deter- 
mined to  supply  with  protestant  professors,  and  where  he 
provided  Fuchs  with  an  ample  salary,  and  every  encou- 
ragement. In  this  place  he  remained  until  his  death,  May 
10,  1566.  He  died  in  the  arms  of  his  wife  and  children, 
full  of  faith  and  fortitude,  having  in  the  course  of  his  ill- 
ness been  observed  to  experience  no  relief  from  his  suflfer- 
ings,  but  while  conversing  with  his  friends  on  the  subjects 
of  religion  and  a  future  state,  which  made  him  forget  every 
thing  else,  and  he  expressed  himself  with  all  his  usual 
energy  and  perspicuity.  He  was  interred,  the  day  zlter 
his  death,  in  a  burying-ground  adjoining  to  the  town, 
where  his  first  wife  had  been  deposited  but  little  more  than 
three  years  before. 

Some  botanical  remarks  of  Fuchs,  relating  principally 
to  the  Arabian  writers,  are  found  in  the  2d  volume  of  the 
^*  Herbarium"  of  Brunfelsius.  But  the  work  on  which 
hiis  reputation  in  this  study  chiefly  rests,  is  his  "  His- 
toria  Plantarum,'*  published  at  Basil  in  1542,  fol.  with 
numerous  wooden  cuts.  A  German  edition  appeared  the 
following  year.  In  this  work  he  chiefly  copies  Dioscorides, 
adding  a  few  remarks  of  his  own,  and  falling,  as  Hatler 
observes,  into  the  common  error  of  the  writers  of  his  time, 
who  expected  to  find  in  their  own  cold  countries  the 
plants  of  those  more  genial  climates  where  the  ancients 
studied  botany  and  medicine.  The  publication  of  Fuchs, 
l;hough  nearly  on  a  par  with  those  of  other  learned 
men  of  his  time,  would  probably  have  been  long  since 
forgotten,  were  it  not  for  the  transcendant  merit  of  its 
wooden  cuts,  inferior  to  those  of  Brunfelsius  alone  in  exe- 
cution, and  far  exceeding  them  in  numbers  They  chiefly 
indeed  consist  of  pharmaceutical  plants,  which  though 
mere  outlines,  are  justly  celebrated  for  their  fidelity  and 

F  U  C  H  S.  157 

elegance.  These  original  editions  are  become  very  rare ; 
but  copies  and  translations  of  them,  various  in  merit,  are 
common  throughout  Europe.  Amongst  the  poorest  of 
these  is  a  French  duodecimo,  printed  at  Lyons,  under  the 
title  of  Le  Benefice  Commun,  in  1555,  for  which  our 
author  is  certainly  not  responsible,  and  it  is  rather  bard  in 
Linnaeus  to  class  him,  on  account  of  some  such  spurious 
editions,  under,  the  heads  of  monstrosi  and  rudes  in  his 
*^  Bibiiotheca  Botanica,"  though  indeed  he  there  properly 
stands  amongst  the  usitatissimi  with  respect  to  his  original 
edition.  By  some  of  his  writings,  especially  his  "  Cor* 
narus  fureus,"  published  in  1545,  against  Cornarus,  who 
had  attacked  his  <<  Historia  Plantarum''  in  a  work  entitled 
.".  Vulpecula  excoriata,'"  he  appears  to  have  been  vehement 
in  controversy,  but  in  his  general  character  and  deport- 
ment he  is  said  to  have  been  dignified  and  amiable»  with  a 
fine  manly  person,  and  a  clear  sonorous  voice.  His  piety^ 
temperance,  and  indefatigable  desire  to  be  useful^  were 
alike  exemplary.  As  a  lecturer  he  was  peculiarly  admired 
jftnd  followed,  especially  in  his  anatomical  courses.  The 
famous  Vesalius  was  present  at  one  of  his  lectures,  in  which 
he  found  himself  criticized.  He  afterwards  familiarly  ad- 
dressed the  professor,  saying,. '' why  do  you  attack  me 
who  never  injured  you  ?*'  "  Are  you  Vesalius  ?"  exclaimed 
Fuchs.  "  You  see  him  before  you,"  replied  the  former. 
On  which  great  mutual  congratulations  ensued,  and  a 
strict  friendship  was  formed  between  these  learned  men. 
Fuchs  was  so  famous  throughout  Europe,  that  the  great 
Cosmo  duke  of  Tuscany  invited  him,  with  the  offer  of  a 
salary  of  600  crowns,  to  become  professor  of  medicine  at 
Pisa,  which  he  declined.  The  emperor  Charles  V.  also 
bora  testimony  to  his  merit,  by  sending  him  letters  with 
the  insignia  of  nobility,  which  honour  also  Fuchs  for 
some  time  declined.  He  was  indifferent  to  money,  as  well 
as  to  all  other  than  literary  fame.  ^  His  great  ambition  was, 
whenever  he  undertook  in  his  turn  the  rectorship  of  the 
university,  to  promote  good  order,  industry,  and  improve- 
ment among  the  students,  whom  he  governed  with  paternal 
assiduity .  and  affection.  Two  colleges  were  always  under 
bis  immediate  care,  one  of  them  founded  by  duke  Ulric 
for.  students  of  divinity  alone,  and  more  ampiy  endowed 
by  his  son  and  successor.  ^  .         . 

'  Melcjiior  Adam  in  vlt.  German,    medic. — Niceron.  rol.  XVIJT.— Ualler 
BibWBot.«-p"Tbe  latter  part  from  £>r.  Smith  ']Xi  Rses's  Cydo^ae  I. — Saxii  Oaomast. 

158  FU  E  S  S  L  I. 

FUE»»U,  w  FUS8LI  (John  Gasfard),  a  Swim  «^^, 
•nd  a  man  (^  considerable  learnit^,  was  born  at  Kuhod 
in  1706.     After  acquiring  the  elenients  of  panttng  from  a 
very  indifferent  artist,  he  left  his  country  in  cbe  .eigiite^h 
year  of  bis  age,  and  going  to  Vienna,  associated  Mms^lf 
wdth  Sedelnieier.     Gran  and  Meitens  were  lus  firincipal 
guides,  if  he  could  be  said  to  have  any  other  guide  tbali 
bis  own  genius.     He  became  well  known  at  court,  bat  hbi 
love  of  independence  indaced  him  to  refuse  very  advanta* 
geous  offers.     He  would  not,  faowerer,  have  probAVy  ever 
left  Vienna,  bad  not  the  prince  of  Sohwarzenburg  per^ 
amaded  him  to  go  to  Radstadt,  where  he  beoaine  the  fa* 
irouarite  of  the  court     Among  others  whose  portraits  be 
painted  was  the  margrave  of  Doutiwdi,  wbo  bad  a  gneat 
affection  for  him,  and  advised  him  to  go  tx>  Ladmgsbmrg^ 
wfaicfa  be  did  with  letters  of  recooMneiidation  to  the  duke  of 
lA^irtemfaerg,  who  imroediateiy  took  bim  into  bis  serviceL 
Mem  be  ipassed  liis  time  very  agreeably,  making  occasional 
excuMions  to  paiiiit  the  portraits  of  persons  of  diat&nction^ 
until  the  war  of  Poland,  when  the  Entrance  of  the  French 
itit»  Gerowny  threw  every  thing  into  confusion.   The  dobd 
bis  patiron  at  the  same  time  felt  sick,  and  was  reteeiretl  to 
Sbtttgas^d,  but  on  Fuessli's  leaving  him  ie  go  to  Nuremberg^ 
bis  highness  pnese-oted  bim  widi  a  gold  watch,  andceopiestwd 
bjn  to  ireturu  when  the  state  of  public  %1h.m  wa^  changed* 
At  Narembei^  he  had  a  strong  desire  to  see  the  ceMbrated 
9<itiflt  Kupeski',  of  whose  teanners  lie  had  imbibed  an  un< 
>&voiirable  impression,  bwt  he  vi«s  agreeably,  disappointed^ 
and  <they  beoatne  friends  from  dieir  irst  inberview.     Alter 
semaimng  <six  «iontbs'at  Nuremberg,  the  dtvke  of  Wirmsi'* 
beiig  died,  and  flbere  being  no  i«»(Medfate  prospect  of 
peaiee,  FuesG^i  returned  to  his  own  country,  and  in  lV4d 
married.     Akhougb  bis  wife  was  a  very  amiable  woman^ 
be  €ised  to  «ay  that  maniage  was  inoom|>atible  with  the 
cidlavation  of  the  fine  arts :  if,  4)owet^,  ne  {ete  ibimself 
^oadionally  disturbed  by  domestic  cares,  be  bad  tbe  hap'^ 
piiMsss  t(5  comnMtmcate    bis  art  to  his  three  sotis^  How 
dolph,  who  settled  at  Vienna ;  fleiity,  at  present  so  well 
known  in  Ekigland  ;  and  Caspar,  who  died  in  ikm  vigour  of 
life,  an  entomologist  of  fidelity,  disccinafination,  and  taste. 

Fuessli's  talents  and  repuution  procured  bfan  tlve  ^friend- 
ship  of  the  greatest  artists  of  his  time,  and  Mengsisentbiiii' 
his  treatise  '^  on  the  beautiful,^'  which  he  published  with 
a  preface.   Winkelmann,  especially,  lived  in  great  intimacy 

E  U  E  S  S  L  I,  119 

with  bim.  HU  ^aiaito  for  poetry  adso  procured  tiftn  the  M- 
quaifttance  and  oorreeqpMidence  of  Keist,  Klop^took^  Wie-* 
land,  Boidaier,  and  Sreidi^guer,  nor  was  he'les^  ^j^cted 
by  many  pcnoas  of  the  first  distinction  in  rKtifa,  and  iAs 
house  was  freqoeoted  by  all  the  Uteratr  of  his  titne,  whom 
he  .delighted  byliis  eonversation-talents.  Nor 'was  be  in- 
considerable Bs  a  patron  of  %he  arts.  He  -gav^e  lessons 
gratis  to  aiany  young  persons,  and  made  Qollections  tt 
acfiifit  them  in  Hkeir  studies  and  travels,  eniiploying  4iis 
interest  .with  the  gr«at  only  fot  the  b^6lit  of  •genius  an4 
tidents.  la  174^  and  i742  he  had  ihe'iiiisforttune  to  lose 
bifl  two  friends  Kupeaki  and  Rngefidas,  both  whose  li^^fii 
he  iwnate,  mikd  this  employiaaent  seems  to  have  suggested  to 
him  ^  Tbe  Lives  of  the  Artist  of  Switzerland/'  which  he 
wKOtB  with  great  elie^mce  and  oritwcai  discrimination^ '  H6 
pnUhsfacd  Bbo  a  ^^  Catalogue  raisenn^  of  the  best  £ngirav«- 
i^ga."  ttis  awn  collection  was  uocon^monly  lich^  in  the 
finest  apecioienA  of  that  art  Of  his  paintitigls,  hiis  son  ap«- 
peals  to  the  series  of  consular  portraits,  which  he  painted 
M&ef  his  return  «to  24iiriob,  engraved  in  ■mez-Eot^to  by 
Pi-eisler  and  odaers,  as  a  lair-^est  of  his  style  and  ta^te. 
He  died  at  Z«rich,  May  6^  4  784.  His  lives  of  Rngendas 
and  Kupexki  were  pnidis^faed  at  Zurich  in  1756  ;  his  Swiss 
Artists  in  6  yols.  1769 — 1779  ;  and  his  Cat^dogue  of  £n- 
graMcrs  and  their  works,  in  1770.  Besides  these  he  pub <» 
l^ed  <^  Winkelmann's  Letters  to  h^is'  friends  in  Switzer«» 
land,"   1778^  and  Mengs  f'  On  Beanty,"  in  1770.* 

FiJGGEM,  (HuLDRic)^  an  eminent  benefactor  to  litera*^ 
ta^rcy  was  born,  at  Aiagsbnrg  in  1526,  and  deserves  a  place 
in  ithis  woitk  for  his  affection  to  learning  and  learned  men^ 
His  family  was  coninderable  for  its  antiquity  and  opulence ; 
and  Th^anus  informs  ms,  tihat  when  Charlei  V.  changed 
the  gOFernment  ^f  Augslnirg,  in  1 548,  he  nominated  the 
£smiiy  of  the  Fuggers  among  Aose  who  thenceforward 
were  to  be  raised  to  the  dignity  of  senators.  Yet  this  iU 
hotrious  family,  as  all  the  genealogical  writers  of  G^ro^any 
notice,  sprang  from  a  weaver,  whe>  in  1^70,  was  made 
firee  of  4;he  cky  of  Augsburg.  Huidric  bad  been  ehamb^er'^ 
lain  to  po^  Paul  liL  and  afterwards  tuiDed  pix>testant. 
He  laid  out  gr^eat  suras  in  purchasing  good  manuscripts  of 

ancient  authors,  and ''getting  them  printed;  and  for  thi^ 

.  ■•  . 

1  Meister'g  Portraits  of  Illustrious  Men  of  Switzerlancl. — Pilkin^on's  Diet,  bj 

IM  F  U  G  G  E  R. 

purpose  be  for  some  time  allowed  a  salaiy  to  the  famom 
Henry  Stephens.     His  relations  were  so  incensed  at  him^ 
for  the  money  he  expended  in  this  way,  that  they  brought 
an  action  against  him,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was 
declared  incapable  of  managing  his  affairs.     Thuanus,  and  - 
some  other  writers  observe,  that  this  sentence  proK^ounced 
against  Fugger  plunged  him  into  a  deep  melancholy,  which 
accompanied  him  almost  to  his  grave ;  but  it  is  asserted  ia  ' 
his  epitaph,  that  he  was  unmoved  at  the  shock,  and  that 
he  was  soon  after  restored  to  his  estate.     He  had  retired  to 
Heidelberg,  where  he  died  in  1584;  having,  bequeathed 
:his  library,  which  was  very  considerable,  to  the  dector 
Palatine,  with  a  fund  for  the  maintenance  of  six  scholars. ' 
.    FULBECK  (WiLUAM),  an  English  law-writer,  was  the  - 
son  of  Thomas  Fulbeck,  who  was  mayor  of  Lincoln  at  the 
time  of  his  death  in  1566.     He  was  born  in  the  parish  of 
St  Benedict  in  that  city  in  1560,  entered  as  a  commoner 
of  St.  Alban  hall,  Oxford,  in   1577,  and  was  admitted  ^ 
scholar  of  Corpus  Christi  college  about  two  years  after.    In 
1581  he  took  his  baehelor^s  degree,  and  the  liext  year 
became  probationer  fellow.     He  then  removed  to  01ou<»  . 
cester-hall  (now  Worcester  college)  where  be  completed 
the  degree  of  M.  A.  in  1584.    From  Oxford  he  went  to  ' 
Gray^s  Inn,  London,  where  he  applied  with  great  assi-» 
duity  to  the  study  of  the  .municipal  law.     Wood  says,  he 
bad  afterwards  the  degree  of  civil  law  conferred  on  him^ : 
but  where  he  had  not  been  able  to  discover,  nor  is  the 
place  or  time  of  bis  death  known.     From  an  extract  from 
bishop  Kennet,  in  the  new  edition  of  Wood,  it  seems  not 
improbable  that  he  took  orders.     His  works  are,  i.  ^^  Chris-  - 
tian  Ethics,"  Lond.  1587,  8vo.     2.  "An  historical  coUec-^ 
tion  of  the  continual  factions,  tumults,  and  massacres  of 
the   Romans  before  the  peaceable  empire  of  Augnstur 
Caesar,"  ibid.  1600,  8vo,  1601,  4to.     3.  "  A  direction  or 
piteparative  to  the  study  of  the   Law,*'  ibid.  1600,  Sto,  ^ 
afterwards  published,  with  a  new  title-page,  as  ^*  A  pa- 
rallel or  conference  of  the  civil,  the  canon,  and  the  com- 
mon law,**  ibid.  1618.     4.  "  The  Pandects  of  the  Lawsc^ 
Nations;  or  the  discourses  of  the  matters  in  law,  wherein 
the  nations  of  the  world  do  agree,"  ibid.  1602^  4to.  * 

FULBERT,  bishop  of  Cbartres,  who  flourished  tbvi^di  - 
the  end  of  the  tenth  and  beginning  of  the  eleventh  cen» 

1  Bayle  in  Gen.  Diet.-- Moreri.  ^  Atb.  Ox.  new  edit,  by  Blist,  toI.  I. 


i»vf,  H  cetebmtdd^  in  di*  Bomkh  cburch.  hi^ory,  for  hU 
leajruiiig:  and  .^iety*  Some  authors  rank  bkn  among  tiae 
obAMeliofB  of  Fraoce^  under  the  reigo  of  king  Robert,  but 
be  .was  ooly  cbanaellor  of  tbe  church  of  Cbartrefl,  at  the 
^aine  time  that  he  was  rector  of  the  school.  He  bad  been 
himself  a.  disciple  of  the  learned  Gerbert,  who  was  aft^- 
wiMxls  pope  Sylvester  IL  in  the  year  999.  Fulbert  came 
frooi  Rome  to  France,  and  taught  in  the  schools  belonging 
to  tbe  ehurcb  of  Chartrea,  which  were  then  not  pnly  a^- 
' tended 'iiy  a^gteat  concoocseof  scholars,  but  by  his  means 
cotitrilHitedi  *gceatly  to  tbe  revival  of  learning  and  religion 
.in  Fraooe  and  Getisaoy ;  and  most  o£  the  eminent  men  of 
Jiis  time  thought  tt  :aQ  bpnour  to  be  able  to  say  that  they 
had  been  his  scholars.  In  1007  he  suc^ceeded  to  the  bishop*- 
ric  of  Chartxes,  and  the  duke  William  gave  him  the  oCBce 
of  treasorei^  of  St.  Hilary  of  Poiuers,  the  pro6ts  of  which 
fulbert  eoipbyed  in  rebmlding  his  cathedral  church.  He 
was  di^inguisbed  in  his  time  for  attachment  to  eoclesias'* 
tical  discipline,  and  apostolic  courage;  and  such  was-  his 
cbaraoter  and  f(ime,  that  be  was  higiily  esteemed  by  the 
priocea  and  sovereigns  of  his. age,  by  Robert,  king-wf 
£rano^  Canute,  king  of  England ;  Richard  II.  duke  of 
Norsaandy ;  William^  duke  of  Aquifcaine ;  and  the  greater 
part  of  due  contemponuy  noblemen  and  prelates.  He 
ooDtimied  bishop  of  Cbartreafor  twenty-one  years  and^x 
months^  and  died,  aoeordii>g  to  tbe  abbe  Fleuri,  in  1029; 
))ut  others,  with  more  probikbility,  fix  that  ^vent  on  April 
10^  Iil£d..  -.  His  woidLs,  which  were  printed',  not  very  jcop- 
raetljy-.  by  Charles  do  ViUieis  in  1608,  consist  of  letters, 
jemuos,  and  some  Lesaer  pieoes  in  prose  and  versa  His 
eermonsy  Dopia  thinks^. contain  little  worthy  of  notice; 
bttt  hia  letters,  which  .amoumt  to  i84,  have  ev^r  beencon«> 
eidbfcA  as  curious  inemonals  of  tbe  history  ^nd  sentimknla 
of  the  Junes.  They  pnohre,  boweyer^tfaat  although  Fuibett 
laigkA  ceatribute  imuihito  the  propagation  of  learnings  he 
liad.nat  advanced  in  liberality  <^f  sentimemt  befove  bis  eon^ 
teospctrams.  Tfaera^ate  klso  two  other  letters  of  pur  pre^- 
I^M  .m  texiatenoe,  t|ie  one  in  D'Acheri's  ^Spictlegium,^ 
and  tbe  etheit  ia  Martcbae's  <^  Theaaufus  Anecdo^ocum/! 
both  lUoatratiKe  of  his  jentimejota,  and  the  aentimeflilM  of 

liisage.^  ■*.  ''"'  'V     ■ 

■     ■ 

Vol,  XV.  „  .'      M  '■, 


:t49  F  V  htH.  NTI  US. 

<-  FUC&ENTIUS  (St.)  an  ecdcriastical  writer^  was  bortt 
««t  Tri^pu^  or  Teltepte,  almit  tbe  year  468.  He  waa^of 
^ti  iHastrioits  family,  ibe  son  of  X^taodiusi  and  grandson  of 
«6brdiiuius,  b.  senator  of  XIarttiage.  Claodias  flying  early, 
^laft hit^ son/ tiben  very  youag,  to. tbe  care  of  bis  widoar 
4tfariana.  He  was^prof^eriy  educated  in  the  knowledge  of 
tbe  Latin  and  Greek  langaages,  aiid  made  sucb  progvess 
in-  bis  studieS)  that  while  yet  a  boy  be  oooid  repeat  all 
•Udm^r^^tod  spoke  Greek  with  fluency  and  puritjr.  A 
^-sooft^MiR)  was  capable  of  an  enploymeni  l^e  was.florade 
^procuiMor  or  receiver  of  tbe  revemies  of  ;fais  province, 
•l^at  tbit/  situation  dispteased  him,  because  of  tbe  ^geur  Ji6 
was  forced  to  use  in  levying  taxes;  and  therefore^  not- 
withstanding th^  tears  and  dissuasions  of  bis  mother,  he 
leA%he  wortd,  and  took  the  monastic,  vows  under  Fanstu^ 
a  bishops  pcfrsecuted  by  the-  Ar ian  faction,  who  bad  founded 
•amon^tery  in  that  fietghbourbood.  The  continued  peiw 
%eeu^orl^-^'tbe  Arian)$  soon  separated  ^htm  and.Faustus^ 
■and  not  long  after,  the  incursions  of  the  Moors  obliged 
btid  to  r^fttre  into  tbe  country  of  l^cca,:  where  be 'Was 
^«Mpp6d';litid'  iddprisoned.  ^  Afterwards  .be  resolved  tO'gls 
imp'kgfpt;  but  in  bia  voyage  was  dissuaded  by  Euhitos 
IfMici^^of  •  Synccilse,  becniase  tbe  monks  of  theJEa^Jiad 
aeparated  from  ^ibe-catholic  churcbw  He  consulted  >alaei 4 
bikn^  ^Africa,  who  bad  retired:  into;  SiciW:L-aiid.  tlal 
bishop- iidvised  him  tatetumtobis  o«sn. country^  after 'jUc 
bad  floade^'a  jciorney  •  tO'  Home.-  -  Kintg  Tbeodorie  wasJoii 
that  'city  wb^u  be  arrived*  tbere^  ^iKfaicbi.waES'in:.:tbeijDetHp 
509.  After  be  bad  visited  tbe  sepulcbfts  of  )tfa€^  apostles 
he  returned  to  his  oWAcoaatfy^  wterebebuiltamoQaatesjr: 
:,  Africa  was -tfaeii  tiiider  the  dominion^  TbrasimondJciiig 
<it  tbe  Vandals,  an- Arian,  and  ^a- cruel  enemy  tortba^JBa^ 
tbolics.  He  had  forbidden  tdotdain  catboliC'  bishsfiaiii 
Ibe  room  of  tbdse  who.  died :  but  thelusbops  ofAfricainaeNt 
determined  not  to 'obey  m^  order  iWbieb  tbneaieadd  the 
extfnction  of  orthodoxy^  Falgentios,«nder.tbeaeoeiresMii^ 
atalices,  wished  to  avoid  being  ia bishop  ;<aad  wbeitideeiyftd 
for  the  see  of  Viata  in  the  year  JiOuT^  fled  aodicainB^^isd 
BimMslf,  but  being  soon  diseoviaaad^  iaaaappotomdl>isbjDp: 
of  Rnspe  .much  against  faiS  wilb  ^<  X)n  tUa  efevatfaoJi^  im 
not^ange  either  his  habit  or  manner  of  lining,.  I>tttiiised 
the  same  austerities  and  abstinence  as  before.  He  still 
loved  the  monks,  and  ddighted^b  retire  into  a  mohasti^jr 
as  often  as  tbe  business  of  his  episcopal  function  allowed 

him  time:  *  Afterwaidi  be  bad  tbe  same  fate  9fiA  aboiit 

two  buiidred  aod  twenty  catholic  bishops  of  Africa,  Wboioi 
•rThrasimond  banished  into  the  island  of  Sardinia^;  and 

tfaough  be  was  not  tbe  oldest  among  tbem,  yet  tbey  pw4 

mocbi  respect  to.  bis  learaiog,  as  to  employ  his  pen  in  alt 

:tfae^wfittaga  produced  in  the  name  of  their  body.    Slo 

:gfeat'  was  his  raputation,  that  Tbrasimond  had  a  curiosity 

to  see  and  hear^bim ;  and  having  sent  for  him  to  Carthage 

be  proposed  to  him  many  difficulties,  which  FulgeotitU 

-sohed  to  h|s  aaltsfactioo :  but  because  he -confirmed  the 

oatbolicf,  and  convefted  many  Arians,   tbf^r  bishop  at 

•C^rtbage.  prayed  the  king  to  ^nd  him  back  to.  Sardioif* 

Tiairasimond  dying  about  tbe  year  523,  his  son  Hilderlc 

Tdcalbsd  the  catholic  bishops,  of  whom  Fulgentius  was  one» 

.Ueretamed,  to  tbe  great  joy  of  those  who  were  concerned 

«i«ithjbim,  led  a  most  exemplary  life,  governed  bis  olergy 

well,  iafkd  performed  all  tbe  offices  of  a  good  bishop.     He 

'dmd  in  theye8v.53S,  on  tbe  first  day  of  the  year^  being 

>lib«^  sixty«>five. 

.  His^wDrks,  as. many  of  them  as  are  extant,  eonsistin^pf 

4octriaal  treatises  and  some  epistles,-  bave^  oftff^  beOft 

panted  j  but  the  last  and  completeat  edition  is  in  one^or 

liime^  4to^  Paris,  i684.    Fulgentius  did  not  only  foUqir 

Hboidoctrine  of  St.  Austint  but  be  also  imitated  bia.slyji^ 

I2is  language,  indeed,  is  not  q^iite  so  pure ;  but  be  ba^s^spt 

tUe  same  play  of  .words  as  St*  Austin.     Jie  had  a  quick  and 

aubtler-^IHrit,  which  eaaily  comprehended  whatever  be  ap^r 

pliediximaelf  to  learn  ^  aod  be  had  a  clear  aod  copious  way 

of  seiqag  it  off;  too  copious  indeed,  for  he  often  repeats 

tbe^Mme  .things  in  different  words,  and  turns  the  question 

iptany.differeDt  ways.     He  was  deeply  versed  in  tb^e  holy 

fcripturea,  andas  well  read  in. the  fathers,  particularly  St. 

.  Au9^ :  but,. as  he  loved  thorny  and  scholastic  questiopi^ 

Jbetenetimesintrodttcedtbem  in  thedUcussion  of  mysteries,^, 

.  jt  F0LOE.NTIUS  PLANCIADES  (Fabius),  who  is  somer 

tnwnr. Gonfoonded  with  tbe  preceding  St.  Fulgentius,  ia 

dujppoaed  so  bave^beep  bishop  of  Carthage  in  the  sixth  ceii^ 

ttuy^  Jiiiit some  think  not  before  the  eighth  or  ninth.     He 

ia^ili^Autbor  of  three  books  of  my thoIogy,<  addressed  to 

one  €at08,:<a  priest.    They  were  first  published  in  1 4:999 

dr JttiUn^  in,  folio,  by  Jo.  Bapt  Pius,  who  added  a  cpmmei>.T 

-  ''•b 

.  9r  J>upUi.««CMet  vqU  l.'-»|fortri.-r-Miiner*s  Ch.  HUt.  vqI.  HI,  p.  l.-»S^xii 

M  2 

1*4  F  U  L  G  E  N  T  I  \J'S. 

taiy.  Jerome  Commelin  reprinted  them  in  1599,  with  tlie 
works  of  other  mythologists.  There  is  likewise  a  tr^tise 
by  hitn  **  De  Prisco  Sermone,  tiA  Cbalcidiuin,"  published 
by  Hadrian  Junius,  at  Antwerp^  1565^  atbl^  mth  Nonius 
Marciellus,  and  afterwards  reprirtted  with  the  "  Auctores 
Lingoae  Latinse,"  Paris,  1586,  '^nd  eVse#fiere,  Hiswoirfts 
are  now  rather  curious  than  valuable,  as  they  bear  the  im- 
press of  the  dark  age  in  which  he  lived.* 

FULGOSO  (Baptist).     See  FREGOSO. 

FULKE  (William),  a  eeleb^ated  English  divine^  abd 
tbaster  of  Pembroke-hall,  Cambridge,  was  bdrn  in  Lbn- 
Uon,  and  educated  in  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  of 
"which  he  was  chosen  fellow  in  1564.  He  wds  a  youth  of 
•great  parts,  and  of  a  very  high  spirit.  When  a  boy  at 
school,  he  is  said  to  have  betrayed  great  anger  and  mor- 
tification oh  losing  a  literary  contest  for  ^  silver  pen>  with 
the  celebrated  Edmund  Campian,  and  as  the  latter  was 
edjucated  at  Cbrist*s  hospital,  this  incident  s^fns  to  prove 
that  Fulke  was  of  the  same  school.  Before  he  becamj^ 
fellow  of  his  college,  be  complied  with  the  wishes  of  his 
father,  by  studying  law  at  Clifford^s-inrt,  but  on  his  return 
To  the  university,  his  inclinations  became  averse  lo  thitt 
ptirsuit,  and  he  was  unable  to  conquer  them*,  althoug^b  his 
rather  refused  ro  support  him  any  longer.  Y6ung  Fultci?^ 
however,  trusted  to  his  industry  and  endowments^  ^ifd 
soon  became  a  distinguished  scholar  in  mathematics,  lat|- 
fruages,  and  divinity.  Having  taken  orders,  bis  early  io:^ 
timacy  with  some  of  the  puritan  divineis  induced  him  to 
preach  in  favour  of  some  of  their  sentiments  respectiW 
'%.,  the  ecclesiastical   habits  and  ceremonies.     This  occuft^ 

about  1565,  and  brought  upon  him-  the  censure  ctf  the 
chancellor  of  the  university,  which,  it  is  said,  proceeded 
to  expulsion.  On  this  he  took  lodgings  in  the  tdi^  t)tf 
Cambridge,  and  subsisted  for  some  time  by  reading  W!r 
lures.  His  expulsion,  however,  -if  it  really  took '  pIiK^^ 
which  seems  doubtful,  did  not  lessen  his  general  teputai^ 
lion,  as  in  1569  there  was  an  intention  to  choose  him  o^as*-^ 
ter  of  St.  John's  college,  bad  not  archbishop  Parker  ihleP-? 
fered ;  but  about  the  satne  time  he  found  a  patron  in  Ihb 
earl  of  Leicester,  who  was  more  indulgent  to  the  ^ritana^ 
and  who  received  Mr.  Fulke  into  his  bouse,  as  hi^  domestic 

>  Mof^rL-^^Baillet  Jugemeib;^ — Clarke's  BIbliograpliicar  Ijictiobarjr.— 

Onomast.  in  Piaaciadea^ 


F  U  L  K  £•  4€5 

clmpUJn.  It  was  noyf  also  that  he  fell  under  the  cUarge 
^of  being  qojDcerned  in  some  unlawfal  ixsarrkges,  and  ip 
such  circutnstanpes  thought  ii  his  duty  to  resign  his  feUow* 
$hrp9  biU  baring  honoutably  accjuitted  in  an  examination 
before  the  bishop  of  Ely,  he  was  immediately  re^elect^cl 
by  the  college. 

In  1571  the  earl  of  Essex  presented  him  to  the  rectory 
of  Warley,  in  Ebs^x^  and  soon  after  to  the  rectory  of  Ke^ 
dington^in  Suffolk,  ^nd  about  this  time  he  tpok  his  doctor^s 
degree  at  Cambridge,  and  was  iiicorpprated  in  the  same 
'at<?X'ford.  His  degree  at  Cambridge  w^s  in  consequence 
qf  tt  mandanitu  from  the  earl  of  Ks>;i^ex,  that  he  might  be 
iquati£ed  to  accompany  the  earl  of  Lincoln,  who  was  then 
gom'g  as  ambassador  to  the  court  of  France.  Upon  bis 
ratbrh  be  was  chosen  master  of  Pembroke-hall,  and  as 
IfVood  says  in  his  Fasti,  Margaret  professor  of  divinity^ 
but  Buker,  in  a  MS  note  on  Wood)  sayf  he  never  held  tha 
ktter  office. 

Irt'  (5S2,  Dr.  Fulke,   with  other  learned  divines,  was 
<$ngaged  in  a'  public  disputation    with   certain    Roman 
catholics,  in  the  Tower,  and  had  to  contend  again  with 
liiif  old  school-fellow   Campian,    but  was  more '  success* 
ipL     Be  died   in  the  month  of  August,   15^9,  and  was 
l)orie4  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at  Kedington^  where 
if  «in  inscription  to  his  memory,  partly  in  Latin,  and  partly 
tn  English.     His  was  married,  and  had  a  large  family,  to 
niiomne  appears  by  his  will  to  bare  been  able  to  bequeath 
cohsiderable  property.    To  Pembroke^hall  he  beqireatfaed 
a^  piece  of  plate,  to  be  called  Dr.  Fulke's  cup,  and  used 
only  at  commencements  and  solemn  feasts. 
*^'  His  works,  chiefly  controversial,  ve,    I.  "  Anti-prog** 
nosticon  contra  predictiones  Nostradami,"  &c.  1560.     ^» 
*^'Sermon  at  Hampton-court,"  1571.     3.  "  Canfutatbn 
^f  a  libelle  in  forme  of  an  apology  made  by  Frocknam,** 
l^K    4.  ♦*  A  goodly  gall«y,  or  treatise  on  meteors,^* 
li7i.     5.  f<  Astrologus  ludus,"  1571.     6.  ^  Metpomaxia^ 
shts  Liidus  geometricus,"  1578.     t.  ^  Responsio  ad  ThoK 
Stapletoni  cavillationes,"  1579.    B.  ^^  A  retentive  against 
the  motives  of  Richard  Bristow;  also  a  discovery  of  the 
dangerous  rock  of  the  popish  church,"  1 580.    9.  *^  A  de* 
fence  of  the  translation  pf  the  Holy  Sicnptures  in  ^nglifcb>^^ 
1583.     10.  **  Confutation  of  Will.  Allen's  treatise  in  de*» 
fence x>f  this  usurped  power  of  the  popish  priesthood.*'  But 
die  work  by  which  be  is  best  known,  and  is  still  remembered 

U6  F  U  L  K  E. 

with  high  esteeni)  is  his  Comment  apon  the  Rh^ims  Te«ta« 
ment,  printed  in  1 580^  suid  reprinted  in  160 i  with  this  title': 
**  The  Text  of  the  New  Testament  of  Jesus  Christ,  trans- 
lated otit  of  the  vulgar  Latin  by  the  Papists  of  the  traiterous 
Seminarie  at  Rhemes.4  With  arguments  of  books,  chapters, 
tind  annotations,  'pretending  to  discover  the  corruptions  of  t 
divers  translations,  and  to  dear  the  controversies  of  these 
days.     Wberennto  is  added  the  translation  out  of  the  ori* 
ginai  Greeks  commonly  used  in  the  Church  of  England ; 
with  a  confutation  of  all  such  arguments,  glosses,  and  an<- 
notations,  as  containe  manifest  impietie  of  Heresie,  Tlrea^ 
SOD, 'and  Slander  against  the  Catholike  Church  of  Go3, 
and  the  true  teachers  thereof,-  or  the  translations  used  hi 
the  church  of  England.  •  The  whole  worke,  perused  and 
enlarged  in  divers  places  by  the  author*s  owne  hand  be* 
fore  his  death^  with  sundry  quotations  and  authorities  out 
of  Holy  Scriptures,  Counsels,  Fathers,  and  History.    More 
^  amply  than  in  the  former  Edition.''     This  work  was  pub- 
li$he4  again,  1617  and  1633,  in  folio,  as  it  was  befot'e, 
Und  proves  that  in  power  of  argument  and  criticism,  he 
was  one  of  the  ablest  divides  of  his  time,  and  one  bf 
.'  the  principal  opponents  of  the  popish  party.     One  otb^r 
"  woric  has  Men  attributed  to  him,^  we  know  not  on  tvhat 
;  authority,  which  was  published  iinder  the  name  of  Mr^ 
■^  l^ttdley  Feoner;  entitled  "A  brief  and  plain  dechratioh, 
'  containing  the  desires  of  all  those  faithful  ministers  Who 
[  seek  discipline  and  reformation  of  the  church  of  Engla^, 
which  n^y  serve  as  a  just  apology  againrst  the  fiilse  accli« 
^sations  and  slanders  of  their  adversaries,"^  1584.     Ha^ifig 
^  never  been  molested  oti  account  of  his  opinions,  unless 
when  at  college,  there  seems  no  reason  why  he  should  n6w 
publish  them  under  another  name.' 

FULLER  (Isaac),  was  an  English  painter  of  some'^note 
ih  the  reign  of  Charles  IL  but  of  his  family  or  masCefs^^e 
bave  no  account,  except  th^t  be  studied  many  years-^in- 
France  under  Penrier,  who  engraved  the  antique  stat^l^s. 
In  his  historical  compositions  he  has  left  little  to  admil-e, 
his  colouring  being  raw  and  unnatural,  and  not  compen- 
sated by  disposition  Or  invention,  but  in  portraits  his  peticil 
was  bold,  strong,  and  masterly.  In  the  latter  he  Was 
inucb  employed,  particolariy  at  Oxford.    His  own  porti^is 

•     •  Folkr*9  Wbrtbi€fl.~Wood*s  flNa^Vrooi'S  P<n{laiii;--5ti7iw^  PsrkcCi 

^  U  t  L  E  R.  \^ 

lA^lie  gallery  there  is  touched  with  great  force. >Qd  cli%* 

nei:9r.     The  akar^piece  of  Magdalen  was  f^sQ  by  hihi, 

hut  baa  not  been  much  approvcnl..    As  an  iimiuitio^  qi 

{^icbel  Angela,  itfaUs  far  sbortof  the  sublinpe*  .aitbpMgh 

tomeueiea  wild  ioiaginatton  of  thai  great  artist;  ^or  is  the 

v^kwrbig  harmonious.     Some  of  the  figureSt  bpwever,  ar;^ 

<;orrectly  drawn  ;  and  be  has  at  l(Mat  imitated  the  temper 

of^MMiel  Angelo  with  success,  in  introducing  iKBong  tb^a 

daoinedt  the  portrait  of  an  hostler  at  the  GreybQund-inny. 

Mar  the  cdlege,  who  bad  offended  him.    Th6  picture^-  it 

ia.well  knowoi  was  honoured  by  Addison   in  an  elegant 

Latin  poem*     At  Wadham  college  is  an  altar*clotb  by 

Fuller  ki  a  singular  manner,  and  of  merit ;  wbicK  i^  just 

brushed  over  fpr  the  lights  and  shades,  and  |be  coloufi 

9)elted  in  with  a  hot  iron.     Soon  after  the  restoration,  be 

-  9ras  engaged  in  painting  the  circumstances  of  king  Charles 

:JV$  escape^  which  he  executed  in  five  lars;^  pictiires* 

These  were  presented  to  the  parliament. pf  Irehin(r>  where 

^  ihey  remained  for  many  years  in  one  of  ;^be  jcooms  of  t^ 

'  pariiameot  house  in  Dublin.     But  some  time  ib  tfie^Wt 

ceiiturj  the  bouse  undergoing  a  thorough  f€y[>4^^,' tb^fo 

7 fHctur^s  were  not  replaced,  but  lay  neglected,  until  tli^y 

:  were  rescued  by  the  late  earl  of  CUnbrassil,  i^ho  obtained 

^possession  of  them^  and  had  them. cleaned  ap.d  rempyed  to 

^  hi^  «eat  at  Tullympre  park,  co.  Down,,  wbefe^^ey,  we^  a 

'^  i%yv  jean  ago.     Lord  Orford  speakjs .  aligbtingly ^^^  thf^ 

jwbiobhe  had  never  seeuj  and  probably  with  as  pii'uc^ujp* 

.  liee  aa  of  Fuller's  altar«piece  at  All-spuU  Qpllege^  y^^ph 

^  )be  qever  could  have  seen,  for  Fuller  bad  no  picture  there* 

'Fuller  died  in  moomsbury-square  July  ij,  167^,  ,andl  J[fft 

X  ^-m^f  w  ingenious  hut  idle  mao,  chiefly  i  eopployed^Jia 

coach -painting,  who  died  youpg*'..  ./.  .  i-,  y 

^y,   FULLER '(NiCHaUA))*a  le$irned  r^Englisb  .;c(iv^iM^' and 

^tic^ .  was  bom  at  Sfoutbampton;  in.  l  jlS*?,  .and  e^uca^fl^at, 

tbjpiree-!Scbool  in  that  town*    H^  di^  nof  g^^^^re^^ly  theuice 

$0  tbe  university,  but  was.  tak^^n  into  ih^  .family  o£  ^e 

bishop  of  Winchester,rDr.  Robert^orne^^  wbereapeyn^ing 

tome  time  in  study,  be  was  made^ ^t, length,  t^is.secj^etafy, 

,   an4  afterward^  coiutipifed  in-  thiajt  ^office :  by'  his  sifcy^^r^ 

2>r^;  Watson.     But  Watson. dying  fiUo  in  about  tbr^  y^^^f 

J   Fuller  leturnpd  bomjQ,  with  a  re^qlutioh  to.,  ^^Ilavy  ||ij|,'^u- 


iAei.  B€f6te  he  wa:^  seeded  tb«t^,  ht  wfts  itivitdd  MrJbr 
Ultof  td  the  sons  of  a  knight  in  Hampisbit^ev  ivfae'iii  hf&  W^ 
dbtn^nied  to  St.  John's  college,  Oxford,  in  1 584^  Hi^ 
^iipits  leaving  hiin  in  a  little  ttoie,  be  removed  htfntoil'>Mi 
Hart- ball,  whend  he  took  both  the  degfrees  in  aitsy-anifc 
tten  retired  into  the  country.  He  afterwards  took  onAeri^ 
attd  fvas  pr^sent^cl  to  the  rectoi^  of  Aldington,  or  AHIng- 
ifon,  near  Am^sbovy,  in  Wiltshire.  He  aftervf avUte  bedatnn 
a  prebendary  m  the  church  of  SaUsbufy*,  aftd-  recidr  ct 
Bishop^s-Waltham,  in  Hampibire.  He  died  in  962^ 
He  Wa^  extremely  Jearned  in  the  sacred  tongues,  'aad,' a» 
Wood  quaintly  says,  '<  was  so  bappy  in  pitching  npon  ti^^ 
Al  diffieultiei,  tending  to  the  uivder^tanding  of  I'be  Sorip4 
ture,  that  he  surpassed  aH  the  ciritics  of  bis  tiiae  *^  «  ttts 
^  iMfstetlanea  Tbeologica,'*  in  four  bbokS)  were  puUiriied 
iil*9t  at  Heidelberg)  1612^,  Svo,  and  allber^atds  at  Chelb#di| 
ifi  16 1 6,  a^d  at  London,  in'  1617,  4to.  These  miscaila^ 
tii^  coming  into  the  hands  of  John  Drusitis,  in  HoUand, 
he  charged  Fuller '  with  pt&giari^m,  and  with  talung  hM 
b(tet  notes  froEti  htm  without  any  ackaov^ledgment^  Buff 
Fultei',  knowing  himself  gniltless,  as  having  n^ver  ^een 
Btui^ius^s  worics,  published  a  irindioation  o4f  himsetf  ailt 
l^^yden,  fii  1'622,  together  wirii  t\^'<^mot*e  books' Krf<<  Mi«c 
6elkuiea  Sacra,'^  Leyden  and  Strasburgh,  1*6^50,  Atso,  AH 
A^90  mlsceltnnie^  aVe  printed*  in  the  ^ib  volume  ef  tb^ 
Gtitici  8a6ri^'-  and  dispersed  t*roughoutf^ool*s  "^Synop^ 
eritieonuh."  The»e  are  sotac  maniisertpw  of  Filler  in 
.  die  Bddhsian  Kbrary  at  Oxford,  which  shew  bis  great  skift 
in  Hebrew  and  in  philological  learning ;  as  *»*  An  Eteposi** 
lioM  of  rabbi  Mordecai  Nathan's  Hebrew  Rtx>t9,  wf th  miMi 
«|^o«i  it,"  Imd  *<  A  LexicM,*'  wbtdi  he  kift^ded  to.  ha(?A 
published  with  the  preceding.' 

FULLBR  (THOi$lA8),  an  Engli^.histo^nan  and^  diiine^ 
#fts  the  son  bf  the  ret.  Thomas  Fuller,  njtntster  of  8ii 
Pdti^r's,    in   Aid-v^incle,    in  Nonhamptorishit^,   «nd  fimt 

^  ^  fa  the  Aatn«y  MSS.  his  ^r^aeittii*  K1kU»|)  seit  fMr  iiAdi,  $rid  ibe  pqi^  fpstm 

tmo  to  the  prebend  m  thus  tneotioned.  wait  jafrayd,  aod  knew  i>pt  Q'hat  bwf± 

.  After   noticing   that   bishop   Andrews  he    had  doiie.      tie   maies  him   siri 

aatde  ft  poiM  to  prefer  *'  m^eAiose  per-  dftwa  m  dittli^  and,  aatr  |fae  •4<MKf 

|qqa  tbat  were  si^Jfed  to  poor  fiTin^t  ^^  Woq^h^  v^  i|i  a  dii^  ^  ip^tftHkio^ 

and  did  delilescere,'*  he  adds  that  the  and  induction*    or  the  donation  of  t 

Biyh<yp  **  m^de  h  bis  idnq[u}rv  to  and  prebetid,  «4iicht«a^  Ufs  ^y:*>    letrert' 

#ut  such  men.  Amoosstsereral  others,  written  by  eminent  persunsj  &e*  3  :roif« 

aeerAmesbury^  in  Wilts,  was  one.  The 

1  Ath.  Ox.  rot  I.— Poller's  Worthies.      , 


ill'  1$08.  Tk^  cfattf  ^assWfaMe  lie  had  in  tte  tv^U 
iMotR  of  learoiiig  wtB  from  his  fether,  under  wtiom  he 
ntde  sa  extraordiDary  a  pragress,  Uiat  he  was  sent  at 
tmhre  yeara  of  ago  to  Q,«eeit*s-coUege,  in  Cambridge  i 
SiL/D«yenMty  «rho  was  his  mother's  brother,  being  t^^i 
QMister  ol  ity  aUd  soon  after  bishop  of  Saiisbuiy^  He  look 
his  degrees  in  arts^  that  of  A.  B.  in  1024^5,  and  th^t  of 
A.  Ml  18  ISMy  and  would  have  beeu  fellow  of  the  colleges 
iNit  tbera  l>eiag  already  a  Nonfaaniptonshire  man  a  fellow^ 
fafe  was  prohibited  by  the  statutes  from  being  chosen,  ami 
eteho«gh  be  might  bare  obtained  &  dispensation^  ho  pre4 
liayred  reneiring  to  Sidney-coUege,  in  the  anme  universityi 
He  hud  uot  been  long  there,  before  he  was-ehoseti  uii^^ 
iriHer  of  S«»  Bennetts,  in  the  town  of  Cambridge,  aud  sooi» 
tocmoie  a  very  popular  preacher.  In  1631,  he  obtained  m 
fellowship  in  Sidney-college,  and  at  the  same  time  a  pr^ 
bend  m  the  chUreh  of  Saltsbury.  This  vear  also  he  issued 
Ms  0rst  pablieation,  a  wofk  of  the  poetical  kind,  now  bet 
Kslle  koi^wn,  eatiitled  **  David's  Haineus  Sin,  Heartie  Aor' 
fMadtances,  and  Heavie  Punishment,^*  in  a  thin  8yo. 
<  He  waasooti  ^er  ordained  priest,  and  presented  to  tb^ 
aectory  of  Broad  Windsor,  in  Dorsetshire  ;  in  163^5  fad 
eame  again  to  Camsbridge,  and  took  his  degree  of  B.  Dl 
after  which,  reMirning  to  Broad  Windsor,  he  married  abbui 
M9Bj  and  had  one  son^  but  lost  bts  wife  about  1541: 
&uniig  hfs  retiretnent  at  this  Irectory,  be  began  to  eom'^ 
plete  several  works  he  bad  planned  at  Canibridjge ;  Imt 
gnlwing  weary  of  a  country  parish^  a^nd  uneasy  at  the  un<* 
settled  state  of  publie  aflairs,  be  remOTed  to  London  ;  and 
distieguisbed  himself  so  much  in  the  pulpits  there,  that 
he.  was  inviited  by  the  master  and  brotherhood  of  the  Savoy 
to  be  their  lecturer.  In  i640,  he  published  his  *^  History 
pf  the  Holy  War  ;**  it  was  printed  at  Cambridge,  in  folio, 
Stid'was  so  favourably  received,  that  a  third  edition  ap-< 
peared  in  1647.  On  April  13>  1640,  a  parliament  was 
ealled,  and  then  also  a  convocation  began  at  Westmiusteri 
In  Henry  VIL's  ehapel,  having  licence  granted  to  make  new 
entionSi  for  the  better  government  of  the  church ;  of  thi4 
eowrocation  he  was  a  member,  and  has  amply  detailed  its 
proceedings  in  his  **  Church  History."  During  the  com* 
piien^ement  of  the  rebellion,  and  when  the  king  left  Lon-* 
dimn  in  1644,  to  liaise  an  army,  Mr.  Fuller  continued  at  the 
(Savoy,  to  the  great  satisfaction  of  his  people,  and  thd 
lieighboUJing  nobility  and  gentry,  labouring  all  the  while 

tn  r  u  L  L  E  & 

m  pn^fte  a»4  io  paUic  to  aenrc  the  timg.  To  tlw 
oo  tke  aonhfcnoTf  of  lut  ioaagonooD,  MaoA  27,  l€Mp 
be  pfeacbed  at  Wesunimter-ebbejr,  on  tliistezt,  S  Smm^ 
jcix.  30/.  ^  Yea,  let  km  take  allt  to  that  ay  kmi  tbe  Jung 
mmn  in  peaee  ;^*  fffaidi  being  primed^  gnre  great  ofleaae 
to  tboie  wbo  were  engaged  in  the  opposkiooy  and  brangbft 
the  preacher  into  no  tirall  danger.  He  sdoo  found  that 
be  nHut  espect  to  be  •tlenDedaod  ejected*  as  olben  bad 
heeo4  yet  desuted  not,  till  be  cstber  vat,  ortbongbt  baair 
erif  wnettlrd  Tbts^appeamfepai  what  be  aaja  im-ikm 
preface  to-,  bis  'Mioty^ikate^"  ifriu^b  was  printed  i»Ailin 
that  saaie  ye^r  at  Cainbrtdge-^  Tbis  is  a  coUeeuoD  of  cbn^ 
sacum,  moi9l  ess^aand  liresy  ancient,  ibr^gn,  and'doit 
neitie.  Tbe  second  edition  of  1648^  cootaba  ^  Awdm- 
QSCtti^  or  tbe  onfonuoatc^  politician/'  originaHy  piialed 
by  stsdf  io  1 646,  1 2oio. 

In  1643,  refusing  to  tabe  an  oath  la  the.pariianMM^ 
milesa  with  such  resenwa  as  tbey  would  ooi  admit,  be 
obliged  in  April  of  tha^year  U>  convey,  himself  to  the 
at  Oxford,  wbo  received  bim  g^ly.  Aa  bu  majes^  bad 
beardof  bis  extraordinary  abilities  in  the  pulpit,  be  was 
BOW  desirous  of  knowing  them  peraoqally  ;  juid  acoordtng^ 
Fuller /preached  before  him  at  St.  Mary's  chnrcb<  Uis:  foe- 
tone  opoO'  this  occasion  was  very  singular.  .  He  bad  he* 
fore  preached  and  published.,  a-  sermon  in  London^  ^npon 
f*  the  new^moolding  cbusob-refurfuation,".  wliicb  caosttd 
him  to  be  censored  as  too  hot  a  royalist^^  and  now^.  fropi 
bis  seimoD  at  Oixfetd,,.  be  was  thought  tobe  too  luhewnnw ; 
which  oan«  ooty  be  ascribed  to  hiamodeiatiou,. . which  <be 
woold .  sincerely  have  ioeulcated  in  earii  party,  aa  the 
only  means  of  reoonoiliQg  both.  During  hia  stay  bere^  he 
resided  in  Lincoln  college^  but  was  not  long,  after  seqoes- 
tered,  andloataU  bis^boobs  and.manuaoripts.  This  Ices, 
ibe  heaviest  he  cofldd  ^sustain,,  was  -  made  up  to  hint  partly 
by  Henry  lord  Beaucbamp,  an^  partly  by  Liosel.Crao^- 
field,  earl  of  .Middkae^,.  >wbo  gave  him  the  remains  of  his 
father's  lihaary.  That,  .however,  ,he  might  not  lie  undiar 
^  the  suspicion  of  want  of  zeal  or  courage  in  thoToyal  ca«ie, 
be  determined,  tp .  join  tbe;anny.;.  and.  tbereforc^  ' 
well  recommended  to  air  Ralph  Hopton,  in  1643^  be 
admitted  by  him  in.<|uaUty  of  chaplain.  For  this  emplay- 
ment  be  was  quite  at  liberty,;  being  4^nved.Qf  ftUi  other 
preferment  And.  now,  *  attending  the.  army  from  plaoaito 
piacf,  he  cQustwtl^r  exercised  .bi^  duty .  ia.  c^aplwi;  »7^l 

FULL  EJR«  171 

ftaftd  proper  intervals  for  bis  beloved  .studies,  whickr  he 
eoiployed  chiefly  in  making  historioal  collections,  and 
especially  in  gathering  materials  for  bis  '^  Worthies  of  Eog* 
laad,^'  which  he  did^  not  only  by  an  extensive  correspond* 
eftce,  but  by  personal  inquiries  in  every  place  which  the 
army  had  occasion  to  pass  through. 
:;  After  the  battle  at  Cberiton-Down^  March  39,  1644^ 
lard  Hopton  drew  on  his  army  to  Basing^house,  and  Fttller^ 
being  left  there  by  him,  animated,  the  garrison  tp  so  vi*- 
gorotts  a  defence  of  that  place^  that  sir  William  Waller  vaa 
obliged,  to  raise  the  siege  with  considerable  loss.  But  the 
«ar  hastening  to  an  end^  and  part  of  the  king^satmy  being 
^siven  into  Cornwall,  nnder  lord  Hopton,  Fidler,  with  the 
^sve.of  that  nobleman,  took  eefnge  at  Exeter,  where  he 
jresun^d  his  studies,  and  preached  constantly  to  the  citi* 

zens.  During  his  residence  here  he  was  appointed  chap- 
Jails  to  the  infant  princess  Henrietta  Maria,  who  was  bora 
HSt  Exeter  in  June  1643;  and  the  king  soon  after  gave 
^m  a  patent  for  his  presentation  to  the  living  of  Doi^chee- 
hstfi  in  Dorsetshire.     He  continued  his  attendance  en  the 

prinMss  till  the  surrender  of  Exeter  to  the  partiamenl^  in 
\ April  1646;  but  did  not  accept .  the  livmg,  because  he 

determined  to  remove  to  London  at  the  expiratixm  of  the 

war.     He  relates,  in  his  **  Worthies,'*  an  extraorctinafy 

circumstance  which  happened  during  the  siege- of  Exeteii: 
*M  When  the  city  of  Exeter,  he  says^  waa  besieged  by  the 

paurliament  forces,  so  that  only  the  south  side  .thereof  to- 
.  warda-the  sea  was  open  to  it,  incredible  numbers. of- larks 
^  were  found  in  that  open  quarter,  for  multitude  .19^  jqu^s 

in  the  .wilderness;  though,  blessed  be  God,  unlike  tfaem 
'-  in  the  cause  and  edSect ;  as  not  desired  with  man'e^estruo- 

tien,  nor  sent  with  God's  anger,  as  aimeared  by  their  safe 
,  digestion  into  wholesome  nourishment*  ^  Hereof  I  was  an 
veyecand  mouth<witness.  I  will  save  my  credit  in  not  coe- 
-  jecturiog  any^  number;  knowing  that  herein,  though  I 
^  should  itoop  beneath  the  truth*  I  should  mount  wove 

belief.    They  were  as.  plentiful;  so  that  being  sold 

for  two-pence  a  dospeu  uid  under,  the  poor  wbe  could  have . 
:  no  cheaper,  aiid  the  riob  no  better  meat^  make  pot«i 

:  titge  of  them,  bottieg  them  down  therein.  Several. causes 
'  were  assigned  hereof,  &c.  but  the  cause  of  causes  wasthe 

-Divine  Providence ;  thereby  providing  a  .feast  for  many 
'  npoor  people^  who  otherwise  had  been  pinched  >  for  pqo<* 
-:  l^lttOQ*'^    \^hUe  ber^>  ^  every  where  lA^f  he  vae  intijph 

112  FULLER. 

coiirlsed  on  aocbunt  of  bis  inbtructive  and  pleasant  coriver* 
sation,  by  persons  of  bigb  rank,  some  of  whom  made  hita 
very  liberal  offers  ;  but  whether  from  a  love  of  study,  or  a 
spirit  of  independence,  he  was  always  reluctant  in  accept* 
ing any  offers  tb^t  might  seem  to  confine  bini  to  any  oo^ 
family,  or  patron.     It  was  at  £xeter,  where  be  is  said  to 
hav<e  written  hi»  *^  Good  Thoughts  in  Bad  Times/'  aud 
where  the  book  was  published  ifi  1645,  as  what  be  calls 
*^  the  first  fruits  of  Exeter  press.''     At  length  the  garrLion 
being  forced  to  surrender,  he  came  to  London,  and  me< 
but  a  cold  reception  among  his  former  parishioners,  and 
f^nnd  bis  lecturer's  place  filled  by  anotber.     However,  it 
was  not  long  before  be  was  cboten  lecturer  at  St.  ClemeutX 
near  Lombard-street ;  and  sbortly  after  removed  to  St; 
Bride\  in  Fleet-sttieet*     In   164*7  he  published,  in  4tp, 
'^  A  Sermon  of  Assurance,  fourteen  years  agoe  preached 
hib  Cambridge,  since  in  otber  places  ;  now,  by  the  impor* 
tvnity  of  his  friends,  exposed  to  public  view.^     He  dedi- 
cated it  to  sir  John  Danvers,  wbo  bad  been  a  royalist,  was 
tben  an  Oiiverian,  and  next  year  one  of  the  king's  jud^s; 
and  in  the  dedication  he  says,  that  *Vit  bad  been  the  plea- 
s^iveof  the  present  authority  to  make  bim  mute;  forbid- 
ding bim  till  further  order  tfa^  exercise  of  bia  public 
preaebing.'*     Notwithstanding  bis  being  Ibus  silenced,  be 
wa%  about  164B,  presented  i»  the  rectory  of  Waltbam,  in 
Essex^  by  the  earl  of  Cs^rKsIe,  whose  cliaplain  be  vsas  jus^ 
before  made*    He  spent  that  an^l  the  following  year  betwixl 
London  and  Waltfaam,  employing  some  engravers  to  adorii 
bis  cppious  prospect  or  view  of  the  Holy  Land,  as  froni 
mount  Pisgab  ;  therefore  called  bif  ^*  Pii»gah*sight  of  Pa^ 
lestine  and  the  confines  thereof,  witb  tbe  bistory  of  tliet 
Old  and  N^w  Test^qsent  ^ct^d  tbereon,"  which  he  pofrr 
lished  in  16J(X     It  is  an  handsome  folio,  embellished  wi^h 
a  frontispiece  and  ipany  other  copper* plates,  aiid  dividefl 
into  five  books.     As  for  his  **  Worthies  of  j^ngtaud,*'  on 
wbiefa  be  had  been  labonring  so  long,  the  death  of  the 
king  for  a  time  disheartened  him  from  tbe  co|Uinuance  of 
that  work :  ^  For  what  sball  I  wrile,^^  says  be,  ^  of  the'  ' 
Worthies  of  England,  when  this  horrid  act  will  bring  siich 
an  h^my  upon  die  whole  natioii  as  will  ever  clivud  and 
dSMtken  ail  iu  flMrmery  and  suppress  its  ftitnre  ftsing  ghN^ 
ri^sT*    He  Was,  tb^refore^  bqsy  till  the  year  lastineii*' 
tieo^,  in  preparjnfT  that  book  and  olhem;  qad.sbc  neplt 
ymc'h^  rather  employed  l^fauelf  in  pnfaUshing^6Qle'|Mur;>, 

r  u  L  L  I  ft  m 

Ucolir  Ktes  of  retigidiu  refbraier8>  anartytv^  KsMl^sMri^ 
bisfatopt^  doctors,  Md  odmr  leained  divinds,  foreign  aiid 
dom^tic,  tban  in  augttieatitig  his  said  book  iX  ^  Engliih 
Woftbiei'^  in  gerievai.  To  this  collection^  which  w«b  tze- 
cdted  by  sereial  hands,  as  he  tdls  os  in  the  p^fiscey^He 
gave  the  title  of  f' Abel  Redivivus,'^  and  ptiblishiieda^in^tb, 
1651.  In.  the  two  or  three  following  j^ara  be  ^nwtdd 
sereral  Sermons  dad  tracts  upon  religioos  subjects*  Abovt 
1654  he  married  a  sibter  of  the  vkscotot  Baltioglasse ;  and 
the  next  year  she  bhUiigfat 'hin  a  son,  ivbo,  esweUaBthte 
c«bec'  b^fore-m^ntwliedy  Mrtiired  bis  father.  In  1>^$1, 
tiotwiihstahdiiig  Ci*oiii[wieiPs  prohibition  of  all  persona  fron 
preachioe,  or  teaching  schooli  wbp  had  been  «dberedMa  tt> 
-the  late  Kinc^y  be  'contoviied  preaching,  and  bxerdng  his 
bbarUable  disposiiidR  towards. those  AHttisieta  who  wepo 
ejected  by  td^  usurping  powers^  and  not  oaly  relievitd 
'Such  fro^  what 'he  (Couid  spare  out  of  his  own  slender 
estaiey  Smk  procured  tmaay  contributions  for  them  from  bis 
auditories.  Nor  was  bis  charity  confined  to  the  clergy ; 
fend  among  the  laity  H^hom  be  befriended,  there  i^  ah 
iWsbhce  upon  recofd  of  a  ^^ptkiti  of  the  army  wh6  Ws 
quite  destitute,  and  whom  he  entirely  snalnlkiheduntit  he 
died.  In  1656  be  published  in.folio,  "The  Cjiurcb  His- 
tory 6f  BritiiiV, '  from  the  birth  of  Jesus  'ChHst  to  the  year 
1648;**;  ip*  which  are  subjoined,  "The  Wstory  of  the 
Uhiv^rsity  of  Caihbridge  sinc6  the  conquest/'  and  **  The 
Histoty  ofWaltharh  Alitjey  in  Essex,*  founded  by  king 
Hai-oT(V*  ■  ilis  Cliurch  Sistory  was  anirtiadverted  tipoti 
by  Dr.' Hey  1  in  in  his  **  Examen  lflistoi*icum  ;'*  and  this 
di'efw  frbfh  bur  Author  a  jfeply :  after  which  they  had 
no  further  controversy,  but  were  very  well  reconciled*^ 
Abo^t  this  time  he  was  irtvited^  according  to  his  biogra- 
pher, to  ^bother  :IiVihg  in  Iftssex,  irt  which  he  continued 
"his  ministerial  'la1)ouTs  until  his  siettlement  at  London. 
G6orge,,lord  Berkeley,  one  of  his  noble  patron^,  having 
in  165^8  made  faita  his  fchaplaih,'  h^  took  leave  of  E*ssex, 
and  was  Jjfesented  by  bis  lordship  to  the  rectiory  of  Cran- 
ford  ih  Middlesex.    It  is  said  also  that  lord  Berkeley  tdok 

^^  Iiv  tikft   liiitcrft  4iia   s))|}eiitfhi»  tyy<ii»eri|)fnmi  whtth  •w  atMiMaiJ*t» 

jrbHAi  rteke  bit  (M^  vpkimt i  it  i«  obr>  bis  {^articular  friends  »ud  beBe£actor«.** 

lenrabje  tbst  he  has/  with  a4ihiral/ie  This  swells  the  bulk  of  it  to  at  least 

«i»iintrtfDoe,  teftro^idecl  *4wHv^  title-  the  airnotlnt  of  fhHy  sheet*.    -H^y^tn; 

|nf«9  btuMct  «k8  ftterfti   ooti  t»d  Wbo  t«ICcB  notice  of  ^haiKs  mattei*^  -«q« 

**  at  maoy  particidar  dedkations*  and  tures  him  forValking  io  this  uQtro^ 

n*  7  U  L  L  £  K. 

.ham  dvertalli^  Higue,  and  iftttodiiced  him  to  Charles  li. 
Itis'cefCiiiiy  however,  that  a  short  time  before  the  resto- 
'ratioDy  Fuller  was  Te*admitted  to  his  ieottire  in  the  Savoy^ 
and  on  that  event  restored  to  hit  fvabend  of  SaHriMiiy. 
lie  viVB  chosen  ehapiaui  vxtraorcBnary  to  the  king ;  crested 
.dficlDr  of  divinity  at  Cambridge  by  a  mandamos,  dated 
AogttstS^  lesoi  and,  had  he  uv^  a  twelvemonth  longer^ 
would  probably  have  been  ratted  to  a  bishopric.  But  upo^i 
his  retoni  &om  Salisbury  in  Augnst  i6ai  he  was  attacked 
by  a  fidveiv  of  which  he  di^  the  15th  of  that  month,  liii 
fnneral  was  attended  by  at  least  two  handled  of  his  bredb^ 
rea;  and^a  sermon  was  preached  by  Dr.  Hardy,  dean -of 
Rodiesteiv  ^^  which  a  great  and  noble  character  was  given 
of  him.^  Hei  was  baried^  in  hit  chnreh  at  Cranferd,  on  the 
BOrthwyipf'theehanceUof  which  is  his  monument,  with 
ihefoliowidg  inscription : 

'  "v  ]ft<y>6btTlloxitts  fVjdler/^  coll^  S^dnekuBK)  in  scsdendf 
€antsbrigieiiS0>!  S6.  T.  D.  higm  ecdesi^  rector  $  ingwyf  aeittidiia> 
mimKinmMUiitBXe,  moruminelatate»omiagenft.dpmni  (kiitorift 
H^seaeitfQ^}  uti  varia  ^i|s  suminii  swyianimitiSte  composita  testantur, 
^elebenriniiu^  Qui  dum  viros  Jktf^sR  illustrea  opere  postjiumo  ini« 
mortaliti  conaecrare  meditatvis  est^  ipse  immortalitem  est  cobsecu- 
tua,  Aog.  15, 1661.** 

.  In  1662  was  published  in  folio,  with  an  engraying  of 
him  prefixed^  his  ^'  History  of  the  Worthies  of  £ng1fiQd.\[ 
This  work,  part  of  which  was  printed  before  i^he  authj[)r 
died,  seems  not  so  finished  as  it  would  probably  have  he^ 
if  he  had  lived  to  see  it  co«npIetely  published :  yet  it  ';C^r- 
tainly  did  not  deserve  the  heavy  censures  of  Nicolson.. 
Whatever  errors,  may  be  found  in  it,  as  errors  undo^bte^^ 
may  be  found  in  all  works  of  that  nature,  the  charac^rs  of 
memorials  there  assembled  of  so  many  great  men,,  will 
always  make  it  a  book  necessq^  to  be  consulted. 

Besides  the  works  already  mentioned  in  the  course  ,^.o£ 
this  memoir,  Fuller  was  the  author  of  several  others ;ofi^ 
s;naUer  nature;  as,  I .^^  Good  Thoughts  in  bad  'time$.V;, 
2.  "  Good  Thoughts  in  worse  times.^'  These  two  pifcpV 
printed  separately,  the  former  in  1645,  the  Utter  in  164T,, 
were  published  together  in  16^,  and  have  very  recently, 
been  reprinted  by  the  rev.  Mr.  Hintoh,  of  Oxford. !  Be 
afterwards  jpublished,  in  1660,  3.  ^*  Mixt  ContemplationV. 
in  better  times.*'  4.  "The  Triple  Reconciler;  stating'* 
three  controversies,  viz.  whether  ministers  have  an  exclu^. 
sive  power  of  barring  communicants  ffom  theiacrament; 

f  tr  X  L  E  It  Its 

1i4ieti»r  any  person  uocH>dmiied -may  lawifoHy  preaeb';  siAl 
wbeiher  tlie  Lord^s  Pirayev  ought  not  lo  be  uaed  by  all 
,Cbnitiaii%  16M^''  4vo.  $•  ^*  The  tpeeoh  of  birds,  alio 
ef  Aowens,  partiy  mora)^  partly  mjtsttcai,  1660/^  8vo.  A 
wofk  eiitided  ^^  T.  FifUer^a^T-rtaiia;  or  tbree-fold  RomaDaia 
jof;^Mariaoa,-  Paduana^  aadrSabimf/*  MM^  \2tno,  is  attrh- 
jbuted  to  faim  i&  some  catalogues,  .lie  published  also  m 
fM»t  many  MKfDOtw,  sepavately  ia«d:in  ^umefc  r 
'  Dff.iFuUJeriies  ifthis  penM'^aU  adid«ii^ll**iiisidei  biitfiD 
wny  iDoKniog  te  c»r|mlanoy ;  'bie  eakofdcoNoe  wa»  florid'; 
'>m§A  bis  bitir  <dE  a.  ligihit  colour  «rtd  ceiliii^,  iHe  laas .  a-  kind 
Imtbguiid  to  taoth  fafft  wtvtSi  'a  tendeiy  Esther  tor  both  >bia  cliH* 
dioiiv  a^good  ftbtid>aiui  uetgU^emv  aod  4k  <#eH<?briiav0i 
eiwIiBed  penon^io  eTery*xeapoet.>f  Be  ma  ibiaost  agrees 
abk  eompaatoD,  bavisig  a^  great '•^eat'^^il,  )idiieb'lHa 
cottid  not  suppress  in  bis  most  seriona  ceaspoMtons,  hut  It 
.suited^  the  age  heiived  in^  aad^boweyer  introduiced^  waa 
always. iwdo! subservient  to  soase  gopd  porpeee*  All  Ma 
fmUs^i  tewaaeF^^'ntnaiaotiseaefenred'to  the  a^eof  Jamea 
£-d«d  CbfaErtesi  FMler  1ias  left  ^eiioagb*  to  doni^ittee  tia 
tbat  he  \^oald  haVe  been  adinitied  a  legitimate  tidt  in  anV 
ag^.'  He  had  all  the  rich  itnfagery  of  bishop  Hall,  but  witE 
more  familiarity  and  less  elegance* 
; '  Of  the'  poiArers  of  iiis  memory,  such  wonders  are  related 
as'^  not  qttit^  credible/  He  could- repeat  iW^'  hundred 
sMLH^  Words  aftelr  tVi^ice  bearing,  and  coufd  make  use  of  a 
^dnoton  verbatim, if  Kebntte  heard  it.  Hedndercook,in  pass« 
ii^^rcim  Temple-bsir  to  the  farthest  part  of  Cfaeapside,  to 
tironf  bis  return  every  Mgn  as  it  stood  in' order  on  both  sidea 
^  the  way,  r^pe&tihg  tbem  either  backwards  or  forwards  : 
atid  te  'did  it  exactly.  His  mainner  of  writihg  is  also  re^ 
ported  to  bave- been  strange.  HeWVote,  it  is  said,  near 
the  margin  the  first  words  of  everyline  down  to  the  foot  df 
.die  paper ;  then,  by  beginning  at  tbe  head  agun,  would 
^  perfectly  fill  up  every  one  of  these  lines,  and  without 

3 places,  interlineatiof^s,  or  contractions,  would  so  connect 
je  ends  and  beginnings,  that  the  sense  wbtfld  appear  as 
Cdmj^lete,  as  if  he  bad  written  it  in  a  continued  series  after 
<dkid  ordinary  maoTier.  Thi%  however,  he  tnight  sometimes 
dtfHo  amuse  his  friends;  it  never  could  have  been  hia 
}fraiiifcice.  ^         •- 

^  It^yas'  sufficiently  known  how  steady  he  was  in  the  in- 
tieT^sts  of  the  church  of  England,  against  the  innovationa 
of  the  presby terians  and  independents^  but  his  z^al  against 

176  JT  U  L  L  fi  ft. 

'Ibese  WW  mixed  n^ith  -greater  eomptuion  tbm  it  ihitH*- 

wavds  tbe;p«piatf :  and  tlm  caited  bim  up  many  ftdver* 

ca^ieSt  who  charged  him  with  purilEatkitftt.     He  uted  to 

^call  the  cootroversm  concernkig  eptseopacy,  and  the  iiew- 

;&^led  argumentft  agauisi  the  cEunch  ef  Enghmd^  <^  inaects 

.  of  ft  day ;''  and  t:afetuUy  aroidad  pdemteal  dispntes^  ^^ 

.iftltoipetber  of  sir   Henry  Wetton'a  epiaion^  ^  diaputandi 

pruritus,  ecclesiM  scabies/'     Tbeiactwas,  ihat  he  lored 

« yioua'  and  good  men  of  all  deoofloinationty  and  it  is  this 

Qaliid^ar.  which  has  given  a  vidue  to  his  works  Mtperiorte 

:thoBe:of  his  oppo<»Mtii.>   Fwr  the  many  enrors  wMGh/occttr 

iok  his  historiea^  it  is  auf«ly  ea^.  to  find  an  apology  io  this 

:§iagle  circumsttooey.that  the  w^die  of  4hem  were  compilidd 

.wd  pehlisbed  within  aboat  twenty  yean,  dmting  which  he 

;.«ia4  obliged  <toi  remote  ^fmm  place  to  plaee  in  quest:  of 

rliieiliry  k^iswre^  and  freedom  Irom  the  cruel  seDeriliefl  of 

>  the  times^    His  <^  Church  History''  is  the  most  ineecreet 

»-0f  all  bi»  worhsf  and  Strype  has  pointed  oat  a  great  many 

^errof3fkitbe  transcription  of  historical  docmneniai  to  whit^ 

ipei^aps  Fuller  had  nottbe  eatiest  access.  Htti  ^  Wordbte^' 

•  was  a  posthumous  publication,  by  hi»  Son,  tod  although 

<}es»  perfect  than  he  could  haire  made  it,  bad  bis  life  been 

spared  a  few  years  longer,  with  the  oppoctAinitie^  which 

tbeYeturn  of  peace  might  haire  afforded,  yet  it  contains 

^any  intocestiog  memorials ;  and  he  was  the  second  (see 

Samuel  GiiARkE)  nvho  pubUsbed  what  may  be  called  Ehg^ 

lish  biography.    This  work  has  for  many  years  been  riBtttg 

in. price  and  estimation,  and  the  pnbKc   has  lately  been 

;grati&ed  by  a  new  edition,  in  2.vols«4to,  edited  by  Mr. 

:Nichals,  with  many  improvements  and additbns,  from  the 

communications  'of  his  literary  friends. ' 

FULLER  (Thomas),  an  English  {Aysician,  but  peiixapB 
lietter  known  for  a  very  useful  work  on  morals^  was  born 
^une  2^  1654,  and  was  educated  at  Queen's  coHege, 
Cambridge,  where  be  took  hb  degrees  in  medicine,  that 
«f  M.  B.  in  1676,  and  that  of  M.  D.  in  16ai.  He  does 
4iot  appear  to  have  been  a  meinber  of  the  college'  of  phyj* 
aieiaus  of  London,  but  settled  at  Sevenosk  in  Kent,  where 
he  waa  greatly  esteemed.  He  was  a  great- benefactor  to 
the  ^poor,  and  a  zealous  assertpr  of  their  rights,  hafing, 
not  long  before  his  death,  prosecuted  the  managers'  n[  % 

•  Life  of  T.  Fuller,  l«mp.— Biof .  Br,iti--Pcck*8  Desiderata,  ^1.  II.— L». 
*i  EoTuons.— -Hutchins's  BoHetsbirfr,  2d  edit.— Ce&sura  Lit.  vol.  I  and  UH 

IrttttBi.  iTf 

}»jr  sir:  WiUiaoiiSe^Qke  .(ftnfouaciHng  .ef .  the  plscie,  •  and  m 
l4kt>lor,ii  iiiiifj<>r  of  I^^on)  lad  obiigcxi  tkew  ta  produce 
tl)6i|s  wi«gao«0b»)\iii  ehwmr^Md.  to '.he.  subject  fo#  the 
future, to  AH  whuilV  eksoli0n.  Here 'Dr.  Ktillet  died;  Sepc 
ijfcy^l^^  nTbie  imoml  ifi^nki: which  he  pob^shed  ms^en<< 
ti.tted  ^^lyliKid^liprad  piyitf^ntieiiy;  ordimrctionft,  eouoaels 
ap4  oautioiifi^'  tendiogi  to  prudent  miuiageoieiltof  ^air»of 
W^W0»liO^\jmf  lUcioift QQmpi\^  for  the.  u^of  bitf 
9P»#  ;<Te  tliiiifi.bejiddedt  what  imy;bejreckoned  a. second 
"^(K^^W)!  }9^:lbe  iitle  of  *f  Jniroduoiiio,  itc.;;  or  tbie  aft  of 
Tig^tfitbiakingt  Mfit«ted  and  improsred  by  sueh- notions  as 
9<^rQfl9eoi^  apdL<^perieiice  bai^e  left:!|s.  .in  their  writings 
i«iPi^*^.|0:erii4ic8^i»  error,  .and  plain. knowledget''  i7ai-2^ 
i;^fl^^.liisjraei^fml: works  were^  l.  ^^  Phtrmacopiefa  extem^ 
pqraQ^'  .170Sf^od  ai7l4»  jSrOv  2.  <<  Pbamiacoptseia  Bate* 
Bp^'':}.l  1^4  i9aH>«:  3^  ^'  PliariDlLCopG&iavDoaaeatica/'  1 723^ 
^^y».  *•  '^Offtriipitiv^^ fevers,  measles,  aiKl:sm«lk-po»*'*  1780, 
^o,  TbejE§  i^/ W4>iher  work  eotitled  ^  Meditina  Gyoii>as-* 
ticV^^iWbi^b*  bM  been.vSQnietiBies  attributed  to  biro,  but 
»vas  jmiitJ^n  by  ^  Fraqpis  Fuller,  M.  A^  of  St.  John's  college, 
Ca«mbri4g^>»^Qd  publitbed  ie  1704.^ 

:^ULLO.{(P£T^nK  ao  called  from  the  trade  of  a  fuller^ 
vf)gi/ij^r  b^' esiptcisfid  in  bis  monaatio  state,  intruded  bim^ 
self  iii<^>^.'tbe  .$ee;of  Antiocl^  in  the  fifth  century,  and 
aftf;r  jhfiviDg-  b^en.  aevfyal  times  deposed  ^nd  condemned 
oii,4^c9gpt(pf  tj3^bJltt^Ae#s  of  bia  opposition  to  the  coun« 
c\\  .9$  ^haife4on,  vjr#a  .atjladt  fi;Ked  in  it,  in  the  year  482, 
by  ifaj^  au^l^irity  of !  the  emperor  Zeno,  and  tbf9  favour  of  ^ 
A^c^is,  ,bis^p.  of  ConstaiM^inople.    Among  the*  innov4-  - 
.tiqoq  w,bidi  he  introduced  to  exciita  discord  .in  the-  church,  - 
vf^  afi,  :«Llt^a^pn  in  the.  |  famous  bynm  wbich  jtbe  Greeks 
ca^ed  Tfis-^iQik    After  khe  words  -^  O  God  most  holy,- 
AfiJlh^  ord^4.  the.  foUqwiog.  phrase  added  in  the  • 
^a^tern  cb^r^esft  ^^  who /has  suffered   for  us  upon  tlie 
crp^.'':  fUis  design  inj  this  was.  to  raise  a  new  sect,  and' 
al>o  itQ  fix  more  dffply  in  the. minds  of  the  people^  the 
.dopt;;i|ie^of  ojn€  nature  in  Christ,  to  .which  be  was  zealously  * 
atf^cbed.  .  Hi^  adversaries,  and  especially  Fceiix,  the >Ro-  ' 
tpaifi  pontiff^  interpreted  this  addition  in  a  quke  different  -'' 
mj^nner,. and- charged  him  with,  maintaining,  that  all  the 
three  persons  of  the  Godhead  were  crucified  ;  and  benca^ 

)  NfcboUS  B«wy«r.         .        ,  -      .-.• 

Vol.  XV.  N 

t78  M  }S  L  to. 

UtMtoiri^rl^fiiiWMllttd'Th^oilawUtef.    to  pot  m  enA 
to  the  coiKibrersy,  -  the  emperor  Zeno  puUtdied  iYi  the 
jedt  462  the  <<  HeDotieoii,"  or  decree  of /ettioti^  ^U\k 
we«  designed  «5  recbnelile  the  ^eftiei,  iLiid  FuUe  signed  it  f 
blit  the  elfeeti  ^of  the  ccmtest  diitutbed  th&dmroh  for  k 
long^'tiitie  iduk  his  deaths  wfaioii  lieppeoed  iiMthe  yUkV  t86/ 
FULMAN  CWiuJAM)v  en  ^fingi^sh  aiili^af^;  wits  th^ 
son  of  A  tmtefermen  at  Pembtirit^  <ia/Keiit^  where  he  w«i# 
born  in'N^vv  1639^  And  his  earif  ea^aSity  beiog^  Ittttaum  t<y 
the  celebrated  Dr.  flammohd,  who  #es  itiii^ter  of  thM 
pkcey  he  took  him  with  biib  to  Oxfonl  durieg^l^e  uaorpa- 
tien.     There  he  procured  him  the  pltM  ef '  oborifttet  in 
Magdalen  college,  and  at  isber^ame  timefiad  him  edbcitted 
at  die  school  belonging  to  that  college.    In  tee?  he  foe^ 
eame  a  candidate  for  a  soludandiip  4n  Corpus  Ctiristi^i^olo 
lege,  and  succeeded  bj^  his  skill  inr  cUssieallearning.'-  Tbit 
next  year  he  was* ejected  by  the  'parli^onckitary  'iAsit6rs^ 
along  wiUi  his  eaity  patron,    Dtv  Hammond^  to  ivbem, 
howeirer,  he  faitUbily  adhered,  and  was  seirviceable  to  him 
as  an  amanuensis.    Dr.  Hatfitnond  afkerwardii  proeufeS  llim 
a  Uitor'i;  place  in  a  lamily)  wh^re  he  reiUdMedun^Hiftl!^ 
restoration,  and  then  resiidhittg  hffik  soholaJfsMp  at  ^ollege^ 
wai  dreated  M.  A.  abd  obtiH^ned  A  fdlbWsbip.     tie  Was^ 
several  years  aft^  fif^sented  by  bin  coUe^^  to  ttMS  r^itfb&rf 
of  JVieysey  Hamptto,=  ^^^  f^irf<^<i,  in  Gleueest^t^bire; 
on  which  ijte  l*esided  during  hilB  ttfe,  etilplo5tiAg4iis  thine 
that  was  not  oeeupied  in  piiof^^en^  duties>  ih  the  s<^dy 
€^*  hrstory  hikd  antiquittef^  partiteterly  vi4mt  regarded  his 
own  country.      He  died  June  t9y   IBS9^   iMoiHding  to 
Wood>^  but  Atkins  mentions  Ir»  successor,  Dr.  ^ei^,  with 
the  date  1^97.    Wood  informs  m  that  Mr.  ^Fnlmitn  AMde 
iaT^e  c^ottections  of  Iristory,  h^  p«Misfeed  Mle.    Wb  hkfire, 
bdwev^,  of^his,  i;  ^  Academic  Oxonienii*  Holitia,*^  'Ox^ 
ih0d,  i^WSy  4to,  re^nted  at  London  in  IVTS,  with  lul- 
dkiotis  .tfnd  >cdtrecktons  from  Wood's  Lathi  history,  the 
sheets  of  which  he  comtntintcated  to  Mr.  Falinan  as  they 
«atoe  from  the  pnes^.     2.  ^«  Appendiic  to  the  Life  of  Ed- 
tSinud  Stanton,  D.  D.  whierein  sonie  passages  are  further 
cleared-,  *#hieh  were  not  ftitly  held  forth  by  the  former 
authors,'*  LoAd.  1673.     This  is  a  cehWre  of  some  pteiti^ 
culars  i^  Mayow*s  Life  ^f  Dr.  Stanton.     3.  **  Correctrbn^ 
fti^d  Observations  oh  the  first  part  of  Burnet's  History  of 

•  F  U  LM  A  Ni   '  179^ 

tlie  Refonnfttion,'^  bot  a  ctistinct  publication,  btkt  cotfl-^ 
mmicated  by  the  antfaor  to  Barnet,  who  published  them 
at  the  eqd  of  bis  second  volume,'  and,  according  to  Wood, 
not  completely.  Fulman  abo  collected  what  are  called 
the  '<  Work»  of  Charles  I,- '  but  happening  to  be  taken  ill 
about  the  intended  time  of  publication  (1662),  the  book-r> 
seller  employed  Dr.  Petinchief  as  editor.  It  contains, 
however,  Fulman^s  notes.  Many  of  his  MS  collections 
are  in  the  Hbrary  of  Corpus  Ghristi  college*  He  will  occur, 
%0t  be  noticed  hereafter  as  editor  of  Dr.  Hammond^s  works. ' 

FUMANI,  w  FUMANUS  (Adam),  an  accomplisl/ed 
scholar  and  Latin  poet,  was  -born  at  Verona,  and  not  at 
Venice^  as  Fusearini  asserts.  He  studied  Greek  and  La« 
tin  with  astioniibing  progress,  under  Romulus  Amaseus, 
and  the  extensive  learning  he  afterwards  acquired  made 
kirn  known  -arid-  respected  by  all  the  eminent  scholars  of 
bis  time.  On  the  death  of  one  of  his  particular  friends. 
John  Matthew  Oiberti,  bishop  of  Verona,  which  happened 
in  1544,  he  composed  a  funeral  oration,  which  is  said  tor 
have  been  very  eloquent,  but  which  he  was  not  able  to 
deliver  ndthoutsucfa  continual  interruption  from  the  tears 
tad  sobs  of  his  audience,  as  prevented  its  being  beard  with 
any  other  effect.  At  this  time  be  enjoyed  a  canonry  at 
Venice,  which  he  kept  all  his  life.  Navagero  add  Valerio, 
the  two  successive  bishbps  of  Verona,  and  both  cardinals^ 
had  the  highest  esteem  for  Fumafii;  by  the  interest  of  thd 
former  he  was  appointed  setretary  to  the  council  of  Trent.' 
He  died  advanced  in  age  in  1587.  He  published  "  D* 
Basilii  Moralia,  et  Ascetica,"  translated  by  him,  Leyden, 
1540,  fol.  but  is  best  known  by  his  Latin  poems,  the  chief 
of  which  is  a  system  of  logic,  in  Latin  verse,  on  which, 
notwithstanding  the  unpromisdtl^  nature  of  the  attempt, 
Tiraboschi  bestbiVs  very  high  praises.  This  carious  work 
remained  in  mknuscript  until  1730,  when  it  was  published 
in  the  Padua  edition  of  th6  works  of  Fracastorius,  2  v^ls. 
4to.  There  ard  bther  poems  by  Fumaili  ih  the  same  coU 
leC:tibn,  both  in  Greek  aitd  Latin,  and  some  in  Italian ; 
but  in  the  latter  he  is  not  thought  so  successful.*  * 

FUNCCIUS,  or  FUNCK  (John  Nicolas)^  a  native  of 
Marpurg,  and  a  celebrated  critic  in  the  Latin  language, 
was  born  in  1693.  He  was  educated  at  the  urtiversity  of 
Rintlenirt  Westphalia,  and  was  a  writer  of  several  philo- 

^  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II.  ♦  Tiraboschi— Morer^.—Nrceron,  vul.  XIT, 


logical  tracts  in  Latin*  -  But  the^most  celebrated  part  of 
ht$  works  consists  ajF  several  treatises  which  he  pi^lished 
successively  on  the  history  of  the  Latin  language,  begins 
ning  with  its  original  fonsattoOi  and  pursuing  it  through 
the  several  ages,  from  youth  to  extreme  old  age.  Hia 
treatises  *'  De  Origine  Latin»  Linguss,"  and  **  De  Pueri« 
tia  Latinte  LingusB,^  were  published  in  1720.  He  died  ilk 

FUNCH,  FUNECCIUS,  or  FUNECIUS  (John),  a  ce- 
lebrated Lutheran  divine,  was  born  in  1513,  at  Werden^ 
near  Nuremberg.  He  adopted  the  doctrine  of  Osiander, 
whose  daughter  he  married,  and  particularly  becaoie  a 
strenuous  advocate  for  Osiander^s  opinions. on  the  subject 
of  justification.  He  was  a  minister  in  Prussia,  and  wrot^ 
a  ^^  Chronology,^'  from  Adam  to  1560,  publidied  at  sepa- 
rate times,  but  completely  at  Wittemberg,  1570,  fol.  witb 
various  other  tracts.  At  length  being  oooviQted  of  giving 
Albert,  duke  of  Prussia,  to  whom  he  was  ebaplaiu^  advice 
disadvantageous  to  Poland,  he  was  condemned,  wi^  sw^ 
others,  as  a  disturber  of  the  public  peace,  and  beheaded 
at  Konigsberg,  October  28,  1566.  He  is  said  to  b«(v^ 
composed  the  foUowitig  distich  a  little  before  his  execution ; 

*^  Disce  meo  exemplo^  mandato  munere  fiingi, 
£t  fuge^  seu  pestem^  rif  tirokuv^myfioavitnf^* 


That  b,  ^^  Learn  from  my  esiample, .  to  mind  nothing  but 
the  employment  allotted  you ;  and  avoid,  as  you  would  tb0 

f>Iague,  all  desire  of  meddling  in  too  many  things.'-     He 
eft  a  Commentary  on  '<  Danid's  70  Weeks,"  in  German, 
fol.  and  one  on  the  ^^  Revelations,*'  4to.* 

FURETIERE  (Antony),  aa  ingenious  and  learned  law- 
yer, was  born  at  Paris  in  1620^  and,  after  a  liberal  edu- 
cation, became  eminent  in  the  civil  and  canon  law*  He 
was  first  an  advocate  in  the. parliament;  and  afterwaids, 
taking  orders,  was  presented  to  the  abbey  of  Cbaiivoy, 
an&  the  priory  of  Chuines.  Many  works  of  literature  rj^* 
commended  him  to  the  .public;  but  he  is  cbieAy  Jcnown 
and  valued  for  his  *^  Universal  Dictionary  of  the  French 
Tongue,"  in  which  he  explains  the  terms  of  art  in  all 
sciences.  He  died  in  16 86.  He. was  of  the  French  aca- 
demy, but,  though  a  very  useful  member,  was  excluded 
iu  16^85,  on  the  accusation  of  having  composed,  hb  j die- 

^  Prrcedinff  edit,  of  thii  Dictiooarf . 

^  Mclchior  Adam  de  yitis  GeriDaooniin  Theolo^.^-Moreru^-Qen.  DtoL 

F  U  RE  T  I  E  R  E.  ISl 

ti.otiary,  by  taking  advutage  of  that  of  the  academy,  which 
was  then  going  ott.  He  justified  bimself  by  statements, 
in  which  he  was  very  severe  against  the  academy;  but 
mshed,  a  little  before  his  death,  to.  be  re-admitted ;  and 
he  offered  to  give  any  satisfaction,  which  couUi  reasonably 
be  expected  from  a  man,-  who  owned  he  had  been  carried 
too  far  by  the  beat  of  di^j^utation.  His  dictionary  was  not 
printed  till  after  his  death,  in  2  vols.  foL  Basnage  de 
Beauval  published  an  edition  at  Amsterdam,  1725,  4  vols. 
foL  This  dictionary  wi^  the  foundation  of  that  known  by 
the  name  of  Trevoux,  the  last  edition  of  which  is,  Paris, 
2771,  8  vols.  fol.  Hi,s  other  works  are:  "Facta//  and 
other  pieces,  against  his  brother  academicians.  *^  Relation 
des  Troubles  arrives  an- Ro'iaume  d^Eloquence;**  a  tolera-^ 
bly  g<>od  critical  allegory.  **  Le  Roman  Bourgeois,'*  1 2mo 
or  8vo ;  a  book  esteemed  in  its  time.  Five  "  Satires'*  m 
verse,  12mo>  which  are  not  valued*  ^^  Paraboles  Evan- 
geliques/'  inverse,  1672,  12mo.  Therein  also  a  "Fure- 
tteriana,*'  in  which  there  are  some  amusing  anecdotes. ' 

FURIETTI  (Joseph  Alexander),  an  Italian  cardinal 
and  antiquary,  the  descendant  of  a  noble  family  of  Ber- 
gamo, was  born  there  in  1685.  He  studied  at  Milan 
find  Pavia,  and  made  considerable  progress  in  the  know- 
ledge of  the  civil  iand  canon  law.  He  went  afterwards 
to  Rome,  where  he  held  several  ecclesiastical  preferments, 
and  in  each  was  admired  as  much  for  his  integrity  as  know- 
ledge. Benedict  XIV.  who  well  knew,  his  merit,  was  yet 
averse  to  raising  him  to  the  purple,  on  areouut  of  some 
disputes  between  them  which  took  place  in  17#0.  Yet  it 
is  said  that  Furietti  might  have  received  this  high  honour  at 
that  time,  if  he  would  have  parted  with  his.  two  superb 
centaurs,  of  Egyptian  marble,  which  he  found  in  1736 
junong  the  ruins  of  the  ancient  town  of  Adrian  in  Tivoli, 
and  which  the  pope  very  m^ch  wanted  to  place  in  the  mu- 
seum Capitoliuum. '  Furietti,  however,  did  not  elrase  to 
give  them  up,  and  assigned  as  a  reason  :  **  I  can,  if  I  pl^^ise, 
be  honoured  with  the  purple,  but  I  know  the  court  of 
Rome,  and  I  do  D6t  wish  to  be  called  cardinal  Centaur  P* 
In  1759,  however,  Clement  XIII.  a  year  after  bis  acces- 
sion to  the  papal  dignity,  sent  the  cardinal^s  hat  to  him^ 
<  which  he  did  not  long  enjoy,  dying  in  1764. 

Furietti  collected  and  published  at  Rome  the  works  of  the 
celebrated  Caspar  Barsiza  of  Bergamo,  and  of  bis  son 


»  Diet.  Hist. — Moreri, 

1^2  F  U  R  I  E  T  T  I. 

Guintforte,  inoit  of  Which  were  never  before  printed,  in  a 
bandsome  4to  vol.  1723,  with  a  learned  preface  ind  life. 
He  published,  likewise,  at  Bergamo  in  1712,  a  fine  edition 
of  the  poems  of  Fonuua ;  but  what  obtained  him  most  re- 
putation among  scholars  and  antiquaries,  was  his  treatise 
dn  the  Mosaic  art  of  painting,  entitled  **  De  Musivis,  vel 
pictoris  MosaicsB  artis  origine,  prpgressu,  jcc/*  Rome,  1752,' 
4to.  In  this  he  describes  a  rare  specimen  of  Mosaic  which 
be  discovered  in  1737  in  the  ruins  of  Adrian,  and  which, 
according  to  hihi,  is  mentioned  by  Pliny,  as  being  the 
work  of  the  celebrated  artist  Sosius.  This  exquisite  spe- 
cimen, with  the  centaurs  belonging  to  Furietti,  was  pur- 
chased after  hh  death  by  pope  Clement  XIIL  for  14^000 
Roman  crowns,  and  deposited  in  the  museum. ' 

FURIUS,  called  Bibacctlus,  perhaps  from  his  excessive 
drinking,  an  ancient  Latin  poet,  was  born  at  Crerqona 
about  the  year  of  Rome  650,  or  100  before  Christ.  H* 
wrote  annals,  of  which  Macrobius  has  preserved  sotpe  frag<» 
mehts.  They  are  inserted  in  Maittaire^s  **  Corpus  Poeta* 
rum.''  Quintiiian  says,  that  he  wrote  iambics  also  in  a 
very  satirical  strain,  and  therefore  is  censijr^  by  Crenau* 
tins  Cordus,  in  I'acitus,  as  a  slandering  ar)d  abusive  writer. 
Horace  is  thought  to  have  ridiculed  tl^e  false  sublime  of 
his  taste;  yet,  eccprding  to  Macrobius,  Virgil  is  said  to 
have  imitated  him  in  many  places.  But  some  are  of  opi- 
nion that  the  "  Annals"  may  be  attributed  to  Furius  An- 
fias,  or  Anthius^  s^  contemporary  poet,  whose  fragment's 
are  likewise  in  Maittaire's  collection.  ^ 

FURIUS  (Frederick),  s\;rnaraed  Coeriolanu^.  was  a 
native  of  Valentia  in  Spain,  and  flourished  in  the  sixteenth 
pentury.  He  studied  at  Paris  under  Talseus,  Tiirriebus, 
Md  Ramus,  and  afterwards  came  to  Louvaih,  where  he 
published  a  treatise  *^  On  Rhetoric,*'  and  another  In  which 
he  asserted  that  the  scriptures  ought  to  be  translfited  into 
the  vulgar  tongue*  ft  was  entitled  "  Bononia,''  sive  dc 
Jibris  sacris  in  vernaculam  linguam  convertendis,  Jfcc." 
Basil,  .15^6,  Svo.  It  was  written,  however,  upon  too  libe- 
ral principles  for  the  council  of  Trent,  and  was  accordingly 
inserted  in  their  "  Index  Expurgatorius."  It  otherwise 
would  have  brought  him  into  trouble  if  he  had  not  foubd  a 
protector  in  the  emperor  Charles  V.  who  was  informed  df 
his  learning,  piety,  and  candour.     This  monarch  sent  hina 

^  Diet.  UUt,  s  Vossius  de  Poet.  Lat. — Satii  Onom, 

in(^  ii}iQ.Netii9rUinds,,  iwd  p1ma4  him  wi^hia  aoft  Philip, 
wbQ^  made  biija  bi^.bi^tpr^ap..  Fqrius  repaioed .  with  tj^s 
.priiipi^  during  l\is  lifej^und  bftviog  aQCOinfMatiied  bim.toi.the 
stat,ea .  of  Arff9gon,  di^d  M  V^IladoUd  in  159^.  H^^  ap-- 
pears  tq  b^ye  ^fn[;4py6d  ^ia  u^mpst  endeavoura  iu  ardoRlo 
paqify  th^  troul;>)e$  io  tb^  Netbi^rbnda^  He  wrote  anokhtr 
work  ^^  Del  C^oseio  y  Conseiero^^'  which  was.  muoh 
ey^eepii^d}  and  twice  tra(i»)ated  iato  Latin,  1613  aad  1669, 
Syo.  * 

FURNEAUX  (PHiyp),  a  learned  dissentiog  clecgyniaii, 
was  bjqrp  at  Totiiess  iiv  Deyonsbire  in  Dec  1726,  aad  n^as 
educated  in  the  free-scbool  of  that  to.wn  ^  the. same  tinie 
with  £>r.  Kennicott,  who  was  a  few  years  biw  senior^  knd 
between:  tbem  a  friendship  commenced  v\duch  contkitted 
through  life.  From  Totnasj  Dr.  Furueajnx  came  to  Loq- 
doQ  for  academical  studies  among  the  dissenters,  which  he 
xopoplejted  i.o  1749.  He  was  aoon  ;»fter  qrdaiiied,  sad 
chosen  assistant  to  the  rev.  Henry  Read,  at  the  meetings 
hpuse  in  St.  ThoQULs^Sy  Soutbwark,  and  joint  Sanday  even- 
ing lecturer  s^t  Salters'-ball  meeting.  In  I753hesuceeeded 
ibe  rey.  Moses  Lowm^^n^  as  pastor  of  the  congregation  .«t 
^Clapbam,  which  he  raised  to  one  of  the  most  opulent  .anil 
considerable  among  the  protestant  dissenters.  .  He  vet* 
pained  their  favourite  preacher,  and  highly  esteemed  by 
all  classes,  for  upwards  of  tweiHy*three  years,  but  was 
deprived  of  his  usefulness  in  1777,  by  the  loss  of  his  men^ 
tal  powers,  under  which  deplorable  malady  (which  was 
hereditary)  he  continued  to  the  day  of  hia  deatb^  Nov,  2S\, 
1793.  His  flock  and  friends  raised  a  liberal  subscription  tm 
support  him  during  his  illness,  tQwhicb^  from  s^itioients 
<^  personal  reject,  as.  well  as  from  the  principle  of  bene- 
volence, the  late  lord  JVIan^field^  chief  justice  of  the  king^s 
bench,  generously  jcontributed.  Dr.  FurneauK  (which  title 
he  had  received  f^om  some  northern  uniyerfnty)  united  te 
strong  judgment,  a  v^ry  tenacious  memory ;  of  wbicdi  fa« 
gave  a  remarkable  proof,  when  the  cuse  of  the  dissenters 
against  the  corporation  of  London,  on  the  exemption  they 
claimed  from  scrying  the  office  of  sheriff,  was  heard  in  tfa« 
house  of  Iprds.  He  was  then  present,  and  oarried  aw^ 
and  committad  to  paper,  by  the  strength  of  his  memory^ 
without  notes,  %he  very  able  speech  of  lord  Mansfield; 
with  samuch  accuracy,  that  hi»  lordship,  when  the  copy  Wa» 

1  Qen.  I>ictf-?iMor«ri. 




iubmitted  le^  his  ezanination, :  could  discover  but  ^o  or* 
three  trivial  -errors  in  it.  This  circumsUDce  iiitrodviced 
him  to  the  acquaintance  of  that  great  man,  who  <:oooeii^d 
ft  high  regard  for  him.  Dr.  Fameoux  pubKs bed  but  little^ 
except  a  feir  occasional  serntons;  the  most  considerable  of 
his  works  was  that  entitled  **  Letters  to  tbef  horn  Mr.  Jus^ 
tipe  Blaokstooe,  concerning  his  exposition  of  the  act«  o£^ 
rtoleratiiMi,  and  some  positions  relative  to  religious  liberty, 
in  bis  Commentaries  on  the  Laws  of  England/*  illQ,  8vo. 
This  is  said  to  have  induced  the  learned  commentator  toi 
aker  some  positions  in  the-  subsequent  edition  of  his  valo* 
4ible  work.  -  To  the  second  edition  of  Dr.  Furneaux^ 
^'  Letters''  wns  added  the  before-mentioned  speech  of  lord 
Mansfield,  la  1773  he  published  also  <<  An  Essay  on 
Toleration,''  with  a  view  to  an  application  mi^de  hy  dis-* 
senting  ministers  to  parliament  for  relief  in  the  matter  of 
subscription,,  which,  although  uosucces^ul  then,  was  afHsr^ 
Ifards  granted.  *  •         -  : 

FUR$T£M&£RG  (Ferdikakd  D£),  an  eminent  prelate^ 
the  descendant  of  a  noble  family  in  Weatpbalis,  was  bom 
at  Bilstein  in  1686.  He  studied  at  Cologne,  where  he 
contracted  an  iutimat^  friendship  with  Cbigi,  who  was 
then  nuncio,  and  afterwards  pope.  During  the  cardinal* 
ate  of  Cbigi,  be  invited  Furstemberg  to  reside  with  him, 
whom  he  raised  to  the  bishopric  of  Paderbom  in  1661^ 
when  he  himself  was  seated  in  the  papal  chair,  under  the 
title  of  Alexander  VII.  The  high  repatation  of  tlie  bis»bop 
attracted  the  notice  of  Van  Galen,  who  appointed  him  bis 
coadjutor,  and  whom  he  succeeded  in  1676,  when  he  was 
declared  by  the  pope  apostolical  vicar,  of  all  the  north  of^ 
£urope«  He  was  ^  sealous  catholic,  and  anxious  for  the 
couYersion  of  those  who  were  not  already  within  the  pale 
of  the  church;  but  at  the  same  time  he  did  not  neglect 
the  cultivation  of  the  belles  lettres,  either  by  his  own 
cflForts  or  those  of  many  learned  men  whom  he  patroniaed. 
He  died  in  1683.  As  an  author  he  collected  a  number  of 
MSS.  and  monuments  of  antiquity,  and  gave  to  the  world 
a  valuable  work  relative  to  those  subjects^  entitled  ^  Mo-* 
numenta  Paderbornensia."  He  also  printed  at  Rome  a 
collection  of  Latin  poems,  entitled  **  Septem  Virorum 
4llustrium  Poemala."  In  this  work  there  were  many  poema 
9f  hia  own,  written  with  much  purity.    A  magnificent  edi« 

I  ^rot.  DuyentertMasasiae^  fok  V.— Gent.  Hag.  toIs.  LL  and  I4II11 

F  U  R  S  T  E  M  B  E  R  G.  1* 

tion  bf  tta«ie'  p<)6ms  wtt  published  in  the  satiie^  yMt  hi 
which  be  died,  atibe  LxMivre^  at  the  expenee  of  the  king 
of  France.* 

FURHTENAU  (JoHN^HmMAN),  an  eminent  pbysician> 
^as  born  at  Herfordenv  In  Westphalia,  in  the  month  of 
May,  1 S8S;  He  began  the  4»tudy  of  medicine  at  the  age 
of  ergbteen,  and  attended  with  diligence  the  schools  of 
Wittemberg,  Jena,  and  Halle,  and  became  a  licemiate  ia 
medicine  in  the  last^mentioned  university.  About  1709  he 
returned  to  Herforden,  and  immediately  obtained  a  con*, 
siderable  share  of  practice ;  but  having  conceived  the  de- 
sign of  visiting  the  Low  Countries^  he  commenced  hit 
joirney  in  171 1>  in  order  to  hear  those  great  masters  of 
his^  art,  who  at  that  time  flourished  so  numerously  in  jhe 
cities  of  Amsterdam,  Leyden^  Utrecht,  the  Hague,  Detft, 
and  Port.  Having  profited  inuch  by  their  insuuetions^ 
whether  in  the  chair,  in  hospitals,  or  in  private  communi-t- 
cation,  he  returned  to  his  native  place  at  the  end  of  a  yiear^ 
aiKl  recommenced  the  practice  of  his  profession  with  the 
same:  ardour  as  when  he  quitted  Halle,  but  with  mom 
knowledge  and  greater-resources.  Nevertheless  he  again 
interrupted  hid  practice  by  another  journey  in  1716.  He 
married  in  1717,  with  the  intention  of  seuling  at  Herfor-* 
den;  but  became  a  professor. in  1720,  at  Rintlen,  where 
lie  died  April  7,  1756.  He  left  several  works :  the  first  of 
these  was  frequently  ^re-printed,  and  bears  the  title  of 
"  JDesiderata  Medica.'*  It  includes  also  "  Desiderata  Ana- 
tomico- Physiologica ;  Desiderata  circa  mbrbos  et  e5mm 
^igna;  Quae  desiderantur  in  Praxi  Medica;  D^sidi^rata 
Chirurgica.*'  2.  •*  De  Fatis  Medicoruni,  Oratio  Inaugu- 
ralis,"  1720.  3.  " De  morbis  Juriscohsultofum  Epistola,'^ 
1721.  4.  ^'  De  Dysenteria  alba  in  puerpera  Dissertatio,^^ 
1723.  5.  <<  Programmata  nonnullay  tempore  Magistrate^ ' 
Academic!  impressa,''   1724  and  1725." 


FUST,  or  FAUST  (John),  a  goldsmith  of  Menta,  wa«* 
one  of  the  three  artists  considered  as  the  inventors  of  print* 
ing,  the  two  others  berng  Guttemberg  and  Scha&fFer.  It  is  * 
not,  however,  certain,  that  he  did  more  than  supply  money ' 
to  Guttemberg,  who  hacl  made  attempts  with  moveable 
inetal  types  at  Strasburg,  before  he  removed  to  Mentz,  in 
}444.     But  it  has  been  strongly  argued,  that  Laurence* 

*  Moreri.— Diet  Hist.  *  Oict,  Hirit--*Itees'f  Cydopadiit 

lee  .FUST. 

Koflfter,  at  Hariaeliii  bad  flnt  conoeivod  the  art.  of:  cutting 
wooden  blocks  for  tbU  purpose  in  1490,  which  he  imme* 
d lately  iroprovedy  by  substituting  separate  wooden  types* 
Scbsetfer  undoubtedly  invented  the  method  of  casting  the 
metal  types,  in  1452.  The  first  printed  book  with  a  date, 
is  said  to  bare  baea  a  Psaltei^  publiibed  at  M ents  in  1457 ; 
tbe  next,  perhaps,  is  '^  Durandi. Rationale  divinorum  Offi* 
cioruro,"  by  Fust  and  Schse^ffer  in  1459.  Tbe  <^  Catboli- 
COR*'  followed  in  1 460.  There  are,  however,  some  boohs 
wiihout  dates,  which  are  supposed  to  be  still  older.  Ftast 
was  at  Paris  in  1466,  and  it  is  imagined  that  he  died  there 
of  the  plague^  which  then  raged  in  that  capital.  ^ 

FUZ£LI£R  (Lftwis),  a  native  cvf  Paris,  where  be  was 
born  in  1672,  denoted  himself  early  to  poetry,  an^  wrote 
for  tbe  Freuoh  and  Italian  theatres,  the  royal  muaicai 
academy,  and  the  comic  opera.  He  obtaiiied  the  pxivilege 
of  conducting  toe  <^  Mercury,"  jointly  with  M.  deBruere, 
)n  1744,  and  died  at  Paris,  September  19,  1752,  .le;tving  a 
i^oosiderable  number  of  theatrical  pieces,  which  have  not 
been  collected.  ,  His  comedy  of  one.  act,  entitled  '^  Mooms 
Fabuliste»"  and  his  operas  of  ^^  Les  Ages,''  **  Les  Amourt 
des  Dieux,''  *^  Les  Indes  Galantes,'*  and  '^  Le  Carnava} 
du  Parnasse,''  are  particularly  admired.  He  wrote  much 
for  the  Italian  theatre  and  comic  opera;  but  La  Harpe^ 
who  has  kitely  dictated  in  French  criticism,  speaks,  with 
great  contempt  of  bis  talents. .' 

"  Diet.  Hilt.— S«€  Art.  Pjuktikc  in  Cyclopedia.  *  Diet  Hi«t, 

i,  '•'  ) 

i     I 


CtABBIANI  (Antony  Dombnick),  an  haliaR  artist,  born 
at  Florence  in  I6i2y  wvs  successively  the  papil  of  Sobtisr- 
pians  and  Vincenzo  Dandini,  and  studied  under  Giro  Ferii 
at  Rome,  and  after  the  best  coioufrists  at  Venice.  He  was 
a  ready  and  correct  designer  His  colour,  though  some^ 
times  languid j  is  generally  true,  juicy,  and  well  united  in 
(he  ilesh-dnts.  The  greatest  flaw  of  bis  «tyle  lies  in  the 
ichoice,  the  hues,  and  the  execution  of  his  draperies.  He 
lexcels  in  ^^  pretty**  subjects;  his  Gambols  of  Genii  and 
Children  in  the  palace  Pitti,  and  elsewhere,  are  little  in* 
tferior  to  those  of  Biiciccio.  His  greatest  and  most  famed 
work  in  fresco,  is  the  vast  cupola  of  Cestdio,  which  wais 
■not  wholly  terminated.  His  altar-pieces  are  unequal:  the 
l>est  is  that  of  S.  Filippo  in  the  church  of  the  fathers  Dell' 
Oratorio.  In  easel-pictures  he  holds  bis  place  even  in 
princely  galleries.  He  died  in  1726,  in  consequence  of  a 
}'all  from  the  scaffold  on  which  he  was  painting  the  cupola 
of  Cestdlo,  * 

GABIA  (John  Baptist),  one  of  those 'scholars  who  pro- 
moted the  revival  of  literature,  was  a  native  of  Verona, 
«nd  a  professor  of  Greek  at  Rome  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
j[>ut  vire  have  no  dated  particulars  of  his  life.  It  is  said  he 
was  eminent  for  his  knowledge  of  the  learned  languages, 
and  of  philosophy  and  mathematics,  and  h^d  even  studied 
theology.  He  translated  from  Greek  into  Latin,  the  Cofl»* 
mentaries  of  Theodoret  bishop  of  Cyarus,  on  Daniel  and 
Szekiel,  which  translatrion  was  printed  at  Hoane,  1563,  fol. 
and  was  afterwards  adopted  by  father  Sirmond  in  his  edi- 
tion of  Theodoret  He  translated  also  the  history  of 
Scylitzes  Curc^alates,  printed  in  1570,  along,  with  the 
original,  which  is  thought  to  be  more  complete  than  the 
Paris  edition  of  1648.  About  1543  he  published  the  first 
Iraitin  translation  of  Sophocles,  with  scholia.     Maffei  says 

^  PilkingtoD,  by  Fuseli. 

US  G  A  B  I  A. 

that  be  also  translated  Zozimus,  and  the  Hebrew  Psa1in9, 
and  translated  into  Greek  the  Gregorian  Kalendar,  with 
Santi^s  tables,  and  an  introductory  epistle  in  Greek  by  him* 
•elf.    This  was  published  at  Rome  in  1583.' 

GABRIEL  (James),  an  eminent  royal  architect  of 
Trance,  built  the  palace  at  Choisy,  and  undertook  the 
royal  bridge  at  Paris,  but  died  in  1686,  before  he  had 
completed  this  work,  which  was  finished  by  his  son  James 
and  Frere  Romain.  James  was  born  at  Parts  1667,  became 
a  pupil  of  the  celebrated  Mansart,  and  acquired  so  great 
a  reputation  as  to  be  appointed  overseer-general  of  build- 
ings, gardens,  arts  and  manufactures;  fint  architect  and 
engineer  of  bridges  and  banks  through  the  kingdom,  and 
knight  of  St.  Michael.  He  planned  the  common  sewer, 
and  many  public  buildings,  among  which, are  the  hotel  de 
Ville,  and  the  presidial  court  of  Paris,  &c;  He  died  in 
that  city  1742,  leaving  a  son,  first  architect  to  the  king, 
who  long  supported  the  reputation  of  bis  ancestors,  and 
died  in  1782.  • 

GABRIEL  SIONITA,  a  learned  Maronite,  who  died  in 
1648,  was  professor  of  oriental  languages  at  Rome,  from 
whence  he  was  invited  to  Paris,  to  assist  in  M.  le  Jay's 
Polyglott,  and  carried  with  him  some  Syriac  and  Arabic 
bibles,  which  he  had  transcribed  with  his  own  hand  firotfi 
MS  copies  at  Rome;  these  bibles  were  first  printed  in 
Jay's  Polyglott,  ^ith  vowel  points,  and  a  Latin  versiorf; 
and  afterwards  in  the  English  Polyglott.  Gabriel  Sionita 
translated  also  the  Arabian  Geography,  entitled  ^'  Geo- 
graphia  Nubiensis,"  1619,  4to,  and  some  other  works. 
He  had  some  disagreement  with  M.  le  Jay,  who  sent  to 
Rome  for  Abraham  Ecchellensts  to  supply  bis  place.  ^ 


GABRINI  (Thomas  Maria),  of  the  order  of  the  clerks 
minor,  was  born  at  Rome  in  1726,  and  boasted  of  being 
the  descendant  of  Nicolas  Gabrini,  better  known  by  the 
name  Rienzi.  Having  been  appointed  Greek  professor  at 
j^esaro,  be  acquired  great  reputation  for  his  critical  know- 
ledge of  that  language.  He  afterwards  was  invited  to  be 
philosophy  professor  at  Rome,  and  had  a  cure  of  souls 
which  he  held  for  twenty-seven  years,  with  the  character 
of  an  excellent  pastor.  After  other  preferments  in  the 
ecclesiastical  order  to  which  he  belonged,  he  was  at  ia&t 

1  Moreri.-*Maffei  Verona  lllvitiata.     ^  Pict  Hist.     »  If 9reri.«*2>ict.  Hmt, 

GABRINI.  i$d 

i^ade  Moerali  and  while  in  tbit  station  was  frequently  con- 
aultea  by  congregations,  bisbops,  and  popes,  who  had  a 
very  high  esteem  for  bis  judgment.  He  died  very  advan- 
ced, on  Nov.  16,  1807.  Besides  some  tracts  published  in 
defence  of  his  ancestor  Rienzi^  he  published  <*  A  Disser- 
tation on  the  20th  proposition  of  the  first  book  of  Euclid,** 
Pesaro,  1752,  8vo,  which  went  through  several  ed:itions^ 
and  many  disserutions,  memoirs,  and  letters  in  the  literary 
journals,  on  the  origin  of  mountains,  petrifactions,  and 
other  objects  of  natural  history  ;  medals,  obelisks,  inscrip* 
tions,  and  classical  and  ecclesiastical  antiquities.  He  left 
abo  some  valuable  manuscriptis  on  similar  subjects. ' 

GACON  (Faancjs),  a  French  poet,  well  known  by  his 
satirical  pieces  against  Boasuet,  Rousseaui  La  Motte,  and 
others,  was  the  son  of  a  merchant,  and  born  at  Lyons  in 
1667,     He  became  a  ftttber  of  the  Oratory ;  obtained  the 
poetical  prize  at  the  French  academy  in  1717;  and  died 
m  bis  priory  of  BaiUan  Nov.  15,  1785.     Among  his  works 
are,  '^  Le  Poete  sans  fard,"  a  satirical  piece,  which  cost 
him  some  months  of  imprisonment ;  a  French  translation 
of  '*  Anacreon/*  witli  notes,  which  was  the  best  of  his 
works;  **  L* Anti-Rousseau,''  an  attack  against  J.  Baptiste 
Rousseau,   the  poet;    **  L' Homer e  veng6,'*    against  La 
Mott^,     Gacoo  dso  attacked  La  Motte,  and  turned  bim 
into  ridicule,  in  a. small  piece  entitled  <*  Les  Fables. d( 
M.  de  la  Motte^  traduites  en.  vera  Fmucois,  parP.^*  F. 
aa.Caff(6  du  Mont  Parnasse,  &Ci"    TIms  poet^s  natural 
propensiiy  to  satire  and  criticism,  led  him  to  attack  all 
sorts  of  writers,  and  involved  him  in  all  the  litemry  quar« 
rels  of  his  times.    The  French  academy  acted  with  great 
Impartiality,  when  they  adjudged  him  the  prize ;  for  be 
had  written  in  some  shape  or  other  against  ahnoatall  the 
oiembers  of  that  illustrious  body;  and  on  this  acoount  it 
y^as,.  that  he  was  not  suffered  to  make  his  speech  of  thanks, 
^  is  usual  on  such  occasions,  the  .prize  having  been  -re- 
mitted'to  bim  by  the  bands  of  the  abb^  de  Choisy.  '  A«  Ga- 
cojo,''  aays  Voltaire,  *^  is  placed  by  father  Micevon  in  tbe 
catalogue  of  illustrious  men,  though  he  has  been  famous 
only  for  bad  satires,<^— Suchautbprs  cannot,  be  cited  but  aa 
es^amples  to  be  detested.'*     In  fact,  though  he  wrote  with 
care,  his  style  wais  heavy  and  diffuse  in  prose,  and  low  in 

«  Diet.  Hitt. 
'  •  M*>r«ri.— DL't  H'lil.— Niccron,  ▼ol.  XXXVlIl.— Stiii  Onom. 


190  GAUBURY. 

GADBURY  (Josh),  one  of  4liQ  asitrologidtl  impotioffi: 
of  tbe  seveoteenth  century,  was  bo^n  at  Wbeatly.  near  Ox** 
ford,  Dec.  31^  1637.     His  father^  WiUiaro,  waa  a  farmer 
of  that  place,  and  his  mother  was  a  daughter  of  sir  Jdhiv 
CurzoQ  of  Waterperry,  knt.    Our  conjuror  was  first  put 
apprentice  to  Thomas  Ntcols,  a  taylor,  in  Oxfordi  but 
leaving  his  roaster  in  1644,  he  went  up  to  London,  and 
beoame  a  pupil  of  tbe  noted  William  Lilly^  under  whom, 
he  profited  so  for  as  to  1>e  soon  enabled  ^^  to  set  up  the 
trade  of  almanack -making  and  fortune-teUing  for  himself."  . 
His  pen  was  employed  for  many  years  on  nativities,  alma-' 
nacks,  and  prodigies.     There  is>  we  beUeve^  a  eomplete^ 
collection  of  bi&  printed  works  in  tha  new  catalogue  of  the 
British:  Museum,  and  we  hope  we  shall  be  excuse^  for  not 
transcribing  the  list.     Dodd,  who  has  given  an  aceonnt  of 
him,  as  a  Rbman  catholic,  says  thai;  some  of  his  almanacka^ 
refiectaii^  upon  the  management  of  state  affairs. dfirli^. the' 
time  of.  Oates^i^  plot,  .brought  him  into  trouble.    While 
Qither  astrologers  were  content  to  exercise  their'  art  for  the' 
benefit  of  their  own  country  only,  Gadbury  extended  .bia 
to  a  remote  part  of  the  globe,  as^  in  1674,  he  published 
hia  ^  West  India,  or  Jamaica  Almanack",  for  that^  yeai^ 
He  QoUected  and  published  the  wo^ks  q{  his  fiirad  sir 
Gees:ge  Wharton  in  l.fiSS,  8vo.     His  old  master  Lillyy  who 
quarrelled  with  him,  and  against  whom  he  wrote  a^  book 
called  .'^  Anti-lferliou5  Anglicus,"  saya  be  was  a  *^.  monster 
of  ingmtitude,"  .and  ^' a  graceless  fellow ;''  which  is* true,: 
if,  ai3oording  to  his  account,  he  had  two  wives  liviog  at 
^me  time,  and  one  of  them  two  husbands.     Lilly  adds,  tlwt 
be  went  to  sto  with  intention  for  Barbadoes,  but  died  by 
the  way  in  hifr  voyage.    When  thia  happened  we  are  not 
told.     Lilly  died  in  16il,  and  according  to  Wood,  Gadu 
bury  was  living  in  1 690.     '^  The  Black  Life  of  John  Gad« 
bury*'  was  written  and  published  by  Partridge  in  1  QMf 
which  might  be  about  the  time  of  his  death,  but  his  name^ 
as  was  usual,  appeared  long  after  this  in  an  almanack,  simi- 
lar to  that  published  in  his  life-*time.     There  was  another 
astrologer,  a  Job  Gadburv,  who  waa  taught  his  art  by  John^ 
and  probably  succeeded  him  in  the  ^manack,  and  who 
died  in  1715.1 

GADD£SPEN  (John  op),  an  English  physician,  who 
lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  fourteentb  century,  of  very 

1  Dodd*i  Cb.  Hist.  vol.  TIT.— Gran(»r.— Tatler,  Sto  edit.  1806,  vilh  notet, 
vol,  II.  p.  61,  III.  537,  IV,  257.— Lilly's  Life  «nd  Times,  edit.  1774,  p.  52,  55. 

G  A  D  D  E  S  D  E  N.  191 

exlennTe  and 'lucrative  practice,  was  die  fifat  EngUsbman 
who  was.  employed  as  a  pbyridan  at  court,  being  ap« 
pointed  to  that  office  by  Kdward  II.:  before  his  time  the 
King's  physicians  bad  -  been  exelasively  foreigners;  The 
ignorance,  superstition,  and  low  quackery,  which  appear 
tbroughoiit  bis  practice,  are  painted  with  much  life  and 
humour  by  Dr.  Freind.  He  came  forward  as  an  uniyeraaL 
genius,  was  a  philosopher,  pbitc^ogist^  aud  poet,  and  un-> 
dertook  every  thing  that  lay  within  the  circle  of  phystc 
and  sui^ry,  was  skilled  hi  manual  operations,  very  expert- 
in  bone-setting,  and  a  great  oculist.  He  also  aoqoaiots  ua> 
widi  his  gnent  diill  in' pbysiognomy ;  and  designed  to  write 
a  treatise  of  chiromancy.  He  was  a  great  dealer  in  secrets, 
and  some  be  bad  which  were  the  most  secret  of'  secrets, 
and  did  miracles.  But  his  chief  strength  lay  iii  receipted 
and  without  giving  himself  much  trouble  in  forming  a 
judgiAent  respecting  the  nature  of  the  case,  he  seemed  to 
tUnk  that,  if  he  eould  muaier  up  a  good  number  of  these, 
be  should  be  able  to  encounter  any  distemper.  He  seems 
to  have  neglected  no  stratagems,  by  which  he  laight  suiv 
pnse  and  impose  on  the  credulity  of  mankind,  and  to  have 
'been  very  artftil  in  laying  baits  for  the  delicate,  the 
ladies,  and  tbe-rieb.  When  he  was  employed  in  attending 
the  king^ssoii,  in  the  smciH'-pox','  in  order  to  diew  his  skill 
in  inflamtaiatory  distempers^  he,  with  a  proper  formality, 
aifd.axTOuntenonce  of  mydi  iMiportanoe,  ordered  the  patients 
tate  wrapped  up  in  scarlet,  and  eviery  thing  about  the  bed' 
to  be  of'  the  bame  colour.  This,  he  says,  made  him  »e-^ 
cover  without  so  much  as  leaving  cue  mark  in  his  ftsef 
and  he  commends  it  for  an  excellent  iM>de  of  cuniig^ 
Nevertheless  this  man  was  praised  by  Leland,  Owrin^s^ 
and  others,  as  a  profound  philosopher,  a.'  skilM  physician, 
and  the  brightest  man  ef  his  agew 

His  only  wotit,  whieb  he  produced  while  resident  at 
Merton  eisUege;  Oxford,  is  the  famous  ^^Bosa  Anglica," 
whiob  ct^mprises  the  whole  practice  of  physic ;  collected 
ihdwd  chiefly  friDm  the-  Arabians,  and  the  modems  wba 
had  written  in  Latin  just  before  him,  but  enlarged  and  in<^ 
ter^ersed  with  additions  froM  bis  own  eaqperieifce.  Its 
title  is  <«  Rosa  Anglica  41iatu(Mr  Libris  distinota,  de  morbis 
paniciilaffibufs,d^  Febrtbus,  de€3iintrgia,  dePkarmacopoNu** 
Dr.  Freind  observes,  that  John  seems  to  have  made  a  col* 
lection  of  all  the  receipts  he  had  ever  met  with  or  heard 
of;  and  that  this  book  affords  us  a  complete  history  of  , 

i§a  6  A  D  D  £  S  D  £:  N. 

what  medicines  were  io  use,  not  only  zmottf^  the  pbytl<< 
cians  of  that  time,  but  amoog  the  coinmon  people  ia  all 
parts  of  England,  both  in  the  empirical  and  superstitious 
way.  Dn  Aikin  remarks  that  the  method  of  producing 
fresh  from  salt  water  by  simple  distillation  (^'  in  an  ale!,mbtjC 
with  a  gentle  heat^^)  is  familiarly  mentioned  by  this  author, 
even  at  so  remote  a  period. 

Although  devoted  to  the  practice  of  his  profession,  he 
was  prebendary  of  Sl  Paufs,  in  the  stall  of  Ealdiand.  It 
seems  probable  from  this  and  other  instances,  that  the  pro*. 
Gurement  of  a  sinecure  place  in  the  church  was  a  method 
in  'which  the  great  sometimes  paid  the  services  of  their 
physicians.  Of  his  '^  Rosa  Anglica*'  there  are  two  edi*: 
tions,  one  in  fol.  Venice,  1502^  and  the  other  in  4to*  Aug* 
Vind.«  vols.  1595.  > 

GiERTNER  (Joseph),  an  em'ment  botanist,  was  born 
atCalw,  in  the  duchy  of  Wirtemberg,  March  12,  1732« 
His  father^  physician  to  the  duke  of  Wirtemberg,  and. 
his  mother,  both  died  in  his  ^urly  youth.     He  first 
destined  by  his  surviving^  relations  for  the  church,  and 
when  he  disliked  that,  the  law  was  recommended ;  but  at- 
length,  from  an  early  bias  towardn  the  study  of  natural ' 
history,  he  resorted  to  physic,  as  most  congenial  to  his 
disposition,  and  removed  to  the  university  of  Gottingen,  • 
in  the  19tb  year  of  his  age.     Here  the  lectures  of  Haller^ 
and  others  instructed  him  in  anatomy,  physiology,  and* 
botany,  but  he  studied  these  rather  for  his  own  informatioa 
and  amusement,  than  as  a  means  of  advancement  in  the 
practice  of  physic.    After  this  he  undertook  a  tour  througfai 
Italy,  France,  and  England,  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge 
in  botany.     On  his  return  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  D. 
and  published  an  inaugural  dissertation  on  the  urinary  se- 
cretion, after  which  he  devoted  two  years  to  the  study  of 
mathematics,  optics,    and  mechanics^   constructing  with 
bis  own  hands  a  tdescope,  as  well  as  a  common  and  solar 
microscope.     In  the  suounet  of  1 759  he  attended  a  course 
of  botanical  lectures  at  Leydeti,   under  the  celebrated 
Adrian  Van.  Roy  en.     He  had  for  some  time  acquired  the. 
use  of  the  pencil,  in  which  he  eminently  excelled,  and 
which  subsequently  proved  of  the  greatest  use  to  him  m 
embUng  him  to  draw  the  beautiful  and  accurate  figures  of 

>  Aikifi*»  biographical  Memoirs  of  Medicine. — ^Rees's  Cyclopedin; — Freind'i 
Hjsi  of  Physic. 

O  iE  R  t  N  £  If .  i9i 

the  books  lie  published.  Having  bestowed  ereat  attentioti 
upon  the  obscurer  tribes  of  marine  atiimais  and  plants^ 
particularly  with  a  view  to  the  mode  of  propagation  6f  the 
latter,  as  well  as  of  other  cryptogamic  vegetables,  he  re- 
viisfited  England,  and  spent  some  time  here,  as  well  in 
scrutinizing  the  productions  of  our  extensive  and  varied 
coasts,  as  in  conversing  with  those  able  naturalists  Ellis, 
CoIIinsod,  Baker,  and  others,  who  were  assiduously  en-* 
gaged  in  similar  pursuits.  He  communicated  a  paper  to 
the  royal  society  on  the  polype  called  Urtica  marina,  and 
the  Actinia^  6f  Ltnnseus,  comprehending  descriptions  and 
figures  of  Several  species,  which  is  printed  in  the  52d  vo* 
lume  of  the  Philosophical  Transactions ;  and  he  prepared 
several  e^ays  on  the  anatomy  of  fishes,  and  other  obscure 
matters  of  animal  and  vegetable  physiology,  part  of  which 
only  has  hitherto  been  made  pablic.  So'on  afterwards  Dr. 
Gttrtner  became  a  member  of  the  royal  society  of  London,' 
ahd'of  the  ittiperial  academy  of  sciences  at  Petersburg.  In 
P76Sf  be  was'  instituted  professor  of  botafiy  and  natural* 
history  at  Petersburg,  and  about '^  year  afterwards  he  be* 
gan  to  plan  and  prepare  materials  for  the  great  work  on 
wht6B  his  eminent  reputation  rests,  the  object  of  which 
was  th^  illustration  of  fr-uits  and  seeds  for  the  purposes 
above-mentioAed.  His  situiition  at  PeteVsburg,  however,' 
seems  not  to  have  ^ited  either  his  health  or  disposition. 
After  having  perfonried  a  journey  ihto  the  Ukraine,  in 
which  he  collected  many  new  or  obscure  plants,  he  resigned 
bis  professorship  at  the  end  of  two  years,  steadily  refusing 
the  pension  ordinarily  attached  to  it,  and  retired  in  the 
aittumn  of  1770  to  his  native  town,  where  he  niarried:  At 
the  end  of  eight  years  he  found  it  necessary,  for  the  per- 
fection of  his  intended  work,  to  re-visit  some  of  the  seat^ 
of  science  in  which  he  had  formerly  studied,  in  order  to 
re-eifamine  several  botanical  collections,  and  to  converse 
again  with  persons  devoted  to  similar  inquiries  with  bis 
own.  Above  ^^iy  he  was  anxious  to  profit  by  the  disco- 
veries of  the  distinguished  voyagers  Banks  and '  Solander,' 
who  received  him  with  open  arms  on  bis  arrival  at  London, 
in  1778,  and,  with  the  liberality  which  ever  distinguished' 
their  characters,  freely  laid  before  him  all  their  acquisi- 
tions,-and  assisted  him  with  their  own  observations  an<t[ 
discoveries.  A  new  genus  was  dedicated  to  Gsertner  by 
his  illustrious  friends  in  their  manuscripts ;  but  this  being 
ijiis  own  sphenoclea,  has  been  superseded  by  another  ana 
Vol.  XV.  O 

194  G  iE  R  T  N  E  R. 

»     /  •        w  r  .      J' 

a  finer  plant.  He  visited  Thunl>erg  in  his  return  throog^ 
Amsterdam,  that  distinguished  botanist  and  traveller  being 
then  lately  arrived  from  Japan  ;  nor  were  the  acquisitions 
of  Gaertner  less  considerable  from  this  quatten  He  fur- 
ther enriched  himself  from  the  treasures  at  Leyden,  laid 
open  to  him  by  his  old  friend  Van  Boyen ;  and  arrived  af. 
home  laden  with  spoiU  destined  to  enrich  his  intende4 
publication.  Here,  however,  his  labours  and  bis  darling 
pursuits  were  interrupted  by  a  severe  disorder  in  bis  eyeS)^ 
which  for  many  months  threatened  total  blindness;  aor 
was  it  till  after  an  intermission  of  four  or  five  years  that  he 
was  able  to  resume  his  studies.  . 

At  length  he  gave  to  the  public  the  first  volume  of  bis 
long-expected  work,  '^  De  fructibus  et  seminibus  plantjk- 
rum,"  printed  at  Stutgard  in  1788,  and  containing  the 
essential  generic  characters,  with  particular  descriptions 
of  the  fruit  of  500  genera,  illustrated  by  figures  of  eacb^. 
admirably  drawn  by  himself,  and  neatly  engjraved  in  .79 
quarto  plates ;  a  long  anatomical  and  physiological.  intfQ* 
duction  is  prefixed,  in  which  he  definei  and  explains  the 
nature  of  the  parts,  of  fructification,  especis^lly  of  the.  fruit 
and  seed.  In  this  essay  he  denies  the  existenpe  of  real 
flowers,  and  consequently  of  proper  seeds,  in  fungi,  and 
other  cryptogamic  vegetables,  in  which  Hedwig  and  others 
Conceive  they  had  detected  the  organs  of  impregivation  as 
well  as  real  seeds.  Gaertner  considers  the  latter  as  gemmae 
or  buds,  and  not  seeds  produced  by  sexual  impregna* 
tion.  He  even  denies  the  celebrated  Hedwigian  theory 
•f  mosses.  He  changes  the  name  of  germen,  applied  by 
Linnaeus  to  the  rudiments  of  the  fruit  in  old  plants,  to  the. 
old  and  erroneous  term  ovarium.  ..In  the  detail  of  his  work, 
he  often  corrects  the  great  Swedish  naturalist,  with  more 
or  less  justice,  but  not  always  with  candour,  and  changes 
his  names  frequently  for  the  worse.  In  synonyms  he'is 
not  always  exact,  copying  them,  as  it  appears,  from  errors 
of  the  press  occasionally  transcribed  from  other  authorsi 
without  turning  to  the  books  quoted. 

tn  the  deBnition  and  anatomical  elucidation  of  the  parts 
of  the  seed,  Gaertner  is  truly  excellent  j  and,  notwith- 
standing some  slight  defects,  his  work  marks  an  ssra  in 
botanical  science,  not  only  directing,  but  even  forcing 
the  attention  of  botanists  to  parts  which  the  Linnaean  school 
had  too  much  neglected,  but  which  cin  never  in  future 
be  overlooked.     The  second  volume  of  this  immortal  work 

.  G  JE  R  T  N  E  R.:  195 

appeared  in  1791,  illusti^ating  500  more  igenera,  on  the 
same  plan  with  the  former,  in  101  platep,  in  which  the 
compound  flowerg  are  treated  with  peculiar  care  and  suc- 
cess. The  preface  of  this  volume  is  dated  April  6,  1791, 
but  little  more  than  three  months  befote  the  death  of  the 
author,  which  happened  on  the  14th  of  July^  1791,  in  the 
sixtieth  year  of  his  ftge.  He  is  said,  though  struggling 
for  some  time  preceding  with  debility  and  disease^  to  have 
finished  a  description  and  drawing  of  the  Halleria  lucida 
but  the  evening  before  his  departure.  He  left  one  son, 
to  whom  he  gave  an  excellent  education,  and  who  has 
proved  worthy  of  his  distinguished  father,  in  publishing 
his  inedited  works^  and  continuing  with  success  the  .samq 


GAFFARELL  (James),  a  learned  Rabbinical  writer, 
was  the  son  of  Dr.  GafFarell)  by  Lucrece  de  Bermond,  his 
wife;  and  was  born  at  Mannes,  in  Provence,  about  1601. 
He  was  educated  at  the  university  of  Apt,  in  that  county, 
where  he  prosecuted  (iis  studies  with  indefatigable  in- 
dustry ;  and  applying  himself  particularly  to  the  Hebrew 
language  and  Rabbinical  learning,  was  wonderfully  pleased 
with  the  mysterious  doctrines  of  the  Cabala,  and  com- 
menced author  in  their  defence  at  the  age  of  twenty-two. 
He  printed  a  4to  volume  at  Paris  in  1623,  under  the  title 
of  ^^  The  secret  mysteries  of  the  divine  Cabala,  defended 
against  the  trifling  objections  of  the  Sophists,'^  or  ^'  Abdita 
divine  Cabal®  mysteria,*'  &c.  The  following  year  he 
published  a  paraphrase  upon  that  beautiful  ode  the  I37th 
Psalm,  ^^  By  the  waters  of  Babylon  we  sat  down  and  wept, 
when  we  remembered  thee,  O  Sion,**  &c.  He  began 
early  to  be  inflamed  with  an  ardent  desire  of  travelling  for 
his  improvement  in  literature,  in  which  his  curiosity  was 

.  This  disposition,  added  to  his  uncommon  talents,  did 
not  escape  the  notice  of  cardinal  Richelieu,  who  appointed 
bim  his  library -keeper,  and  sent  him  into  Italy  to  collect 
the  best  books  printed  or  MS.  that  could  be  found.  This 
employment  extremely  well  suited  Gaffarell*s  taste,  both 
as  it  gave  him  an  opportunity  of  furnishing  his  own  library 
with  some  curious  pieces  in  oriental  and  aiher  languages, 

1  3iinf  and  Kon'tg^»  Aonals  of  BoUay,  toI.  f ,  p.  73.<— Rectus  Cycfopsdia.— 

peleuze's  Bia^.  M«meJrof  GaerlDeK 

O  2 


Mid  of  making  inqmries  into  that  bianch  of  litemtore  whicll 
was  bis  chief  ddight.  With  tfan  view,  while  be  was  at 
Ronie,  be  went  widi  some  others  to  visit  Campanelkt,  the 
famous  pretender  to  magic ;  his  design  in  this  visit  wa^ 
to  procure  satisfactioD  about  a  passage  in  that  author^s 
book,  **  De  sensu  rerum  et  m^a."  Campanella  was  then 
in  the  inquisition,  where  he  had  been  cruelly  used,  id 
order  to  force  him  to  (xmfess  the  crimes  laid  to  his  charge: 
At  their  entrance  into  his  chamber  he  begged  they  would 
have  a  little  patience,  till  he  had  finished  a  small  note 
which  he  was  writing  to  cardinal  Magaloti.  As  soon  as 
they  were  seated,  they  observed  him  to  make  certain  wry 
laces,  which  being  supposed  to  proceed  from  pain,  be  was 
asked  if  he  felt  no  pain ;  to  which,  smiling,  he  answered,* 
No  !  and  guessing  the  cause  of  the  question,  he  said  he 
was  fancying  himself  to  be  cardinal  Magaloti,  as- he  had 
heard  him  described.  This  was  the  very  thing  Gaffarell 
wanted ;  and  convinced  him,  that  in  order  to  discover  ano^ 
tfaer  person's  thoughts,  it  was  not  sufficient,  as  he  had  be« 
fore  understood  Campanella,  barely  to  fancy  yourself  td 
be  like  the  person,  but  you  must  actually  assume  his  vei*y 
physiognomy.  This  anecdote  will  afford  the  reader  a  sitf-^ 
ficient  idea  of  the  value  of  the  discoveries  of  Campanella 
and  Gafiarell. 

In  1629,  he  published  *^  Rabbi  Elea,  de  fine  mundi,' 
Latine  versus,  cum  notis,'*  Paris,  8vo,  i.  e.  •*  A  Ldtirr 
version  of  Rabbi  Elea*s  treatise  concerning  the  end  of  the 
world,  with  notes;"  and  the  same  year  came  out  his  **  Cu->  * 
liositez  Inoiiez,  &c.  Unbeard-of  Curiosities  conceming* 
the  talismanic  sculpture  of  the  Persians  ;  the  horoscope  of 
the  Patriarchs,  and  the  reading  of  the  stars/'  This  cu-( 
rious  piece  went  through  three  editions  in  the  space  of 
six  months.  In  it  the  author  undertakes  to  shew  that  ta-> 
lismans,  or  constellated  figures,  bad  the  virtue  to  make  2t 
man  rich  and  fortunate,  to  free  a  house  and  even  a  whole 
country  from  certain  insects  and  venomous  creatures ;  and 
from  all  the  injuries  of  the  air.  He  started  many  other 
bold  assertions  concerning  the  force  of  magic ;  and  having 
also  made  some  reflections  upon  his  own  country,  and 
mentbiied  the  decalogue  according  to  the  order  of  the 
Old  Testament,  and  the  protestant  doctrine,  he  was  cen-^' 
sured  by  the  Sorbonne,  and  therefore  retracted  these  and 
some^other  things  advanced  as  errors  ;,  submitting  his  faith 
in  all  points  to  the  doctrine  of  the  catholic  and  apostolic 

<>  A  F  F  A  R  ^  ).  U  ifil 

,  Iq  1633. he  was  at  Venicei  where,  among  ^ther  thingi^ 
lie  took  an  exact  measure  of  the  vessels  brought  from  Cy'» 
^rus  and  Constantinople,  that  were  deposited  in  the  triea- 
sujry  of  St.  Mark,  at  the  request  of  the  learned  Peiresc^ 
vitb  whom  he  had  been  long  acquaintedi  and  who  had  a 
great  esteem  for  him.  During  his  abode  in  tiiis  city,  he 
was  iovited  to  live  with  M.  de  la  Thuillerie,  the  French 
i^bassador,  a^  a  companion.  He  accepted  the  invitation^ 
l^ut  was  not  coutent  with,  the  fruitless  office  of  merely  dU 
wrting  the  an^bassador^s  leisure  hours  by  his  learned  CW'* 
tersation.  He  aimed  to  make  himself  of  more  importance^ 
and  to  do  this  friend  some  real  service.  He  resolved  there^ 
iore  to  acquaint  himself  with  politics,  and  in  that  viewt 
wrote  tA  ^s  friend  Gabriel  Naud^,  to  send  him  a  list  oC 
the  authors  upuHi  political  subjects;  and  this  request  i( 
was,  ihat  ;gave  birth  to  I^aud^'s  ^^  Bibliographia  Politica*** 
Oaffarell  at  this  time  was  doctor  of  divinity  and  canon  law^ 
prothonotary  of  the  apostolic  sef ,  and  commendatory  priof 
9f  St*  Criles*f«  After  his  return  hom^,  he  was  employed  hf 
his  patron  eardtoal  Richelieu,  in  his  project  for  bringing 
back  all  the  protestaots  tp  the  Roman  church,  which  he  calls 
are^unioQ  of  religions;  and  to  that  end  was  autJ^orized  te 
preach  in  Dauphin^  against  the  doctrine  of  purgatory.  To 
the  same  purpose  he  also  published  a  piece  upon  the  pa-r 
cification  pf  Christians. 

.  He  survived  the^cardinal  niany  years^  and  wrote  several 
books  besides  those  already  mentioned  i  among  which  are^ 
1.  ^'  Index  codicum  MStorum  quibus  ususest  Joli.  Picus 
Comes  Mirandulanus,*'  Paris,  1650.  vid.  Selden.  de  Sy* 
oedriis  Heb.  1653,  p«  6SI.  2.  **  Un  trait^  de  la  poudre 
de  sympathie  et  de^  Talismans.^'  3.  *^  Epistola  pr^fat* 
in  Rob.  Leonis.  Mutinensis  libellum  de  ritibus  Hebraicis." 
4.  *^  Cribrumi  CabaUsticum,'*  vid.  Quriosites  InoUez,  p. 
44,  and  ft6(^.  5.  ''Avis  aux  Doctes  toucbant  la  neces*-' 
siiDe  des.langues  orientales,'*  ibid.  p.  54  and  $4.  6,/'  The 
widow  of  Sarepta.^'  7.  ^^  A  treatise  of  good  and  evil 
Genii,^'  vid.  Meroure  galant,  p.  16i,  for  Jan.  168^,  8. 
V  Ars  nova  &  pejrquam  faciUs  legendi  Rabbinos  sine  puncr 
tia.''  9.  ^'  Pe.  musica  Hebr«(Mriim  stup^nda  libellus.-^ 
iO^  <^  In  voei^s  4erelM^tas  V,  T-  Cepturiae  dose,  nova  cum 
Scaligero  dci  i^:^  Jnterprf^k  difwrtatjiuncula."  U.  **  De 
stellis  cadentibus  opinio  nova."  12.  ''  Quaestio  Hebraico- 
pbilosophiea,  mtriim  &  prjneipio  mare  salsum  exli^erit.'* 
13.  <'  Lachrymae  in  obitum  lani  Csemi  Frey.  Medki^^ 

'19«'  6  A  F  r  A  REEL. 

1631 9  4tOy  and  some  others,  medtioned  by  Leo  Allatius,. 
in  Apibus. 

In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  was  employed  in  writing' 
a  history  of  the  subterranean  world ;  containing  an  account 
of  the  caFCs,  grottos,  mines,  vaults,  and  catacombs,  which 
he  bad  met  with  in  thirty  years'  travel ;  and  the  work  was: 
so  nearly  finished,  that  the  plates  were  engraven,  and  if 
was  just  ready  to  go  to  the  press,  when  be  died  at  Sigonce, 
of  which  place  he  was  then  abbot,  in  his  eightieth  year, 
1681  ;  being  also  dean  of  canon  law  in  the  university  of 
Paris,  prior  of  ie  Revest  de  Broosse,  in  the  diocese  of 
Sisteron,  and  commandant  of  St.  Omeil.  His  works  shew 
him  to  have  been  a  man  of  prodigious  reading,  and  un- 
common sbbtilty  of  genius  ;  but  he  unfolrtunately  hsid  also' 
a  superstitions  credulity,  as  appears  from  the  following 
passage  iii  his  ♦«  tlnheard^'of  Guriosities,*'  Treating  (rf 
omens,  he  cites  Camerarius,  affirming  that  some  people 
bav6  an  apprehension  and  knowledge  of  the  death  of  their 
friends  and  kindred,  either  before  or  afteir  they  are  dead, 
by  a  certain  strange  and  unusual  restlessness  within  them- 
selves, though  they  are  ^  thousand  leagues  off.  To  sup- 
port this  idle  notion,  he  tells  us  that  his  mother  Luerece^ 
de  Bermond,  when  she  was  living,  had  some  such  sign 
always  given  her ;  for  none  of  her  children  ever  died,  but 
a  little  before  she  dreamt  either  of  hair,  eggs,  or  teeth 
i^ingled  with  earth ;  this  sign,  says  he,  was  infallible.  ^^  I 
myself,  when  I  had  beard  her  say  she  had  any  such  dream,' 
observed  the  event  always  to  follow."  His  *^Curiositres'' 
was  traYislated  ty  Chilmead  into  English,  Lond.  1650,  8vo.^ 

GAFFURIUS  {FKANCriiNUis),  an  eminent  musical  writer, 
a  native  of  Lodi,  "bom  Jan.  14,  1451,  of  obscure  parents, 
was  first  intended  for  priest's  orders,  but  after  studying 
music  for  two  years  under  John  Goodenach,  a  carmeiite, 
he  manifested  so  much  genius  for  that  Science,  that  it  was 
thought  expedient  to  make  it  his  profession.  After  learn-^ 
ing  the  rudiments  of  music  at  Xodi,  he  went  to  Mantua, 
where  he  was  patronized  by  the  marquis  Lodovico  Gon- 
zago ;  and  where,  during  two  years,  he  pursued  bis  studies 
with  unwearied  assiduity  night  and  day,  and  acquired 
great  reputation,  both  in  •  the  speculative  and '  practical 
part  bf  his  profession.    'From  this  city  he  w^nt  to  Veronsi 

.1  Morerl:.44)#i>.  Diet — Lto  militant's  (AlMf  Urban»»*»*ColoaiJefiiGaUi|.Qf|l 

en^U$.*7:MorlioffFplyli^U-^]Mct)  Uujt. 

G  A  F  F  U  R  I  U  S.  199 

where  he  read  public  lectures  oh  music  for  two  years  more, 
and  published  several  works;  after  which  he  removed  to 
Genoa,    whither  he  was  invited  by  the  doge  Prospered; 
there  be  entered  into  priest's  orders.     From  Genoa  he 
was  invited  to  Milan  by  the  duke  and  duchess  Galeazzq, 
hat  they  being  soon  after  expelled  that  city,  he  returned 
to  Naples,  where  Philip  of  Bologna,  professor- royal,  re- 
cced him  as  his  colleague;  and  he  became  so  eminent 
in  the  theory  of  music,  that  he  was  thought  superior  to 
many  celebrated  and  learned  musicians,    his  contempo- 
raries, with  wiiom  he  now  conversed  and  disputed.     He 
4here  published  his  profound  "  Treatise  on  the  Theory 
of   Harmony,''    1480 ;    which   was    afterwards    enlarged 
and  re- published  at  Milan,  1492;  but  the  plague  raging 
in  Naples,    and   that  kingdom  being  likewise  much  in* 
'commoded   by  a  war  with   the  Turks,    he   retreated  to 
Otranto,-   whence,   after  a  short  residence,   he 'returned 
to  Ledi,  where  he  was  protected  and  favoured  by  Pal- 
lartctno,    the    bishop,    and    opened  a  public  school,   in 
which,  during  three  years,    he  formed  many  excellent 
scholars.     He  was  offered  great  encouragement  at  Ber- 
gamo, if  he  would  settle  there ;  but  the  war  being  over, 
-and  the  duke  of  Milan,  his  old  patron,  restored,  he  pre* 
ferred  the  residence  of  that  city  to  any  othen     It  was  hece 
that  he  eomposed  and  polished  most  of  his  works ;  that  he 
was  car^sed  by  the  first  persons  of  his  time  for  rank  and 
learning;  and  that  he  read  lectures  by  public  authority  to 
crowded  audiences,  for  which  he  had  a  faculty  granted 
bim  by  the  archbishop  and  chief  magistrates  of  the  city  in 
1483,  which  exalted  bim  far  above  all  his  contemporaries; 
«nd  how  much  be  improved  t}ie  science  by  his  instructions, 
his  lectures,  fnd  b'^  writings,  was  testified  by  the  appro- 
bation of  the  whole  city ;  to  which  may  be  added  the  many 
disciples  he  formed,  and  the  almost  infinite  number  of 
volumes  he  wrote,  among  which  several  will  live  as  long 
as  music  and  the  Latin  tongue  are  understood.     He  like- 
wise first  collected,  revised,  o^ommented,  and  translated 
into  Latin  the  ancient  Greek  writers  on  music,  Bacchiu^ 
senior,  Aristides,  Quintilianus,  Ptolemy^s  Harmonics,  and 
Manuel  Briennius.     The  wQrks  wbjch  he  published  are,; 
J.  **rTheoricnm  Opus  Harmonicse  Disciplinse,''  mentioned 
above,  Neapolis;   148Q,  Milan,  1492.,    This  was  the  fir^t. 
bocfc  on  the  subject  of  music  that  issued  from  the  prestf 
,,  after  the  invention  of  printing,  if  we  except  the  "  Defi- 

^M  C  A  F  F'U  HI  U  & 

nitipnes  Tenn.  Musics/'  of  Joho  Tinctor.  2.  'f  Piacticft 
|Music8B  utriusque  Cantus/*  Milan,  1496 ;  Brescia,  1497^ 
^502;  and  Venice,  1512.  3.  ^<  Angelicnm  ac  Divinuoi 
'Opus  MusicK  Materna  Lingua  Scrip."  Milan,  1508.  4. 
''  De  Harmonica  Musicor.  Instrumentorum/^  Milan,  1518. 
^This  work,  we  are  told  by  Pantaleone  Melegulo,  his  coui^- 
^ryman  and  biographer,  was  written  when  Gaffurius  vndfi 
forty  years  of  age ;  and  though  the  subject  is  dark  and 
difficult,  it  was  absolutely  necessary  for  understanding  tb^ 
ancient  authors.  With  these  abilities,  however,  Qaffuriua 
did  not  escape  the  superstitions  of  his  time.  He  was  not 
only  addicted  to  astrology,  but  taught  that  art  at  Padua, 
;io  1 522.  He  was  then  seventy-one  years  of  age,  and  is 
supposed  to  have  died  soon  after,  although  Pn  Burpey 
fixes  his  death  two  years  before.* 

GAGE  (Thomas),  an  English  clei^yman  and  traveller, 
was  descended  from  Robert  Gage  of  Haling,  in  Surrey, 
third  son  of  sir  John  Gage,  of  Firle,  in  Sussex,  who  died 
in  1557.  He  was  the  son  of  John  Gage,  of  Haling,  and 
ibis  brother  was  sir  Henry  Gage,  governor  of  Oxford,  who 
was  killed  in  battle  at  Culham-bridge,^Jan.  11,  1644.  Of 
his  early  history  we  are  only  told  tbat  be  studied  in  Spain,^ 
and  became  a  Dominican  monk.  From  thence  he  departed 
with  a  design  to  go  to  the  Philippine  islands,  as  a  mis<- 
^ionary,  in  1625;  but  on  his  arrival  at  Mexico,  he  heard 
$o  bad  an  account  of  those  islands,  and  became  so  de- 
lighted with  New  Spain,  that  he  abandoned  his  original 
design,  and  contented  him  with  a  less  dangerous  mission. 
At  length,  being  tired  of  this  mode  of  life,  and  his  req^res^ 
to  return  to  England  and  preach  the  gospel  among  his 
countrymen  being  refused,  he  . effected  his  escape,  an4 
af Kyetf  in  London  in  l637,  after  an  absence  of  twenty- 
four  years,  in  which  he  had  quite  lost  the  use  of  his  naUve 
language.  On  examining  into  his  domestic  affairs,  he 
fsund  himself  unnoticed  in  his  father's  will,  forgQtte.n  by 
some  of  bis  relations,  and  with  difficulty  acknowlec^^d  by 
others.  After  a  little  time,  not  being  satisfied  with,  re- 
spect to  some  teligious  doubts  which  had  entered  his  mind 
while  abroad, 'and  disgusted  with  the  great  power  of  the 
pa^nsts,  he  resolyed  to  take  another  journey  to  Italy,  to . 
^^  try  what  better  satisfaction  he  could  find  for  his  eon« 

'  1  3f  Dr.Burney,  in  bis  Hut  of  Mo8|c>  and  in  Rees^  Pycloj^di».— Tim* 
ImmIu.— Ginguene  i^ist  Lit  d'ltalie. 

<j  ^  Q  E.  COi 

science  at  Rome  in  that  religion.^*  At  Loretto  his  confer-* 
«ion  from  popeiy  was  fixed  by  proving  the  fallacy  of  the 
miracles  attributed  to  the  picture  of  our  Lady  there ;  on 
;which  he  immediately  returned  home  once  more»  and 
preached  his  recantation  sermon  at  St  Paul's,  by  order  of 
the  bishop  of  London.  He  continued  above  a  year  ia 
London,  and  when  he  saw  that  papists  were  entertained 
fit  Oxford  and  other  parts  of  the  kingdom  attached  to  th^ 
royal  cause,  he  adopted  that  of  the  parliament,  and  re- 
ceived a  living  from  them,  probably  that  of  Deal,  in  Keot^ 
in  the  register  of  which  church  is  an  entry  of  the  burials 
pf  Mary  daughter,  and  Mary  the  wife  of  <'  Thomas  Gage^ 
parson  of  Deale,  March  21,  1652  ;"  and  in  the  title  of  his 
.work  he  is  styled  "  Preacher  of  the  word  of  God  at  Deal.*^ 
We  have  not  been  able  to  discover  when  he  died.  Hif 
;work  is  entitled  ^^  A  new  Survey  of  tiie  West-Indies;  or 
ihe  English. American  his  Travail  by  sea  and  land,  con- 
taining a  journal  of  3300  miles  within  the  main  land  of 
America.  Wherein  is  set  forth  his  voyage  from  Spain  to 
3t.  John  de  Ulhua ;  and  from  thence  to  Xalappa,  to  Fiaxr 
calia,  the  city  of  Angels,  and  forward  to  Mexico,  &c,  &c> 
j^c."  The  second  edition,  Lond.  1655,  tbiu  folio,  with 
maps.  The  first  edition,  which  we  have  not  seen,  bean 
fiUte  1648.  Mr.  Southey,  who  has  quoted  much  from  this 
work  in  the  notes  on  his  poem  of  '^  Madoc/^  says  that 
Gage^s  account  of  Mexico  is  copied  verbatim  from  Ni« 
cholas^s  *^  Conqueast  of  West-*India,"  which  itself  in  % 
translation  from  Gomara.  There  is  an  Amsterdam  edition 
of  Gage,  1695,  2  vols.  12mo,  in  French,  made  by  cpsa^ 
mand  of  the  French  minister  Colbert,  by  mons.  de  Beau* 
lieu  Hues  O'Neil,  which,  however,  was  first  published  in 
167^,  at  Paris.  There  are  some  retrenchments  in  this 
edition.  Gage  appears  to  be  a  faithful  and  accurate  relator, 
but  often  credulous  and  superstitious.  His  recaptation 
$ermon  was  published  at  Londop,  1642,  4to;  and  in  165L 
he  published  **  A  duel  between  a  Jesiiite  and  a  Domini- 
can, begun  at  Paris,  fought  at  Madrid,  and  ended  at  LoO'* 
don,"  4to.* 

GAGEH  {Wli44AH)f  a  Latin  poet  of  considerable  noto 
in  the  sixteenth  century^  was  educated  at  Westminster- 
school,  from  which  be  was  elected  to  Oxford,  in  1574^ 
tpd  took  afterw^yrds  hijs  degrees  in  arts  at  ChVist-churcb^ 

I  Ccainra  literaria^  toI,  V.— MoreH. 

20i^  G  A  G  E  R. 

but  in  a  few  years  preferring  the  study  of  the  law,  he  took 
the  degrees  in  that  faculty  also,  in  15B9.  About  this  time 
his  reputation  bad  recommended  him  to  Dr.  Martin  Hetotr, 
bish(^  of  Ely,  by  whose  interest,  most  probably,  he  was 
made  chancellor  of  that  diocese.  Wood  professes  that  he 
knows  no  more  of  htm,  unless  that  he  was  liring  in  1610; 
but  by  the  assistance  of  the  Ely  registers,  we  are  enabled 
to  pursue  him  a  little  farther.  By  them  it  appears  that  in 
1601,  being  then  LL.  D.  he  acted  as  surrogate  to  Dr. 
•Swale,  vicar-general  of  Ely,  and  in  1608  he  was  delegate 
and  commissary  to  archbishop  Bancroft,  in  the  diocese  of 
Ely ;  and  in  1609  he  was  custos  of  the  spiritualitiefs  in  the 
Tacancy  oi^the  see.  In  the  years  1613,  161<S,  and  1618^ 
be  was  vicar-general  and  official  principal  to  Lancelot  An- 
drews, bishop  of  Ely;  and  in  1619  he  acted  as  deputy  for 
the  archdeacon  of  Canterbury,  at  the  installation  of  bishof^ 
Felton,  in  the  cathedral  of  Ely.  When  he  died  we  have 
i>ot  been  able  to  discover. 

•  ,Wood  says,  <*  he'  was  an  excellent  poet,  especially  in 
the  Latin  tongue,  and  reputed  the  best  comedian  (i.e.  dra- 
matic writer)  of  his  time."  He  had  a  controversy  with  Dr. 
John  Rainolds,  on  the  lawfulness  of  stage-plays,  which 
appears  to  have  been  carried  on  in  manuscript  letters,  until 
Rainolds  published  his  "  Overthrow  of  Stage-plays,**  con- 
taining his  answer  to  Gager  and  a  rejoinder.  He  had  a 
more  singular  controversy  with  Mr.  Heale,  of  Exeter-col- 
tege,  in  consequence  of  his  (Gager' s)  asserting  at  the  Ox- 
ford Act  in  1608,  "That  it  was  lawful  for  husbands  to 
beat  their  wives."  This  Mr.  Heale  answered  in  "  An 
Apology  for  Women,"  &c.  Oxon.  1609, 4to.  In  the  "  Exe- 
4|ui9&  D.  Philippi  Sidnasi,"  Gager  has  a  copy  of  verses  in 
honour  of  that  celebrated  character,  who,  when  living,  had 
a  great  respect  for  his  learning  and  virtues*  His  Latin 
plays  are,  1.  "  Meleager,"  a  tragedy.  2.  *♦  Rivales,"  a 
comedy;  and  S.  *'  Uij'sses  redux,"  a  tragfcdy.  Theses 
were  all  acted,  and  we  are  told,  with  great  applause^  in 
Christ  church  bail.  The  first  only  was  printed  in  1592; 
4to,  and  occasioned  the  controversy  between  the  author 
and  Dr.  Rainolds.  Gager*s  letter  in  defence  of  this  and 
his  other  plays,  is  in  the  library  of  University -college.* 
r  GAGNIER  (John),  an  eminent  orientalist,  was  a  native^ 
of  Paris,  where  he  was  educated ;  and,  applying  himself 

1  AUu  Ox.  vol.  I.->-Wai*oa's  Hist,  of  l^wUjf  vol,  Ih  d&S.—JdUS  Regis(ert 
♦f  Ely. 

,  G  A  G  N  IE  R.'  aos   . 

to  study  the  eastern  languages,  became  a  great  master  in- 
tbe  Hebrew  anti  Arabic.  He  was  trained  up  in  the  Roman 
CatboKc  religion;  and  taking  orders,  was  made  a  canon 
riegular  of  tbe  abbey  of  St*  Genevieve,  biit  becoming  dis*' 
fialifified.  wit^vhis  religion,  and  marrying, after  he  had  left 
bbconvent,  be  was  upon  that  account  obliged  to  quit  bis 
native  country,  came  to  England,  and  embraced  the  faith 
and  doctrine  of  that  church  in  the  beginning  of  the  eigh- 
teenth century.  He  was  well  received  here,  and  met  with 
many  friends,  who  gave  him  handsome  encouragement, 
particularly '  archbishop  Sharp,  and  the  lord  chancellor 
Macolesiield,  to,  which,  last  he  dedicated  his  edition  of 
Abulfeda.  He  had  a  master  of  afts  degree  conferred  upon 
bim  at  Cambridge;  and  goings  thence  to  Oxford,  for  the- 
s^ake  of  prosecuting  his  studies  in  the  Bodleian  library,  be 
was  admitted  to  the  same  degree  in  that  university,  where 
be  supported  himself  by  teaching  Hebrew.  He  had  pre- 
viously been  made  chaplain  to  Dr,  William  Lloyd,  bishop 
pf  Worcester,  whom  he  accompanied  to  Oxfoi^d.    .  * 

In  17b6,  he  published,  an  edition  of  Joseph  Ben  Go- 
Fion's  *'  History  of  the  Jews,V'  in  the  original  Hebrew,  witb' 
a,  Latin  translation,  and  notes,  in  4to.     InlTlO,'  at  the 
appointment  of  Sharp,  abp.  of  York,  he  assisted  Grabe  in 
the  perusal  of  .the  Arabic  manuscr^ipts  in  the  Bodleian  li- 
brary, relating  to  the  Clementine  constitutions  ;  on  which* 
the  archbishop  had  engaged   Grabe  to   write  a  treatise 
against  Whiston.     Qagnier  accordingly  read  and  inter-* 
preted  diligently  to  Grabe  all  that  might  be  serviceable  to 
bis  purpose  in  any  of  them. 

In  1717  he  was  appointed  to  read  the  Arabic  lecture  at' 
Oxford,  in  the  absence  of  the  professor  Wallia.     In  1718' 
appeared  his  <^  Vindicise  Kircherianar,  sen  defensio  con-* 
cordantiarum  Grsecarum  Conradi  Kircheri,  ad  versus  Abr. 
Trommii  animadversiones  ;''•  and  in   1723,    he  published 
Abulfeda^s  **  Life  of  Mohammed,'^  in  Arabic,  with  a  Latin' 
translation  and  notes,  at  Oxford,  in  folio.     He  also  pre-' 
pared  for  the  press  the  same  Arabic  autbor^s  Geography, ' 
9nd  printed  proposals  ios  vl  subscription,  but  the  attempt 
proved  abortive,  for  want  of  encouragement.     Eighteen- 
sheets  were  printed,  and  theremaiader,  .which  was  imper- 
fect, was  purchased  of  his  widow  by  Dr.  Hunt.     It  is  s^id/ 
that  he  wrote  a  life  of  Mahommed,  in  French,^  published 
at  Amsterdam,  in  J 730,  in  B  vols.  12mo.     But  this  was 
probably  a  translation  of  the  former  life.    Gagnier  had 

ao*  G  A  G  N  I  £.  K. 

bc^fore  this  inserted  Graves's  Li^tin  translntton  of  Abulfeda*« 
description  of  Arabia,  together  with  the  original,  in  the 
third  volume  of  Hiidson^s  ^^  Geographtse  veteris  scriptores 
Gr^eci  minores/'  in  1712,  8vo,  and  bad  translated  from 
the  Arabic,  Rhases  on  the  SmalUpos;,  at  the  re<)uest  of 
Br.  Mead.     He  died  March  2,  1740.  .  By  his  wife  he  left 
a'  son,    Thomas,  or  as  in   the   Oxford  graduates,  Joba 
Gagnier,  who  was  educated  at  Wadham- college,  Oxfords 
a^d  commenced  M.  A.  July  2,  1743.     Entering  iiuo,  holy, 
o/ders,  be  was  preferred  by  bishop  Clavering  to  the  imc-^^ 
tory  of  Marsh-Gibbon,  in  Buckinghamshire,   and  after- 
wards obtained  that  of  Strantoo,  near  Hartlepool,  in  thc^ 
bishopric  of  Durham,  where  he  was  living  in  1766,  but 
the  historian  of  Durham  having  concluded  his  list  of  vicarn 
with  Mr.  Gagnier  at  the  year  of  his  induction,  in.i745y 
we  are  not  able  to  ascertain  the  time  of  bis  death*.    Pre-> 
ceding  accounts  of  his  father  mention  bis  beiog  chosen. 
Arabic  professor  in  room  of  Dr.  Wallis,  which  never  waft 
the  case.    Dr.  Hunt  was  successor  to  Wallis.* 
.  GAGUIN  (Robert),  a  French  historian,  was  born  at 
Colin^  near  Amiens;  and  Guicciardini,  as  Vossius  ob^ 
serves,  is  mistaken  in  fixing  his  birth  elsewhere.     He  had 
bis  education  at  Paris,  whiere  he  took  a  doctor  of  laws  xie- 
gree ;  and  the  reputation  of  his  abilities  and  learning  be^ 
came  so  great,  that  it  advanced  him  to  the  favour  of  Charles 
VIII.  and  Louis  XII.  by  whom  he  was  employed  in  se- 
veral embassies  to  England,  Germany,  and  Italy.     He  n^. 
keeper  of  the  royal  library,  and  general  of  the  order  of  the. 
Trinitarians.     He  died  in  1501,  certainly  not  young;  but 
we  are  not  able  to  ascertain  his  age.     He  was  the  .author 
of  several  works ;  the  principal  of  which  is,  a  History  in 
eleven  books,    '^  De  gestis  Francorum^^'  in  folio,   from» 
J.200  to  1500.     He  has  been  accused  of  great  partiality  to 
his  country ;,  and  Paul  Jovius  s^s,  that  be  has  not  been 
very  exact  in  relating  the  affairs  of  Italy.     Erasmus,  how* 
ever,  had  a  great  value  for  him,  as  may  be  seen  from  one 
of  his  letters.     Gaguin  also  translated  the  Chronicle  of 
abp.  Turpin,  wrote  a  bad  Roman  History,  and  Epi^tlea 
and  Poems,  some  of  which  last  are  very  indelicate.*  . 

GAHAGAN  (Usher),  a  very  estraordinary  character, , 
of  great  talents,  and  great  vices,  was  a  Roma^  catholic^ 

,  >  Biog.  Brit  art.  Grabe. 
*  Moreii^Foppan  BibU  Be1|;.-i-Nlceron,  ?ol,  X1I(I. 

G  A  H  A  6  A  N.  205 

6t  a  good  family  in  Ireland.  He  was  a  very  bonaiderablo 
Latin  scholar^  and  editor  of  Brindley's  beautiful  edition  of 
the  Classics.  He  translated  Pope's  **  Essay  on  Criticism** 
hito  Latin  verse,  and  after  his  confinement  iii  Newgate, 
to  which  be  was  sent  for  filing  gold|  he  translated  into  the 
same  language  the  **  Temple  of  Fame,'*  and  the  "  Mes- 
^ah/'  which  he  dedicated  to  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  in 
bbpes  of  a  pardon  ;  he  also  wrote  verses  in  English  on 
prince  George  (our  present  sovereign),  and  on  Mr.  Adams, 
the  recorder;  which  were  published  in  the  ordinary's  ac- 
count ;  with  a  poetical  address  to  the  duchess  of  Queens* 
Cury,  by  one  Conner,  who  was  then  in  prison  for  the  same 
crime.     Gahagan  was  executed  at  Tyburn,  Feb.  1749,* 

GAIGNY,  or  GAGNY  (John),  a  French  divine  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  educated  at  Paris,  where  in  152^ 
he  bad  taken  the  degree  of  bachelor,  and  held  the  appoint- 
ment of  attorney  for  the  French  nation  in  the  university. 
He  was  afterwards  lecturer  in  theology  at  the  college  of 
Navarre,  and  rector  of  the  university.  In  1531  he  took 
his  degree  of  D.  D.  and  was  chat^cellor  of  the  unii^ersity 
from  1546  till  his  death,  in  1549.  Gaigny  was  deeply 
read  in  the  ancient  languages,  and  highly  esteemed  as  a 
Latin  poet,  and  his  sovereign  Francis  I.  frequently  con- 
sulted him  on  subjects  of  literature,  and  made  him  his  first 
almoner.  He  was  author  of  many  works  on  subjects  of 
theology,  the  most  important  of  which  are  "  Commenta- 
ries*' upon  the  different  books  of  the  New  Testament,  in 
which  be  explains  the  literal  sense  by  a  kind  of  paraphrase. 
Dnpin  says,  **  his  notes  will  be  found  of  admirable  use  to 
those  who  desire  to  read  the  text  of  the  New  Testameat, 
and  to  cotnprehend  the  sense  of  it  without  stopping  at  any 
difficult  places,  and  without  having  recourise  to  larger 
commentaries.  His  Stholia  on  the  four  evangelists,  and 
on  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  are  inserted  in  the  ^'  Biblia 
Magna"  of  father  John  de  la  Haye.* 

GAILLARD  (De  Lonjumeau  John),  bishop  of  Apt 
from  1673  to  1695,  in  which  year  he  died,  is  chiefly  me- 
morable for  having  first  projected  a  great  and  universal 
-  **  Historical  Dictionary,*'  in  the  execution  of  which  work' 
he  employed  and  patronized  Moreri,  who  was  his  almoner* 
Towards  the  perfecting  of  this  undertaking,  he  had  re- 
searches made  iu  all  the  principal  libraries  of  Europe,  but* 

1  GcDt.  iAatf,  for  1749.  •  Moreri. 

206  0:  A  I  L  L  A  R  D. 


particularly  in  tha^  Vatican.  Moreri^  in  dedicating  his  (iiHi 
edition  to  his  patron,  pays  him  the  highest  eneomiqinsy 
which  he  is  said  to  have  very  thoroughly  deserved,  by  h}9 
love  for  the  arts,  and  still  more: by  his  virtues.* 
.  GAILLARD  (Garriel  Henry),  an  elegant  French  his* 
torian,  member  of  the  old  French  academy,  of  that  of  in* 
scriptions  and  belles-lettres,  and  of  the  third  class  of  the 
institute,  was  born  at  Ostel,  near  Soissons,  March  26 f 
1728.  On  his  education  or  early  pursuits,  the  only  work 
in  which  we  find  any  notice  of  him  is  totally  silent,  and 
we  are  obliged  for  the  present  to  content  ourselves  with  a 
list  of  his  works,  all  of  which,  however,  have  been  emi- 
nently successfvil  in  France,  and  procured  to  the  author, 
an^  extensive  reputation  and  many  literary  honours.  He 
wrote,  1.  "  Rhetorique  Fran^aise,'  a  I'usage  des  jeunes 
demoiselles,"'  Paris,  1746,  12mo,  which  has  gone  throMgh, 
six  editions.  2.  **  Poetique  Fran^oise,"  ibid.  1749,.  2  vols, 
S.  "  Parallele  des  quatre  Electee,  de  Sophocle,  d'Euripide,' 
de  Crebijlon,  et  de.Voltaire,"  ibid.  1750,  8yo.  4.  ^«  Me- 
langes litteraires  en  prose  et  en  vers,**  ibid.  1757,  l'2mo. 
5.  "  Hi$toire  de  Marie  de  Bqurgogne,"  ibid.  1757,  12mo.: 
is.  "  Histoire  de  Francois  I."  1769,  7  vols.  i2mo;  of  this 
there  have  been  several  editions,  and  it  is  not  without 
reason  thought  to  be .  Gaillard's  principal  work ;  but  Vol- 
taire is  of  opinion  that  he  softens  certain  obnoxious  parts 
of  Francis's  conduct  rather  too  much,  but  in  general  hi& 
sentiments  are  highly  liberal,  and  more  free  from  the  pre- 
judices of  his  country  and  his  religion  than  could  have 
been  expected.  Indeed,  it  may  be  questioned  whether 
he  was  much  attached  to  the  latter.  7.  "  Histoire  des  ri- 
valit^s  de  la  France  et  de  PAngleterre,**  1771  — 1802,  U. 
vols.  l2mo,  a  work  in  which  the  author,  not  altogether 
unsuccessfully,  struggles  to  be  impart.ial.  8.  "  Histoire 
de  Charlemagne,"  4  vols.  12mo.  Gibbon,  our  historian, 
who  availed  himself  much  of  this  history,  says  that  "  it  is 
laboured  with  industry  and  elegance.''  9.  ''  Observations 
sur  I'Histoire  de  France  de  Messieurs  Velly,  Villaret,  et 
Garnier,"  1807,  4  vols.  12mo,  a  posthumous  work.  Be- 
sides these  he  was  the  author  of  various  eloges,  discourses, 
poems,  odes,  epistles,  &c.  which  were  honoured  with  aca- 
demical prizes;  and  several  learned  papers  in  the  memoirs 
of  the  academy  of  inscriptions.  He  wrote  also  in  the/^  JoQr- . 

»  Moreri.  ■       ,  i 

'         G  A  I  L  L  A  R  D.  ^20T 

•  >  •  .  .■....■ 

&al  des  Savans"  from  1752  to  1792,  and  in  the  **  Mercure" 
from  1780  to  178$^,  and  in  the  new  Encyciopedie  he  wrote 
three  fourth^  of  the  historical  articles.  His  last  perform* 
ance,  whifch  bore  no  mark  of  age,  or  decay  of  faculties, 
.was  an  ^^  Eloge  historiqqe**  on  M.  de  Malesherbe^i,  with 
whom  he  had  been  so  long  intimate,  that  perhaps  yo  man 
was  more  fit  to  appreciate  his  character.  This  writer,  the 
last  of  the  old  school  of  French  literati,  died  at  St.  Firminp 
near  Chantilly,  in  1806.^ 

GAINSBOROUGH  (Thomas),  an  admirable  English 
artist,  was  born  in    1727,  at  Sudbury,  in  Suffolk,  where 
his  father  was  a  clothier.     He  very  early  discovered  a  pro- 
pensity to  painting.     Nature  was  his  teacher,    and  the 
woods  of  Suffolk  his  academy,  where  be  would  pass  in  sur 
litude  his  mornings,  in  making  a  sketch  of  an  antiquated 
tree,  a  marshy  brook,  a  few  cattle,  a  shepherd,  and  his 
flock,  or  any  other  accidental  objects  that  were  presented,. 
From  delineation  he  got  to  colouring;  and  after  painting 
several  landscapes  from  the  age  of  ten  to  twelve,  be  quitted 
Sudbury,    and  came  to  London.     Here  he  received  his 
first  instructions  from  Gravelot,  and  was  then  placed  under 
the  tuition  of  Mr.   Hay  man,   with  whom  he  staid  but  a 
short  time.     After  quitting  this  master,  he  for  a  short  time 
resided  in  Hatton-garden,  and  practised  painting  of  por-* 
traits  of  a  small  size,  and  also  pursued  his  favourite  sub- 
ject,  landscape.     During  this  residence  in  London,    he 
married  a  young  lady,  who  possessed  an  annuity.of  200/. ; 
and  then   retired  to  Ipswich,  and  from  thence  to  Bath^ 
where  be  settled  about  1758.     He  now  began  painting 
portraits  at  the  low  price  of  five  guineas*,  for  a  three- 
quarter  canvas,  and  wa,s  soon  so  successful  as  to  be  en- 
couraged to  raise  his  price  to  eight  guineas.     In  1761,  foe 
the  first  time,  he  sent  some  of  his  works  to  the  exhibition 
in  London.      In   1774,    he  quitted  Bath,  and  settled  in 
London  in  a  part  of  the  duke  of  Schomberg^s  house  iu 
PalUMall.     In  this  situation,   possessed  of  ample  fahfie, 
and  in  the  acquisition  of  a  plentiful  fortune,  he  was  dis- 
turbed by  a  complaint  in  his  neck,  which  was  not  much 
noticed  upon   the  first  attack,  nor  was  it  apprehended  to 
be  more  than  a  swelling  in  the  glands  of  the  throat,  which 
.it  was  expected  would  subside  in  a  short  time,  but  it  was 

*  Hn  last  prices  in  LondoD,  were  forty  f  uineas  for  a  half,  and  one  lmaiii)?d 
ior  %  luU  length. 

"^  Diet.  Hbt. 


2<»  G  A  1  N  S  B  OR  O  0  G  H. 

soon  discovered  to  be  a  cancer,  which  bafHed  the  skiif  rf 
the  first  medical  professors.  Finding  the  danger  of  hi§ 
situation,  be  settled  his  affairs,  and  composed  himself  t6 
meet  the  fatal  moment,  and  expired  Aug.  2,  17^8.  He 
was  buried,  according  to  his  own  request,  in  Kew  Church- 

Mr.  Gainsborough  was  a  man  of  great  generosity.    Jf  he 
selected  for  the  exercise  of  his  pencil,  an  infant  from  a 
cottage,  all  the  tenants  of  the  humble  roof  generally  par^ 
ticipated  in  the  profits  of  the  picture ;  and  some  of  them 
frequently  found   in  his  habitation  a  permanent  abode; 
His  liberality  was  not  confined  to  this  alone  :  needy  fela-. 
fives  and  unfortunate  friends  were  further  incumbrancek 
on  a  spirit  that  could  not  deny;  and  owing  to  thh  gene- 
iposity  of  temper,  that  afBuence  was  not  left  to  his  family 
which  so  much  merit  might  promise^  and  such  real  worth 
deserve.     There  were  other  traits  in  his  personal  character 
less  amiable.     He  was  very  capricious  in  his  manners^  'and 
ratbeir  fickle  and  unsteady  in  his  social  connections*.   This 
was  sufficiently  evinced  by  his  general  conduct  tawardk 
the  royal  academy,  and  by  his  whimsical  behaviour  to  sit 
Joshua  Reynolds.     Soon  after  he  settled  in  London,  dit 
Jfoshua  thought  himself  bound  in  civility  to  pay  him  a  vrsit^ 
Gainsborough,  however,  took  not  the  least  notice  of  him 
for  several  years,  but  at  length  called  lipon  him,  and  re-" 
quested  him  to  sit  for  his  picture.     Sir  Joshua  complied', 
and  sat  once,  but  being  soon  after  taken  ill,  was  obliged 
to  go  to  Bath  for  his  health.     On  his  return  to  London;* 
perfectly  restored,  he  sent  Gainsborough  word  that  he  wa4 
returned;  Gainsborough  only  replied,  that  he  was  glad  to 
hear  that  sir  Joshua  Reynolds  was  well,  but  never  after- 
wards desired  him  to  sit,  nor  had  any  other  interciourscf 
with  him,  until  he  himself  was  dying,  when  he  sent'  td' 
request  to  see  sir  Joshua,  and  thanked  him  for  the' Very 

'*  Mr.  Jackson,  hereafter  memioiMdy  bot  itnnMt  be  remembered,  that  my: 

concludes  bis  character  of  biia  in  these  wish  was  not  to  make  it  perfe(;ty  bu( 

words:  '*  Uiscouver:$ation  wasspright-  just.    The  same  princfple  obliges  me 

)y,  but  liceationa— hia  favourite  sub-  to  add— that  as  to*  his  commoo  ae^' 

je^ts  were  music  and  patntiag,  which  quaintancebewa^sprjghl^y  aQ(ia^^« 

be  treated  in  a  manner  peculiarly  his  able,  so  to  his  intimate  friends  he  was 

own.    The  common  topics,  or  any  of  sincere  and  honest,  and  that  bis  heart 

a  superior  cast,  be  thorovgWy  hated,  was  always  alive  to  erery  fedUng  of: 

and  always  interrupted  by  some  stroke  honour  and  generosity. 

of  wit  ov  humour.  **  He  died  with  this  expression  :  *  W^' 

*'  The  indiscrittiinate' admirers  of  my  are  all  going  to  heaven,  and  Vandyke 

late  friend  will  consider  this. sketeh  of.  ip.of  the |>arty,V*                      .     .      -^ 
bis  character  as  far  beneath  hit  merit  f 

^  A  I  »  s:b  Q  r  o  u  g  ji.         :zo9 

4ibQill;md  fairourftble  mtener  in  wlikh  be  bad  always 
spokea  of  bis  works.  Sir  Joshua  bad  indeed  proved  bis 
^niOfi  of  bis  uleiita,  by  (paying  an  hundred  guineas  for 
bis  «iu]uisiie  picture  of  the  ^'  Girl  attending  pigs/*  for 
which  Oaiosborough  asked  but  sixty. 
,  When  the  royal  acadeny  was  founded^  Gainsborough 
,^;is  chosen  aooong  the  first  members^  but  beine  tbeii  fesi- 
d^Ht  s^  Batb>  be  was  too  &r  distant  to  be  employed  in  the 
biisiness  qI  the  institution^  Wfaen  be  came  to  London^ 
bis  Mndoct  was  so  far  disrespectful  to  the  members  of 
thatbody»  that  he  never  complied  with  their  invitations^ 

•  whether  official  or  convivial.  In  1784,  be  sent  to  the  ex- 
bjbiiiiiii  a  wboleJengCb  portrait,  which  be  ordered 
piftpfid  aioiost  as  low  as  the  floor ;  but  as  this  would  bavp 
beep  a  violation  of  the  byof^laws  of  the  academy,  the  g^ii'- 
tlen^enof  the  council  ventured  taremons^iiate  with  him  upon 
the  impropriety  of  such  e.  disposition.  Gainsborough  returned 

.  for  ans^ver^  .that  if  they  did  not  chuse  to  hang  the  picture 
as  he  wiahedt  they  might  seod  it,  which  they  did  imme- 
diately. H<t  soon .  after  made  an  exhibition  of.  his  works 
at  his  own  house,  which^did  not,  however,  affosd'  the  ex- 
pected gratification ;  and  after  tbis  circumstance^  he  never 
f^ip  e:diibil^* 

*  Amtrnf^  bisamugcanents,  mnsic  was  i(Iraost  td  much  bis 
€lX0ttrlte  as  paintiog«  This  passion  led  him  to  cultivate 
-tb^  iotimftoy  of  all  the.  great  musitai  professors  of  bis  tim0, 
(one  of  wfaojn^  Fischer,  married  hb  daughter),  atid  th^y, 
hf  their abiltitfis,/>btained  ^n  ascendancy  overbim,  greater 
thap  wa4  peibaps.  consistent  ;witb  atiict  pvudenoe.  Of  hfB 
powers  IP  (he  scieada^'  no  better  description' can  be  given, 
than^hat  by!  Mr.  Jaokson  of  Exeter,  in  his  ^<  Four  Ages,^^ 
40  wbitfli  entei'taining  miaceliaoy  we  may  refer  our  readers. 
Spipe  bave.spoken  highly  of  Gainsboroizgh^s  musical  per*  . 
/oftnance.  ,  Mr.  Jackson  says,  that  tbougb  pcMtsessed  of 
j&af».  taitet  and. genius,  he  sever  bad  application  ^pongb 
li>  lmiii:Ua)fiP^»»  :  He  fii0or»ed  to  itake.the  f^rai.step ;  the 
jiibQond .was  OK  coMrfb  out.of  his  reaobi;  and)  sheiaummic 
bepanaetuliaiifaia^ble.      .  *      ' 

However  M^ng  in  ^eae< awuaeiiMmts,  he.wtas  )»leady 
jaPd  maoly  iti  tbe  pro^le^Ufeioa  iif .  excMlence  in 'his  art, 
JBfcoufgb  uottW4;^oMiiSOiiMi  degree  iof  ^batxafprice  peculiar 
ito.  bi3  cbaracftev:  i  After  Iwsideaitb  maiiyopintoi9a^rer8rpub> 
jiabed  i»  the  ilit^rary  journals  of  bis  merit; ,,  f  iroip  tiaesie 
wre,  shall  ntlMttbe  foliQwii^g^  cbie^y  fioia  ji^  Josbua^Reyi* 

Vol.  XV.  P  - 


G  A  I  X^  B.OvH  a  U  G  H. 

noUs's  lecttnres,  which  appean  to  approach  nearett  W  the 

:  sobriety  of  just  criticisoi.  i 

'.  His  style  of  execution,  as  well  as  choice  of  snbjecCs, 
'^lis  original)    although  considerably  'resembtiog  tliat  df 
Watteauy  more  particularly  in  his  tandscapea;     Hts  picf- 
litres  are  generaHy  wrought  iu  a  kxMe  and  slight  foamier, 
With  goeat  freedom  of  hand,  and  using  very  little  cidikirf, 
with  a  great  body  of  vehicle ;  which  gives  to  bis  worbs 
.great  lig^htoess  md  looseness  of  effect;   i^toperties  ei^ 
tremely  valuable  in  a  picture,  and  too  eanly  lost  ift  tbe 
.endeavour  to  give  more  strict  and  positive  resemblan^Se  of 
substance.     8ir  Joshua  Reynolds  in  his  fourteenth  lecturts 
•aays  of  this  hatching  tnatiner  of  Gainsboroagb,  that  his 
-portraits- were  often  little  more  than  what  generally  atteocb 
•a  dead  colour  as  to  finishing  or  determinnig  the  form  of 
the  features  ;>  but,  '*  as  he.  was.  always  attentive  to  the  ge* 
jieral  effect,  or  whole  together,   I  have  often  imaginod 
'(says  be)  that  this  unBnishied  manner  coutxiboted  even  to 
that  striking  resemblance  for  which  his  portraits  are  sa  re^ 
•markable.    At  the  same  time  it  must  >  be  acknowledged 
that  tfaefce  hi.  one  evil*  attending  this -mode ;  that  if-  the 
portrait  were  seen  previously  to  any  knowledge  of  the  ori- 
ginal, different  persons  would  form  different  ideas  ^  aod 
:all would  be  disappointed  atnot  findings  the  original  cor* 
-respond  with,  their  own  conceptions,  under  tlie^greait  iatw 
.tude  which  indistinctness  gives  to  the  imagination,  to  as- 
sume almost  what  character  or  form  it  plehses,*'  * 

In  tlie  same  lecture,  which  principally  treats  of  the  ao* 
rquirements  of  Gainsborough,  .and  whieh  was  delivered  at 
.the  ro}'»l  academy  soon  after  bis  deathy  by  its  tmiiy  exetied 
'president,'  it  is  said  of.him,  ^<  that  if  ever  this  nation  shotitd 
.produce  genius  sufficient  to  acquire  to  us  thehonoorabt^ 
<listiactioci.of^£,  the  name  of  Gtainsborough 
.will be  transmitted,  to  posterity  in  the  history  of  the  art 
iamong  the.iirst  of  that  rising  name.V-^^^  Whether  be  most 
•excelted  in  portraiu,  landscapes,  or- fancy  piosores^  it 'is 
jdiifficult  :.ta  deteroiine::  whether  bis  portraits  were  m04^ 
admirable  for  exact  truth  of  resemblance,  or  bis  landaoapes 
for  apoctrait'like  represematiitn  iyf  natpire,:  sucttas  we  see 
,in  the  works  of  Rubens,  .Ryadael,  or  odhers  of  these  scfaoohs. 
In  his  fancy  pictures^  ivheniheibad^ fixed  apon^hia  object 
•of  imitaliony  whether  it  wks*  the  wean  and  vulgar  fqma«^>a 
iivQod-cuttelr,.  or  axhild  d£>  a^^interesting^  charactar,  as  b^ 
<bd  iiot  attemi^  te.!:ai^;tbe  oas^: *saiiehber  did  he  isse  any 

Y      4\ 

G  A  I  N  S  B  O  R  O  a  G  H.  ail 

"i^f  ibe  nalAfid  grace .  and  elegance  of  the  other ;  such  a 
grace  and  tnch  an  elegance  as  are  more  frequently  foi^nd 
in  6ottai^*es  than  in  oourts.  This  excellence  was  bis  own, 
U^e.pef^uU  0t  bis  particular  observation  and  taste.  For  this 
he  was  certainly  not  indebted  to  any  school ;  for  his^  grace 
was  not  academical,  or  antique,  but  selected  by  himself 

^ratm-tbe  great  school  of  nature;  where  thiere  are  yet  a 
ihpusand  modes  uf  grace  unselected,  but  which  lie  open  ^k 
Jib^  multiplied  scenes  and  figures  of  life,  to  be  brought  out 
by  ^ilfailaod  faithful  observers. 

.  .^  Upon  iibe  whole  we  may  justly  say,  that  whatever  he 
^iieq»|>ced  he  carried  to  a  high  degree  of  excellence.  It  is 
to  tbe  credit  of  bis  good  sense  and  judgment  that  he  never 

'^Ud  attempt  that  style. of  historical  painting  for  which  his 
previoes  istodies  had  made  no  preparation.'' 

.J4o|faingeould  have. enabled  Gainsborough  to  reach  so 
elevated  a  point  in  the  art  of  painting  without  the  most 
ardent  love  for  it  Indeed  his  whole  mind  appears  to  have 
been  deivoted  to  it,  even  to  his  dying  day;  and  then  bis 

:principal  regret  seemed  to  be,  that  he  was  leaving  his  art, 
•when,  as  he  said,  ^'  be  saw  bis  deficiencies,  and  had  en- 
d:!^avQiired  to  remedy  them  in  his  last  works.'*  Various 
A^ircumstaoces.  in  liis  life  exhibited  him  as  referring  every 

-thing  to  it.  <^  He;  was  continually  remarking  to  those  who 
jbaf^Med  to  h6  about  him,  whatever  pecuharity  of  coun- 

-tenaace,  %diatever  accidental  combination  of  figures,  or 
happy  effects  of  light  ai)d  shadow  occurred  in  prospects, 
in  tbeisky,  .in  walking  tlie. streets,  or  in  company.     If  in 

'hiSivralks  be  found  a  character  that  be  liked,  and  whose 
attendance  was  to  be  obtained,   he  ordered  him  to  his 

choose :  .and  from  the  fields  he  brought  into  his  painting- 
eoomstttfiipft  of  trees,  weeds,  and  animals  of  various  kinds; 
and  designed  them  not  from  memory,  but  immediately 
fxom'  the  objects..  He  even  framed  a  kind  of  model  of  land- 

.  scapes  on  bis  table  coqa posed  of  broken  stones,  dried  herbs, 

.and  pieces  of  looking^^glass ;  which  be  magnified,  and  im- 
proved into  rocks,  trees,  and  water:  all  which  exhibit  the 

.salicicude  and  extreme  activity  that  he  had  about  every 
thing  relative  to  his  art ;  chat  be  wished  to  have  his  oblacts 
^oibodied  as  it  ^re,  and  distinctly  before  him,' neglecting 

rnetbiog  that  contributed  to  keep  his  faculties  alive;  and 

-^^leriving  hints  from  every  sort  of  combination."     lie  was 

.also  in  the  constant  habit  of  painting  by  night,  a  practice^ 

\Tery  ^advantageous  and  improving  t^  an  artist,  for,  by  this 

P  2' 

m  &  A  1  N  «  B  OR  o  tr  o  n. 

tnfeans  he  may  acquire  a  neur  and  a  Uglier  pefcdpli^  Vlf 
what  is  great  and  beautiful  in  nature.  His  prlrctice  incite 
progress  of  his  pictures  was  to  paint  Dli  the  whole  together^; 
wherein  he  differed  from  some,  who  finish  each  part  sefrnf- 
rately^  and  by  that  means  are  freqtiently  Iteble  to  prodiit^ 
Inharmonious  combinations  of  forms  and  features. 

Gaih^borongh  was  one  of  the  feW  artistn  of  eminilWet 
this  eouhtry  has  produced  who  never  was  indebted  10 16^ 
I'eign  travel  for  his  improvement  and  adrainceme'in  in  fnUnU 
ing.  Some  use,  indeed,  he  appears  to  hare wtade  tiffb«> 
wign  productions ;  and  he  did  not  ifegkfet  to  tepfxj^c  Kfm- 
«feli  in  the  language  of  the  art,  the  art  of  itnitatfbtt^  bUl 
aided  bis  progress  by  closely  observing  trrd  imttatitlg  aditii 
^f  the  masters  of  the  Flemish  school ;  who  are  dndonbtedf)^ 
the  greatest  in  that  particular  and  necestTafy  branMl  cf 'itf« 
He  frequently  made  copies  of  Rubens,  Tettiert,  and  Van* 
tlyke,  which  it  wbuld  be  no  disgrace  to  the  tnost  aetehM 
ieonnoisseurs  to  mistake  for  original  pictiites  fet  (int'^rigiit; 
What  he  thus  learned,  he  did  not,  however^  gervflety  trs#y 
but  applied  it  to  imitate  nature  in  a  manner  Entirely  liSi 
own,  ^ "   "  *  .    ■■'"" 

The  subjects  he  chose  for  representation  wefe  ^en^Hlll^ 

rery  simple,  to  which  his  own  excellent  taste  kiiew  li^?Wt^ 

^ive  expression  and  Taltre,      fti  bis  la»dst;'ape6  H  HM)tlg 

mound  and  a  few  figures  seated  upon,  c^  near  it  5  wMi^a 

cow  or  feoine  sheep  grazing,  and  a  slight  iliArtttng'oP^IWr* 

stance,    sufficed  fot  the  objedcs ;  their  ehairni 'w**  il»e 

purity  of  tone  in  the  colour;  the  (Veedom  and  clearness  of 

the  touch  ;  together  with  an  agreeable  combination  of  ^^ 

forms  ;  and  with  these  simple  matterifals,  which  Uppeat^tf 

easy  as  to  be  within  every  one's  grasp,  but  which  etttM 

stanily  eltide  the  designer  who1s  not  gife«?d  with  hisfti^Ato^ 

and  taste,  does  he  always  produce  a  pleasing-pieture.  *^l 

his  fancy  pictures  the  same  taste  prevailed.     A  cottage  ^tit 

a  shepherd's  boy ;  a  woodman  ;  with  vehr  alig**  tti^tW^U 

in  the  back-grbundj  were  treated  by  huh  with  90  ttHek 

eharacter,  yet  so  much  elegante,  that  they  n^^v^r  j(«i4^iv 

delight.  ''-'"'''' 

'   In  the  spring  following  GainsbOrbngb*^  dleaflb^  Ml  0iM^ 

hitidn  was  made  at  his  botise  in  Pall  Mall,  df  h4^  {»^«^ttt 

and  drawings.     Ctf  the  former  there  were  fifty-aiK ;  of  tto 

latter  one  Wndred  and  forty-eight;  wtthseVerarpictfiirMl^ 

6f\he  Fiemisfa  at>d  otiier  masters,  which  he  bad  coM«oi«d 

during  bift  life*time%    They  wene  aunounced  fat  aate^  imd 


^(Sir  prices  nuurkjed  jn  the  jcatalogne,  and  several  were 
sold.  Some  time  after,  tbe  whole  remaining  collectiori 
WM  sold  by  AuctbOt  and  brought  good  prices.  Among  his. 
aU^fnpis  were  the  portraits  ofGarrick  and  Fopte,  but  be 
4}^:^ot  s4iGceed.  according  to.h|$  wish,  which  he  used. to 
excuse  by  saying  that  *'  they  had  every  body's  faces  but 
their .  cKvo,''  a  ver^  pertinent  remark,  as  applied  to  the 

^      poicit'aiis  of  dri^aiaiic  personages. 

'  JVj[r«  £4wards  meotioos  three  etchings  by  t;he  hand  of 
Gaitpi^b^rqiigh.  The  6rst.  is  spiiall,  and.  was  done  as  a  de« 
comiop  (a<tbe  firsi  **  Treatise  on  Perspective,*'  which  was 
pubHsbiM. .  by  bis  frieod  Mr.  Kirby;  but  it  i^  curious  to 
observe^  that  what  little  of  perspective  is  introduced,  is 
Iptajly  faise ;  .but  from  the  date  of  th|it  work  Gainsborough 
ibilfit  have  been  a^  that  time  very  young.     The  second  is 

^  an,  pak  tree,  with  gypsies,  sitting  under  it  boiling  their 
keu}^i  the  size  X^  iaiches  by  1 7,  Both  these  were  6nished 
bytiiegraver^  though  not  improved,  by  Mr.  Wood.  The 
tbird„  aiQore  extensive  view,  represents  a  man  ploughing 
oil  tixe  side  of  a  rising  ground,  upon  which  there  is  a  wind* 
mill ;  the  sea  terminates  the  distance.  This  he  called  the 
^aiblk  Plougb*  It  is  extremely  scarce,  for  he  spoiled  the 
plate  by  imp^ently  attempting  to  apply  the  aquafortis^ 
liefore  bis  friend,  Mr.  Griguion,  could  assist  him,  as  was 
§gro4ui«  Its .  size ,  l  $  iochf^  by  1 4.  He  also  attempted 
%wo.  or  three  small  plates  in  aqua  tinta,  but  was  not  very 
Bttocestful  mth  them,  as  he  knew  little  of  the  process. 

TbiA^emineut  artist  bad  a  nephew,  Gainsborough  Du* 
WQSH^Tf  a  modeat  and  ingenious  man,  who  painted  portraits 
i^itb.  considerable  success,  but  died  at  the  eaifly  age  of  ' 
tlurty,  in  January  1797.  His  principal  work  is  a  large 
l^iptore  (for  which  he  received  500/.)  of  all  the  Trinity 
masters,  riybich.  is  in  the  court-room  of  the  Trinity -house 
iijKNi  Toiver-'bill.  *  . 

;  .<jALAT£0  (Antony),  or  Galat£Us  Lici'ensis,  an  emi* 
gent  rllf^ian  writer,  whose  proper  name  was  Ferrari,  i$ 
genej^lly  known  by  that  of  Galateo,  from  bii^  native  place, 
Galatina,  in  Otranto,  where  he  was  born  in  1444*  His 
iitber  dying  in  bis  infancy^  be  was  taken  into  the  protec-. 
tlM  of  Us  grandfather,  who  iiad  him  educated  at  Nardow 

'i,Edward«*s  Supplement  to  Walpole's  Anecdotes. — Mtlope's  Life  and  Worka 
^^irJothna  Reynolds.— Northoote*8  Life  of  fir  Joshua.-— Rees*s  Cyalopadia.— « 
Octit.  Iffar-  ▼ol-  LVIIL— Sketrh  of  the  Life  of  Gainiborougb,  by  Thicknesse, 
lta|^«  ItSS.*rJMluoa'a  F««r  Ages,  179S,  Svo. 

214^  G  A  L  A  T  E  O. 

He  afterwards  studied  medicine^  which,  after  :t«ktog*hitf 
degrees  at  Ferrara,  be  practised  at  Naples  wkh  greatre* 
putation,  and  was  appointed  physician  to  the  king,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  recommendation  of  SaniiMarivs  and  Pon- 
tanus.  The  air  of  Naples,  however,  not  agreeing  with 
bim,  he  removed  to  Gatlipoli,  near  Galatiiw,  ^faere  be 
resumed  his  practice.  He  died  Nov.  112,  1517.  He  was 
not  only  eminent  as  a  physician,  but  his  natural  atid'm<Mml 
philosophy  is  said  to  have  risen  beyond  the  level  of  the  age 
in  which  he  lived.  He  is  also  said  to  have  indicated  the 
possibility  of  the  navigation  tx>  the  East  by  ike  Capebf 
Good  Hope,,  in  his  treatise  ^^  De  situ  Elementorumj^*  pub* 
lisbed  in  1501,  but  written  some  years  prior*  to  that  pariod. 
He  also  illustrated  the  topography  of  bis  native  country 
with  accurate  maps  and  descriptions ;  and  was  reputed  a 
poet  of  considerable  merit.  His  works  are,  berides  What 
we  have  mentioned,  1.  ^' De  situ  lapygi®,*'  Ba^l,,155^, 
but  the  best  edition  is  that  of  1727,  with  tbe-notesof  Tas- 
tieri,  and  some  lesser  pieces  by  Galatco.  2.  **  A  Descrip- 
tion  of  Gallipoli."  3.  "  Sucoessi  dell*  armata  Turches- 
canella  citta  d'Otranto  del T  anno  1480,'*  4to,  1480.  He 
had  accompanied  the  son  of  the  king  of  Naples  on  tMs- 
expedition.  He  published  also  some  poems  in  Latin  and 
Italian.  *  ,  .  .. !. 

GALE  (John),  a  learned  divine,  and  an  ejninent  preacher 
among  the  baptists,  was  bort|fMay26,  1^80,  at  Loifidnn. 
His  father  was  a  citizen  of  good  repute ;  and.  observing 
the  natural  turn  of  his  son  to  be  from  his  infancy  grave  and 
composed,  he  resolved  to  br-eed  him  for  th,e  ministry.  He 
spared  no  cost  in  his  education,  and  the  boy*s  diiigeiTce 
Mas  such,  that,  both  in  school  and  out  of  school,  be  ap- 
plied attentively  to  his  learning,  and  became  not  only 
master  of  the  Latin  and  Greek,  but  of  the  Hebrew  Ian* 
j):uage,  at  the  age  of  seventeen;  when  he  was  sent":o 
Leyden,  to  finish  what  he  had  so  happily  begun.  Sdon 
after  his  arrival  there  he  received  the  news  of  his  mother's 
death,  and,  being  sensible  that  this  would  hasten  bia  iie<- 
turn  home,  he  made  it  a  spur  to  his  industry ;  and  so 
surprising  was  his.  progress  in  academical  learning,  tha^Jie 
was  thought  worthy  of  the  degrees  of  master  •<)€  aria  end 
doctor  of  philosophy  in  his  nineteenth  year,  and  accofd« 

ingly  received  those  honours  in  I>S99y  having  performed 

#  -     •    -    . 

*  Morcrl^VicU  Hist.— Nlccrgn,  rol.  11,— Rosct)e'«  Leo  X.-^^-Saxil  Op6jn»it» 

G  ALE.  ai5 

ijie iisuil  exemses  with  urn versal  applause  *.  This'  extra* 
ordtqary  tetihinmiy  of  bis  son's  merit  coald  not  fail  to  Be 
/very  acoepitable  to  the  father ;  and  the  rector  of  the  uiu* 
ver^i^  comluunicated  it,  in, a  strong  letter  of  commeoda- 

'  ,lian.  Upon  tbia  occasion  our  author  pqblished  his  ^<  Thes- 
i^isy^'*  afid  dedicated  it  to  bis  father  and  bis  two  uncles,  sir 
Joha  and  sir  Joseph.  Wolf;  and  a  noble  attestation  of  bin 
mmcit  was  lubjoinied  by  Adrian  Reland  in  a  Latin  panegyric. 
1  .  Thus  boBcmred^^at  Leyden,  be  weqt  to  Amsterdam. 
:where  he  cootioiied  his  studies  under  professor  Limborcb. 
•:Ai  the  same  time  be  contracted^an  acquaintance  with  John 
XieClerCy  took  all  opportunities  of  visiting  bitn,  settled  a 
iCOi*respoQ4^al!ce  "with  him,  and  became  afterwards  a  zealous 
^a^well  as  able  def^pnder  of  his  character  f*  Upon  his  re^ 
.turn  home  be  continued  bis  stgdies  with  equal  ardour; 
and,  impreiviag  himself  particularly  in  the  Oriental  Ian* 

,  gmgea,  obtained  oritical  skill  ini  the  books  of  the  Old  and 
vNew  Testament.     He  bad  not  been  above  four  years  thus 

'  employed,  when  the  university  of  Leydea  sent  him  an  o£Fer 
of  a  doctor's  degree  in  divinity,  provided  he  would  assent 
.|e  the  articles^  of  Dort-;  but  be  refused  that  boitour,  oil 
^he  principle  of  preserving  a  freedom  of  judgment 

This  was  about  1703;  and  Wall's  defence  of  Infant 
Baptism  coming  out  in  less  than  two  years  after,  proved  an 

-  pooasien  for  Gale  to  exert  bis  talents  in  controversy.  Soon 
aCter  the  publication  of  that  book,  he  undertook  to  answer 

•  it»  and  pursued  the  subject  in  several  letters  wi;itten  in 
i  470$.  iind  Ir706 ;  which  were  handed  about  in  manuscript 
.  if^^reral  years^  till  be  consented  to  make  tbem  public  in 

•  1711,  under  the  title  of  <^  Reflections  on  Mr.  Wairs  His» 
^ry  of  Io£ant  Ba^isio/*  ,  The  extraordinary  merit  of  this 
piece  raised  him  to  the  first  pjace  among  the  baptists ; 
yet^he  did  not  think  B^  to  take  upon  binuelf  the  preacber^s 

.  office  immediately. .  He  was  five  and  thirty  years,  of  age 
before  he  began  to  preach  constantly  and  ^t«»(edly  %  ;  when 

,  W  was  chosen  one  of  <be  niiuisters  of  the  baptist  congre*- 
•tgatifOnia-PaMl's  ailey^  near  Barbican. 

•     .  < 

♦  The  professor's  fpc*ch  on  the  oc-  Le   Clffc,  which,    be  says,   render  it 

frtstdn  was  printed 'afterwards  hy-Bder-  very  evidetit  that  he  ackno»ledc:ed  the 

iHiave,.'-  AiBOilf' oilier 'thu^Si  he  job-  divipii|(  of  Chuuit  as  plainly  and  es- 

l^er^y  tliat  Dur^tudeuw  had  obiaioed  pres&ly  taught  in  ihe  scriptures. 

"    «uch  a  readiness  in  the  Greek  Tangua^e,  ;jHe*had,  ho^wever,  preached  bt- 

-    ^  tAW^IIIelott4&t)aln»irr  ife  t^aMidy;  fore,  on  the  BimWersary  tf  the  goij* 

Btbl.  Ckovhe,  \am.  XV  l^*  p-  3i^-  .  poiid«r«ptot;  an<)  he  published  bi«^|%. 

.    .   f  See  our  author's  tirf^t  let M^r  upon  course  with  i^ie  t\t^e- of  a  Tbankfgiv'iqf 

Vfr.  WaU»s  History  of  Infant  Baptisin.  Scimon/ preached  KrtV.   5,  1113,  'U 

wUtfre  be  cites  tereral  passages  irotu  P»alm  cv.  ver.  l,and  15, 

^IB  .GALE. 

-  As  be  was  teolouk  to  tmatitehi  and  ftofmg/itm  tiMiielMi% 
tioDi  which  fad  diought  authorized  by  pnontive  antiquity 
he  became  cfaairinaii  to  a  society  for  pvomottiig  wfa«t  tbey 
called  prioiitive  Christianity;  frooi  July  9,  illS^to  FehL 
the  lOtb  following.  This  society  met  e%'ery  week*  attMt. 
Whiscon's  bouse  in  Cross-street,  HatlcMi^gaiidleii^  •  which 
fhey  named  the  *'  Primitive  Library.'*  B«ut  though  Dr. 
Gale  testified  a  strong  desire  to  ettingimh  aU  dupiiMr 
among  Christians^  he  was  by  no  means  wiUi^g  to  give  up 
his  own  peculiar  opinions.  Hence  it  was  that  wheiVcMsu 
Wall  consented  to  hpid  a  icooference  with  inm  opon  ite 
subject  of  infant  baptisoi,  the  dispute  ended,  as  usual^ 
without  any  good  issue  ;  and  Wall  was  so  filr  Irom  being 
satisfied  with  the  arguments  of  his  antagonist^  thi»'he4rew« 
up  an  answer  to  the  Reflectiona,  and  pobKshed  it  under 
^e  title  of  «^  A  Defence  of  the  History  of  lefant  Baptism," 
in*  171^.  This  book,  as  well  as  the  History,  was  so  oifiehL 
approved  by  the  university  of  Oxford^  that  Wall  was  bq*- 
noured  with  the  degree  of  D.  D.  upon  die  oceaaion.  Dn. 
Calebs  Reflections  were  not  without  ci^siderable  «dvo» 
«ates  ;  and  it  is  supposed,  that  he  meditated  im  answer  to* 
Dr.  Wairs  reply,  but  a  premature  dea^  pnevented  ilie 
lixecatioti  of  tbis  and  several  designs  which  he  bad  formed^L 
for  the  promotioR  of  Oriental  iearning  and  his  own  no^oaa 
of  scriptural  knowledge,  as  he  was  seized  mth  afever^* 
Dec.  1721,  of  which,  after  an  illness  of  about  Uvreewesb^' 
be  died,  iu  his  forty*second  year.  •  ^  « / 

In  his  per:K)n,  Dr.  Gale  was  rather  taUer  thaix  the  eo|to«:  r 
anon  size,  and  of  an  open  pleasan^l  couateiiafice;  in  hm^ 
-temper,  of  an  easy  and  affable  behaviour,  serious- wicboat; 
any  tincture  of  moroseness.     lo  his  mi^niiers  and  i»onik»  i 
cbearful  without  levity>  having  a  most  perfect  comMitidr> 
iQver.his  passions.    He  was  gneatly  esteemed  by,  and  Itred . 
in  frie4)dship  with,  Bradford  bishop  of  Roobesier^  Hoadiy: 
i>ishop  of  Bangor,  and  the  lord  cbanoalior  King»    After. 
Ills  dea^h  a  collection  of  his  sermons  we^  priated  by  sub*: 
sgription;  the  second  edition  whereof  was  published  I7M# 
iq  4  vols.  8vo,  to  vvbich  is  prefixed  an  account  of  his  life. : 
It  pppears  from  some  passages  in  his  funeral  sermonn  that 
he  was  married,  and  had  a  family,  left  in  great  want  .A, 
contribution,  however,  was  raised,  which  e|)abled  bis  widow 
to  set  up  a  coffee-house  in  Findi-lane  for  the  mainteimnce 
«f  ^ber  children.     What  became  of  them  ifterWards  we  t^i , 
^t  told.    Of  Dr.  Gal6*s  principal  performaoce  it  m9>y\^. 

4r  A   L  S.  217 

tbati  M  Wair»  <*  History  of  Tnfiint  Baptism**  is  the 
inest  f hidtcatton  of  this  doctrine,  so  the  answer  of  Gale 
ia^  the  beat,  defence  of  th^  baptists;  which,  as  the  subject 
bad. been  bandied  by  tery  great  men  before,  is  an  ample 
commendatioil  of  both  parties. ' 

;.  GALS  (TiCSOPHILOs),  a  learned  divine  among  the  tion« 
ccmformists,  was  born  in  1628,  at  King's-Teignton  iti  De* 
WNKsbtre,  where  bis  father,  Dr.  Theophilus  Gale,  was  theil 
^oar,  ^t€h  which  he  likewise  held  a  prebend  iu  the  cfaurcli 
«f  Exeter.  Being  descended  of  a  rery  good  family  in  the 
West  of'Engbifd,  fais' education -was  begun  under  a  private 
ptaDccptor,  in  his  father's  house,  and  he  was  then  sent  to 
•  'ftcboot  in  the  neighbourhood,  where  he 'made  a  great 
pmfierency  in  classical  learning,  and  was  removed  to'  Ox* 
ford  in  l  ^47.  He  was  entered  a  commoner  in  Magdalen 
eoUege,  a  little  after  that  city,  with  the  university,  had 
been  sarrendered  to  the  parliament ;  and  their  visitors  in' 
the  general  reformation  (as  they  called  it)  of  the*  university;  , 
bad  put  Dr.  Wilkinson  into  the  presidentship  of  Magdaleit 
ooilege,  who  took  particular  notice  of  young  Gale,  and 
pmcvred  him  to  be  appointed  a  demy  of  his  college  in 
1^48«  But  the  consent  of  kindness  to  him  was  far  from 
stopping  hei^ ;  he  was  recommended  to  the  degree  of  ba^ 
cfaeknr  of  arts  Dec.  1G49,  by  the  commissioners,  long  be-* 
fore  the  time  appointed  For  taking  that  degree  by  the  sta-^ 
tntet  of  the  univenHty,  viz.  four  years  after  admission.  Of 
this  departure  from  the  nsuat  term  of  granting  a  degree 
they^  we«te's&%etisible,  tfa^tcare  was  taken  by  them  to  have 
a.^fNirrieular  reMoli  set  f6rth,  for  conferring  it  so  early  upon 
Um;  expyewing,  that  he  was  fully  ripe  for  that  honour, 
boali  in  reape^t  of  his  age,  and  the  excellence  of  his 
abilitiea/  It  was  probably  owing  to  the  countenance  of  the 
same  patrorts  that  he  was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college  m 
ieso,  in  pveferefice  'to  ^many  of  his  seniors,  who  were  set . 
jmA'to  rnnke  room  for  hhn.  It  is  acknowledged,  how- 
every  that  he  deserved  these  distinctions.  He  took  the 
degree  of  M*  A.  Juii)^  18,  1652^  and  being  encouraged  to 
takefNipilsy  sbon  b^a<ne  an  eminent  tutor,  and  had,  among 
otbcar  pupils,  Eaekiel  Hopkins,  afterwards  bishop  of  Ra-* 
l^e,  in-  IrekMd. 
*I»  the  mean  titiae  he  continued  to  prosecute  his  own 

J'  I 

oT  tW  BaptistSj  fol.  IV.  p.  366,— NicUQls*s  AlUr^ury's  Corr«sp)0(ieaGe^  v«i». 

21S  GALE. 

studies  with  vigour;  aod efaoostfig dmnity  for  bis.  priifcA^ 
sion,  applied  himself  particularly  to  that  study*'  On 
reading  Grotius,  on  the  '<  Truth  of  the  CbriAiaii  Bieli* 
gion»'Vbe  b^gan  to  think  it.  possible  to  make  lA'^appear^ 
that  the  wisest  of  the  pagao  philosopbers  borrowed  their 
more  sublioie  contemplations,  as  well  natural,  and  moral, 
as  dirine,  from  the  Scriptures;  and  that,  how  diffuretit 
soever  they  might  be  iu  tb^r  appearance,  not  only  their 
theology,  but  their  philosophy  aud  philology,  were  de^^ 
rived  from  the  sacred  oracles.  Upon  this  principle  heti»»' 
dertook  the  arduous  work,  which  froni  this  tinie  beoame 
the  principal  object  of  his  theological  researches  for  meny 
years.  He  did  not,  l>owever,  neglect  the  'dudes  of  the 
priesthood,  and  his  discourses  from  the  pulpit  were,  con* 
sptcuous  proofs  of  his  distinguished  piety  and  learning. 
He  was  invited  to  Winchester,  and  became  a  stated  preachier 
there  in  1657  ;  in  this  station  he  continued  for  some  years, 
generally  admired  and  esteemed,  both  for  his  excel ieat 
sermons  and  his  exemplary  life  and  conversaiion.  But, 
being  bred  up  in  puritanical  principles,  he  was  uiMilterably 
devoted  to  them ;  so  that  upon^tablishmentof  the 
church  by  Charles  II.  he  could  not  prevail  with  himself  to 
comply  with  the  act  of  uniformity  in  1661,  and,  rather 
than  violate  bis  conscience,  chose  to  suffer  all  the  peuaiiies 
of  the  law« 

Thus  e3(cluded  from  the  public  service  of  his  functioa, 
and  deprived  of  his  fellowship  at  Oxford,  he  found  friends 
among  his  own  party,  and  was  taken  into  the  fisniily  of 
Philip  lord  Wharton,  in  quality  of  tutor  to  his  two  sons. 
The  state  of  the  universities  at  hoqie  being  now  very  dis* 
pordant  to  the  principles  of  lord  Wharton,  he  seiH  i^s  aon^ 
with  their  tutor,  in  1662,  to  Caen,  in  Normandy,  a  se^* 
miliary  which  flourished  at  that  time  under'tbe  direction 
of  the  most  distinguished  professors  of  the  reformed. reli* 
gion  in  France;  among  whom  was  the  celebrated  Bochart. 
With. this  learned  divine  and  several  other  persons  of  cUs^ 
ting(uished  erudition  Gale  became  acquainted,  and  by  this 
intercourse,  as  well  as  by  travel,  greatly  improved  himself 
Vvithqut  neglecting  his  charge.  ■       .    , 

In  1665  he  returned  to  England  with  hispupik,  and-at** 
Ending,  them  home  to  their  father's  seat  at  Quaintpn».in 
Buckinghamshire,  continued  in  the  family  till  1666  ;  when, 
being  released  from  this  employ/  fae  set  out  thence ^.r 
Loiitlon,  and  w^as  struck  on  the  road  with  the  dreadful  sijj;h| 

GAL  E;  iil§ 

of  ibe  e\ty  in  flAtnem  The  lirst  shock  being  over,  he  re« 
edllected  bid  own  papers^  his  greatest  treasure,  whiobv 
whan  he  left  England,  be  had  committed  to  th^  care  of  a 
paiticular  friend  in  London.  He  soon  learnt  that  the 
hoitseof  this  friend  was  burnt,  and  gave  up  his  papers  as 
lost,  and  with  them  all  hopes  of  completing  his  great  work* 
They  had,  howet^er,  by  a  fortunate  accident,  been  pre- 
•aerved,  and  the  *'  Court  of  the  Gentiles*'  was  destined  to 
Mc^ve* its  completion.  At  this  period  he  became  assist- 
*at  to  >Mr.  John  Rowe,  his  countryman,  who  had  then  a 
fwivate  congregation  inHoiborn;  and  continued  in  that 
station  till 'the  death  of  his  principal,  Oct  12,  1677,  when 
Mr.  Gale  was  chosen  to  succeed  him,  together  with  Mr. 
Samuel  Lee,  his  assistant. 

In  the  mean  time  the  publication  of  his  ^^  Court  of  the 
Gentiles"   had  proceeded  gradually,   in   consequence  of 
the  great  care  he  took  to  complete  and  digest  his  collec* 
tions,  and  to  make  the  work  in  all  respects  a  masterly 
|>rodu€tion.    The  ^rst  part   was  published  at  Oxford  iii 
1659,  and,  being  received  with  gi-eat  applause,  was  fol« 
lowed   by  the  other  three,  the  'last  of  which  came  out  iji 
1677,  the  year  when  he  succeeded  Mr.  Howe,     ButthU 
work,  large  'and  laborious  as  it  was,  did  not  prove  suf-* 
fi<^ent  to  employ  his  spare  hours:  he  wrote  also,  within 
the  same  period,  several  other  works ;  namely,  2.  ^^  Th^ 
true  Idea  of  Jansenism,**   1669,  4to;  with  a  large  preface 
fey  I>r.  John  Owen.     3.  **  Theopbilus,  or  a  Discourse  of 
'^he- Saints*   amity   with   God   in  Christ,''   1671,  8vo.     4. 
♦^  The 'Anatomy  of  Infidelity,   &c.'*  1672,  8vo.     5.  «  A 
IMscOurse  of  Christ's  coming,  &c,"  1673,  8vo.     6.  "Idea 
.  Tbeologiee  tam  contemplativse  quam  activse,  ad  formam 
8.  S.  delineata,"   I67S,  12mo.     7.  "  A  Sermon,  entitled. 
Wherein  the  Love  of  the  World  is  inconsistent  with  the 
-Love  of  God,'^   1674  ;  printed  also  in  the  supplement  to 
the  morning  exercise  at  Cripplegate.     8.  *•  Philosnphia 
g<eneralis  in  duas  partes  disterminata,  ,&c."  1676,  8yo.    9. 
•*'A  Sommary  of  the  two  Covenants,**  prefixed  to  a  piece 
published  by  him,  entitled  "  A  Discourse  of  the  two  Co- 
Tenants,**  written  by  WiHiatn  Strong,  sometime  preacher 
at  the  Abbey  church  kt  Westminster.     **  The  Life  and 
death  of  Thomas  Tregosse,  minister  of  the  gospel  at  Milar 
and  Mabe  in  Cornwal,  With  hiis  Character,*'  was  also  writ* 
ten  by  him,  and  published  in  1671,  though  he  seems  ttt 
Itave- jponeeated  the  drcumstance  as  much  as  possible*    '  • 

12*  O  A  t  n 

Such  were  tbe  fi^ts  of  our  ail  thorns  «li](dies;^for;itto 
9ake  of  pro«ecutmg  wbitb,  with  kbe  priv^y  reqiii»ite>  bo 
rhose  Newington  for  his  retreat ;  wber^  be  instrcicUMl  d 
few  young  persoos  umler  his  own  roof.     But  he  wait  faty* 
qnently  visited  by  persons  of  disttnctlon,  aod  saQio.a£  a 
different  opinion  from  bim  in  religious  nfiaiters,  out  of 'li 
desire  to  testify  their  esteem  for  unafiected  piety  and  exw 
tensive  learning*    In  i 67 If  be  published  proposalsfor  pri«t« 
ing  by  subscription,  ^^  Lexicon  Grssei  Teslattiefiti  £^<<f 
aaologicon,  Synonymum,  aive  Gldssarium  Homonymuos/^ 
This,  as  ti^  title  imports,  was  intended  by  bim  for  a  lai^M 
con  and  concordaoce  together :  he  Snisbed  it  aa  far  as  tkm 
letter  Iota,  and  the  most  eonsideiHWe  words  were  atid 
placed  under  other  letters.     But  be  was  prevented  fron^ 
eairryrng-tt  further  by  tus  death ;  which  happened  in  March 
that  year,  when  he  ^'as  not  quite  fifty.     As  to  his  obasac<» 
ter,  besides  what  has  been  already  mentioned,  be  waa^ 
most  ie«olons  non^ponformist,  stedfast  in  those  opinioosr 
and  warm  in  the  dafenoe  of  tbem.     His  zeai  this  way 
extended  iuelf  beyond  the  grave;  be  wished,  he  resolved^ 
to  perpetuate  tbem  as  fkr  as  he  was  able.     In  that  spicti 
be  beipieatbed  all  his  estate  to  young  students  of  his  ;qwi» 
fUrincipIes,  and  appointed  trustees  to  manage  it  for  ihmr; 
a^pport  He  bequeathed  also  his  welUcbosen  library  tiiinatd> 
jplromoting  useful  learning  in  New  England,  where  those 
prinetples  universally  prevailed.  But,  notwithstanding ^biis 
warm  eoocern  for  supporting   and  propagating  his.  owa^ 
Communion,  be  was  not  without  chartty<  fet  those  who 
.differed  from  him,  whom  he  would  labour  to  convince^  bnt- 
Bot  to  compel ;  being  as  much  an  enemy  to  sedition  aa 
fce  was  to  persecution.     Hence  we  find  even  Wood  giving 
hifll  all  his  ju»t  commendations  without  those  abaliametita 
find  rertrictions  which  are  usual  in  his  eharaciers.    It  waa 
allowed  alto,  that,  in  his  <<  Court  of  the  GMit}le8,'*:and> 
ether  works,  he  shewed  extensive  learning,  and  eonai^. 
deraMe  abilities. 

/  In  this  work,  partly,  as  we  have  ^ready  mntiotdv  ibttt' 
chiefly  in  hts  *^  Philosophia  gen^ralis,*'  be  iras  indwedi'' 
aays  Bruoker,  to  become  a  zi^ous  advocate  for  Platonima 
ibrough  a  violent  antipathy  to  the  Cartesiaa  svstem,  which 
h»  thought  unfriendly  to  morals^  and  CQntj3aai<:(^ry  to  tbV 
doctrine  of  revelation.  He  undertook  ^to  trace  back  fitw-, 
losophy  to  its  origin,  and  maintained,  (hat  there  waiii  «' 
woxiderltil  agreement  betjveen  tbeiiincientbiirJteio-pbil0r 

GALE*  ftl 

9ophf^  Mid  tlie Jcwidi  mmI  Cbrisliaii  tkdoUlff.  He  bvovf^t 
•rery  pUlMdi^hscal  tenet  to  tbe  lett  of  tb«  scripture^  An4 
tboughiijttmt  it  woukl  iiot  be  a  difficult  undertakings  to 
«epBiate  Ifftm  tbe  pagan  pbiloaopky  those  doctrio^s  wbioli 
ertgiiuMd  in  ^Uyiiie.  revelatioo^  and  bad  been  transmitted 
by  Onditioii  from  tbe  Hebrews  to  the  gentiles.  Having 
pemiiitfhed  himself  that  these  doetirines  had  passed  in  a 
direet  luwy  iznd  without  loaterkd  corrnption,  from  tbe  Ho* 
blew  fountain  to  Plato,  he  recommended  his  philosophical 
yirriiii^  aSy  iiext  to  the  scriptures^  the  most  valuable  re* 
masnsiof'MncUeotwbdoin.  The  chief  point  which  he  la* 
bcMirsi:tojmiotain  in  his  ^  Philosopbia  geoeralis*'  is,  that 
Plafto  moMved  Us  kno«4edge  oi  theology  from  the  Hebrewssi 
and  that  Abe  docftrtoe  on  this  subiect  taught  by  hiia  ao4 
hb.tiillawer^  Ibr  tbe  aiost  part,  agrees  with  that  of  the 
bolytsoiiptorea.  Tbis  i^inioo  be  implicitly  adopts  from 
the  «oeiefit.  fotber^  whose  authority^  with  respect  to  this 
matter,  >Sni€kQr .  thinks  tfaece  is  veason  to  Cisll  in  ijoestioik 
HiaaccDwlt  of  other  philofliopb^rs  ia  given»  wiitboul  mudi 
appeatanoe  of  accurate  discftmimrtioo,  obiefiy.from  L^fsufn 
uitsw  He  divides  the  Aristotelian ,  pbilosqpby .  io^  pui^ 
and  tmpiti«)  and.aupposes^  grakuitmisly  eobOugbr^tbat  tfa^ 
fimaer  pasaed  £rom  Moses  to  the  Stagy  rite  through  tbg 
cirtnoeL ofntato's* instrufstion* ^  .     >  :: 

. OALfi:(TH0iiiiA9)^  teolehra^-for  bis  k^iowl^d^of  d)# 
Gmafc  (laugaaige  aiad  aodqukies^  aad  desci^ed  from  a 
familyf  ooosidvabl^iQ  the  North  ^aadEa^t.Hidiag  pf  Xo^kn 
slma^ycitasilora'inr  1^6,  tut  SciotpiKio  Yorkshire*.  H^ 
was'  sent  to  Wesontaitert^ohool,  aild,  being  admitl^ 
kifMgVtebolar  thens^  «as  eleoted  to  Tnnij^y  i^ollege^  (3am<^ 
bridge#  and  fbeeame.  ieUaw  of'lhat  soi^iei^'  .Hf^to^kbis 
degmoof  B.  A. in  1^36;  of  M*  A^'m  liwSl^  In ibepfo* 
secation  ^.hiaatitdiesi  ho  appUed  hi«osel£,to  classioal  an4 
polite'  tilORatiire,  and.  Im-  eatraordinary  proBeiepcy  .pfsohy 
eoMbhias  oaily  afseot  kt  tbe  temple  of  fame.  His.  ki^^pFt 
ledge  of  tbe  Greek  tongue  recofximeoded  hiuii  .in-tj^^  U^ 
ikm  Qtbsemt  ^eigitm  pHrofiassor  of  that  langua^  in  the  oni* 
y0mtfp,iwi»A  he  rosigQed  in.l^lQi  md  bis  m^9Hfs 

cboaeo  was  appiM»ed  %  the  accwrato  edition  wbiob  hi| 

••'■..  •  .         .       >     ■       f        -  .  •  •  1 

a  i««|^6a1e,  with  whom  the  pedl-  North  Riding,  ir-23;  his  eldeft  grnlt* 

Imi  iotfe^  **  Relltqtilse  Ofileftnie**  be^  grandson  Rohsrt,  or  Francift,  «t  hi»* 

^m,  tm  tmmi  at  Thifmoft  otsr flira*  ha«i  Oraost^  m  t^e  %«ii4red  of  4lmi^. 

Uni»  4«|,the  hmdred  of  Bsit  Oilltng  aal  m  the  Eaii  Eidipf ,  1590. 

%  Alkiea*nnl1.2l.«-«C«lanr*-*^U«a-M^^Brack^^^  , 

iglKfexif  tfii  aneient  inytbologic  wnteri,'  ts'^l  pbyritalras 
tnorsij  in  Greek  and  Latin,  pubtished  at  Canibridge  ill 
a67i,  8vo.  This  brought  his  merit  into  pi^lie  view;  'and 
the  following  year  be  was  ap]3oint«d  bead  master  of  Sli 
Paulas  school  in  London ;  soon  after  which,  by  bis  n«agtesty*-s 
liirection,  he  drew  up  those  inscriptions  virbicfa  ai«'  to  b# 
aeen  upon  the  Monument,  in  memory  of tbedve^Uilifl  oMV'^ 
fiagratton  in  1-666,  and  was  honoured  with  a  .presMt  of 
plate  made  to  him  by  the  city.  His  excelient  conduct  and 
commendable  industry  in  the  school  abundaiuly  appear, 
from  the  great  number  of  persons,  emineotly  learned,  wiio 
were  educated  by  him :  aiid,  notwitfa^anding  tbelatigci« 
of^tat  laborious  office,  he  found  time  to  publiAnew  land 
Mcfutftte  editions  of  several  ancient  Greek  authors. 
•  He  at^umuiated  the  degrees  of  B.  and  D.-D.  hi  1875 ; 
and  June  7,  1676,  was  coUaied  to  the  prebend 'Gonmifiipt. 
per  aiafe  in  the  cathedral  of  St  Paul.  He  wta  also  ekcted 
m  1677  iuto  tbe  r<>yal  society^  of  which  he  became  a  «n^ 
odnsiaM  aiid  useful  member,  was  frequently  of  tbecoisneiF^ 
mnd  presented  them  with  many  curiosities,  paitioiiiafly  A 
lioinan  um  with  tbe  ashes,  found  near  Peckbam  kt  Surmy 
(part  of  these  burnt  bones  be  gare  to  Mr.  Tboretby)  ;^  and 
in  1695^  the  seciiKy  hating  resolired  to  haine  honomry 
aecretaries,  who  would  act  without'ai^  view  of  reward,  i)r« 
<}ale  iras  ehoBen  whb  sir  Jobn  Hoi^yns  into  tbdt  oflitje, 
when  they  appointed  tbe  celebrated  Haliey  fcnr  their  ekdr«* 
assistant,  or  under*secretary,  who  had  been  adistinguiiihed 
iehular  of  our  author's  at  St.  Paul's  school.  Dr.  Gale  ctAi- 
tiaued  at  the  head  of  this  school  with  the  greatest  r«|>Qta^ 
-tion  for  2S  years,  till  1697,  when  be  was  promoitBd  to  she 
id^aiirjr  of  York;  and  b^g  admitted  into  that  dignity 
Sept.  16,  that  year,  be  remot^d  thitber.  ^  lliis  prcffeN 
M^nt  was  no  more  than  a  juat  reward  of  Msmerit,  b«ete^ 
.^id  not  live  to  enjoy  it  many  years.  On  bia  admis^on^ 
fi4lding  the  dean's  right  to  be  a  eanon^rasutamiary  dalied 
ill  question,  he  was  at  the  expence  of  procuring^  letters 
^tent  in  1699,  to  annex  it  to  the  deanry,  which  put  Akf 
itnatter  out  of  all  dispute.  •  On  his  removal  from  London/ 
^e  presented  to  the  mw  library,  tben  lately  linifcb^d  at  Ms 
college  in  Cambridge,  a  curious  coilecticm  of  Alrabic  ma- 
.nuscripts.  During  tbe  remainder  of  bis  lif/e,  which^  was, 
,iqpentat  York,  he  preserved  an  hospital i^  .Suitable  to  hia 
etation ;  and  bis  good  governnrent'of  tbat  church  isnriefr- 
tioned  Mih  honour.    Nor  has  the  eare.  ^hioli^-be  took^v  lb 

£^  A  L  E.  S2S 

repair  iiwl  sHorn  tbftt  stately  edifice,  passed  without  a  jost 
tribute  of  praise. 

-  Having  pbssessed  this  digni^  little  more  than  four  years 
and  a  half,  he  died  April  8,  1702;  in  his  67th  year,  in  the 
deaneryt-bouse,  and  was  interred-  with  a  suitable  epitaph ; 
io  the  middle  iof  tbe  choir  of  his  cathedral.  There  is  a 
-fifie  penratt  of  him  in  tlie  library  of  Trinity-college, 
CambiMf^e,  the  gift  of  his  son ;  and  there  is  another  at 

«  From  the  list  of  his  publicaiionfi,  it  is  eirident,  that  dean 
^Osle.waii  a  learned  divine,  and  well  versed  in  historical 
^oowledgei  This,  gained  him  the  eiteem  of-  most  of  the 
learned-  oien  his  contemporaries,  both  at. home 'and  abroad. 
With  some « of  them  he  held  a  particular  comespondeoM, 
.as  MabilloB,  from  whom  he  received  the  MS.  of  Alcuin  de 
Pontificsbus.Eboracensibus,  published  in  his  ^*  Hiftt.  Btit, 
'Seripiores,"  Bakize,  Ailix,  Cappel,  Rudolph,  Wetsleio  of 
Amsterdam,.  Grtevius,  Huetius,  &c.  This  iast.had  a  singula 
)br. respect  for  him,  and  declares  it  his  opinion,  that  our 
ftoilior  exceeded  all  men  he  ever  knew,  both  for  modesfcy* 
«nd  learning.  > 

In  PhtL  Trans.  No.  .231,  is  a*  letter  from  Thoresby  to 
Jbister,  ti6d7,  concerning  two^Roman  altars  found  at  Gob 
lertonand  Blenkinsop-castle  in  the  oouoty  of  Nordutmfaer^ 
land,*,  with  not«fe  ^by  Dr.  Gale.  This  was-  the'  Greek'  in^ 
^isription  .to  Hercatesv. '  See  Horaley,  p.  245.       .  :  r 

!  DcL^ale  married  .Barbara  daughter  of  Thomas  Pq>yi^ 
^sqt  of  Impington,  in  theioounty  of  Cambridge,  who  died 
.1^9,.ai)d)by  whenl:he  had  three  aoas  and  u  daoghter.  To 
-bis  eldest 'son  ibeleft  his  nMe  library  of  choice  and' vaiua^ 
.fale  beoks,  besides  a  omrious  collection  of  many  esteemed 
-manuac^pcs^  a  o^talogue  of  wUch  is  printed  in  the  /^  Ciita(« 
Jogas  JMSStorum  An'gUae^  &  {iiberniaB,'':  HI.  p.  I'SS.  f 

J  The  works  of  this  laborious,  scholar,  were,  1.  *^  Opuscnla 
^thidogtct  J^ihica  etiPhysica,  Gr.  &  Lat.''  Cantab.  1691; 
^Ko, .  r^fMrlAted  at  Amsterdam,  1688,  8vo,  with  great  im^ 
i|»OTemet|ts.  This  odlection  consists  of  Palsephatus,  H^ 
jraclitiis^'&<  Anonymus  de  Jncredibilibus ;  Pburhiitus  de 
Miturat  degifom ;  Salluslius  de  diis ;  Ocellus  Lucanus;  T^ 
^ttnaiis'  Lolor^s  de  anima  mundi;  Demophili,  Democratic 
-^.^Secundi  phifosopborum  sentential;  Joanim-Pediasiini 
4esideriam  .de  muliere  bona  et  mala ^  Sexti  Pythagorei 
MBietitiai ;  Theophrasti  characteres ;,  Pythagoreorum  frag^ 
l^toti^  i^i  it.lieliodbci  Darissasi  capita  opticorum.     94  *^  His* 

esA  G  A  LJSk 

itonvt  Poeticfls'  Scnptoiet  aafttqm,  Gtmec  k,  IjimL    Ai?^ 
cessere  breves  note,  &  indices  necessarH^'*  Paris,  167S, 
8to.^  These  are,  Apollodoras  Aibeniensis,  Conon  Gnun- 
maticus,  Ptolomaeiis   H^pbsestion,   Pleiitbeniiis  Nicuensia, 
,Sl  Antoninus  Liberalis.    3.  ^  Rbetores  Selecti,  Gr«  &  Lat. 
.viz.  Demetrias  Pbaiereas  de  Elocutione ;  Tiberias  Rbetor 
^e  scbematibus  Demostlienis ;  Anonymos  Sophistatle  Rbe- 
.torica;  Seven  Alexandrini  Etbopoeie.     Demetrimn  emeti-- 
davit,  reliquos  e  MSS.  edidit  &  Latine  vertit,  omnes  notis 
illnstravit  Tbo.  Gale/'  Oxon.  1676,  8vb.     4.  <<  Jamblichas 
Cbaloidensis  de  Mysteriis.    Epistobi  Porpbyrii  de  eodem 
argmnento,  Gr.  &  Lat  ex  versione  T.  G.'*  Oxon.  1678, 
.8vo.     5.  *'  Psalterium  juxia   exemplar  AlesaDdritram,** 
,OxoD.  1678,  8vo.    6.  ^  Herodoti  Halicaraasiensis  Histo- 
riamm  libri  X.  efasdem  narratio  de  vita  Honaeri ;  excerpta 
^  Ctesia,  &  H.  Stepbani  Apol(^;ia  pro  Herodoto :  aceedant 
cbrbnologia,  tabula  geognpbica,  variantes  lectiones^  &«.'* 
•Lond.  1679,  fol.  a  most  excellent  edition^    7.  An  edittoa 
t>f  <*  Cicero's  Works'*   was  revised  by  hira,  Lond.  1681, 
1684,  2  vols.  fol.     8.  *^  HistorisB  Anglicanss  Seriptores 
quinque,  &c."  Oxon.    J  687,  foL    This  volume  oontains 
tAnnales  de  Margan,  from  1066  to  ISSd.     Chronicoo  Tho* 
mm  Wifces  from  1066  to  1334.    Annates  Waverleianseb 
irom  1066  to  1291.    G.  Vinisaof  Itiocrarinm  regis  RicardI 
in.  temm  Hieroscdymitanam.    Cbroniea  Waited  de  He- 
mingford,  from  1066  to  1273*     He  raservod  the  remainder 
^f  Ats  last  Cheonicle  for  namhex  velome,  wbicb  to  intended 
to  publisb,  but  did  not  live  to  execute.     Conceniing  tbis^ 
see  Heame's  Preface  to  his  editiiMi  of  ttamingford^  p.  xxiit. 
9.  **  A  Diseoorse  concerning  the  Original  of  flnman  Lite- 
tatnre  frith  Philology  uid  PbiloKypby,"  Phit  Ti^u»«  voL 
•VL  p."223l.   10.  <<  UistorisB  Britamiies,  Saxonkv,  Angb*- 
Danictt:,  Seriptores  quindedin^  8cc«"  Oxon.  169ft,  foVuu 
'This  volnme  coouins  ^  Gildas  de  excidio  Britatmi^,  Eddii 
idfa  Wilfridi,  Nenoii  bisttoria,  Asserii  annales,  H^dtoiiPoV 
lycibronicon,  G.  Idalmesburiensis  deantiqnita^  Gaaatonien'* 
ais  ecclesiee,  &,  libri  V.  cle  poorificibus  Anglioe,  Historil^ 
Hanesiensis,  Historia  Eiiensis,  ChrdnbaJoh.  WalUngfiudf 
-Kistoria  Rad.  Diceto,  Forduni   Seotiobropieony  Akttiaiui 
4le  pontificibus  Eboracensibus.''    This  isu:allied  Uy  Gste 
the  first  volume ;  and  that  which  contaSaa  tbe  iGUddqiife 
Seriptores  (Ingulpl^ns,  Peter  Biesensis,  Cbron.  de  Midlros^ 
Annales  finrtonenses,    and  tbe    Historia   Croy)andeaaii| 
«h^gh4»ubiisbed  in  168f  (by  Mxi  WiUiaoi  FolmM  4indtr 

Q  A'  L  B.  22^» 

tfab  patraoa^e  ^of  Bp.  9eR)  is  called  the  second,  as  ifae 
author^  are  t^fa  oiore  modern  dbte.  11.  A.  collection  of 
*\  Latifi'  Prayevs^*!  by  diaatr  Gale, .  in  MS;  was  in  the  pos<« 
sieasion  of  Br.  Ducatel.  He  left  in  MSk  •*  Origenis  Philo- 
calii^  tariis  nianuscriptis  cpilata,  emendata,  &  nova  rer- 
sipne  dbnata ;''  "  Jamrbiicbus  dfe  vita  Pythagoroe ;"  and 
^  Aatonini  Itineravium  Btits^niae : -*  the  latter  publibbei<t 
afterwa*ds  by  his  son,  as  were' his  Sermons  preached'  cnr 
public  eccasions  in  1704^  •  ^ 

;^Fdbrieius,  in  his  "  BiWiothefca  Graeca,*'  XIIL  640^  has; 
T^y:  properly  distinguished  our  author  from  Theophilui^ 
Gale ;  but  iviih  this  inaccuracy,  that  Theophilus  is  Qiadel 
tdtbe  thefetber  of  Thoma$.' 

GALE  (RoQEa),  esq.  F.  Rv  and  A.  SS.  eldest  son  t)f  th^ 
pneusedHig,  was  born  in  1672,  and  was  educated  under  his 
fttber.  at  St.  Paul's  school,  whence  he  was'  admitted  df . 
Tnniiy^cpHege,  Cfkmbridge,  1601,  made  scholar  of  that 
hcuwe  1693,  amll  afterwards  fellow  (being  then  B.  A.y  ia 
1697.  'He  was  possessed  of  a  considerable  estate  at  Scru-^^ 
t^ji^.in  Yorbsbirej  noiv:  in  the  possession  of  bis  grandson 
n^ury  Gale,  ^q,  and  represented  North  Allerton,  in  that 
county,  in  1705,  1707,  .1708,  and  1710,  His  name  was 
added  to  the  cpmmjssioners  of  stamp  duties,  Dec.  20,  1714'|  » 
Ati^  was  continued  in .  a  subsequent  commission.  May  4^ 
171^^  and  lie'  was  appointed  a  commissioner  of  ex^isd 
Decv  24  of  the.sama  ye^r.  In  this  he  continued  until 
17pi^  when  he  wa^  wantpnly  displaced  by  sir  Robert  Wal« 
P^^ :  f^^  which  no  otb/ek*  reason  w^is  assigned'  tha|i  thst  sir 
Robert  wan|ed  to  provide  for  one  of  his  friends,  an  act  of 
arbitrary. tyranny  which  cannot  be  too  severely  condemned; 
Mh.Gale  was  the  first  vice-president  of  the  society  of  an- 
tiqu«frie»;  ^nd  wfaep  that  learned' body,  in  1721,  proposed  , 
to  collect  accodnts.of  all  the  ancient  coins  relative  to  Great  ^ 
Btitain'ahd'ib  dominions,  Mr.  Gale  undertook  the  Roman 
8eiies,'and  his  brother  Samuel  the  Danish.  Though  he  Wais 
considered  as  one  o|[  the  most  learned  men  of  hiis  age,  b|^ 
only  published  the  following  bpoks : 

1.'  <<  Antonini  Iter  Britaahiarum  Commeutariis  i)lustra«* 
tum^Thom^  GaIe,.S,T.  P.  puper  Decani  £;bor.  Opus  post- 
liuN9Mm  revisit,  auxic,  edidit  R.  G.  Accessit  Anonymi  Ri^ 
vennatis  Britanniee  Chorog^aphia,  cun^  autographo  R^gis 
GalU^.M^v^  codice  yaticff^DO  coUata :  adjiciuntur  con- 

1  Siog.  Brit.— KBi|ht's  Life  of  Colct,  p.  334.— HidioU't  Bovyer. 

Vol.  XV.  CI 

^6  <?_  A  L  BL 

jectune  plurtintt,  cum  nomioibus  loconim  AQglici%  !C|ao|r' 
quot  iis  assignari  potuerint/'  Lond.  170^9  4to.     In  tb.0:. 
preface  to  this  book,  Mr.  Gale  very  properly  points  out  what* 
parts  of  it  were  bis  £atber*s  and  wbat  his  own.     Mr.  Gough 
hady  among  the  books  which  he  bequeatlied  to  the  Bod-, 
leian  library,  three  copies  of  this  edition,  enriched  with- 
many  valuable  MS  notes  by  Mr.  Roger  Gale,  NichQlas^ 
Man^  esq.  and  Dr.  Abcabam  Francke,  fellow  of  Trinty*) 
college,  Cambridge,  and  rector  of  West  Dene  in  WMtr 
shire,.  1728 ;  and  a  fourth  with  MS  various  readings  frpoi 
the  twoMSS,  whence  H.  Stephens  first  printed  this.ItincK 
rary  *,     2.  *^  The  Knowledge^  of  Medals»  pit  Instructioat 
for  those  who  apply  themselves  to  the  study  of  Med^lfi: 
both  apcient  and  modern,  by  F.  Jobect,"  translated  from 
the  French,  of  which  two  editions  were  published  without 
his  name;  one  of  them  in  1697,  the  other  in  1715,  Bvf^ 
3.  '^  Registrum  Honoris  de  Richmond,^'  Lond.  1722,  IWo^ 
His  discourse  on  th^  four  Roman  Ways  in  Biiuin,.  i» 
printed  in  the  sixth  volume  of  Leland's  Itinerary.  .  Hii 
^'  Remarks  on  a  Roman  Inscription  found  at  Lanchester,'*  i|^ 
the  Philosophical  Trjansactions,  vol.  XXX.  p*  823  ;  9ia^  v\ 
vol  XLill.  p.  265,  extracts  of  two  of  his  lettcirs  to  Mr.* 
Peter  CoUinson,  "P.  R.  S.  concerning  ^  the  vegetation  p| 
HieloQ  seeds  33  years  old,"  and  of  *^  a  fossil  skeleton  of  i| 
inan  found  at  Lathkill-dale  near  Bakewell,  in  the  coun^ 
of  Derby,"  dated  in  1 743  and  1744  f.     '<  Explanation  of  a 
Roman  altar  found  at.  Castl^  Steeds  in  Cuidiierland,"  m 
iGent.  Mag.  vol.  XIL  p.  135.     In  Horsley's  /<  Britanptfi 
Romana,"  p.  332,  &c*  is  published,  *<  An  Account  of.n 
Roman  Inscription  found  at  Chichester.     By  Roger  G^leti 
esq."     '^  Observations  on  an  Inscription  at  Spellp,  by^Fr^d« 
Passarini  and  Roger  Gale,  esq."  are  printed  |n  the  AiiC|uec|r 
Jlogia^  vol.  II.  p.  25.,  He  presented  to  Mr.  Drake's  History 
of  York  a  plate  of;  a  beautiful  little  bronze  female  h^st. 
Which  he  supposed  to  be  a  Lucretia,  found  at  York,  and 
^n  bis  possession,  engraved  by  Vertue.    To  him  also  Mr. 
Driike  acknoWledges  himself  obUged  for  a  discovery  tbl^ 
fixes. the  building  of  the  Chapter-house  at  York  to  arch- 

'  '  *  Dn  Siukeley»  hit  brother-in-faW|  pjrr'ds  ami  Stylus  of  the  ancients,  ez« 
'ifliscribed  to  him  tht  ser^nth  Iter  of  his  *    timeted  in  Bngiish  froifa  a  ttrfet  -iHi* 

Ifivn  UinerariucD  Curiosum,  which  he  course  in  Latin,  coinpofied  by  sir  ^9^ 

entitles  Iter  Scptimum  Aotoniai  Aug.  Clerk,  bsron  of  the  Exchequer  in  Scat. 

'     f  At  a  m<«tin^of  the  Royal  Society,  -  land ;  and  at' the-  same  time  'bt  px^' 

March  3,  1731,  Mr.  R.  Gale  read' a  sented  them  with  the  orifiaal. 

learned'  discou^e  c^naerniBg  the  Pa^  '          ~                                '•      ' 

\AAop  Grty,  He  died  at  Scrtitbn,  Jud6  25,  1744,  in 
bis  72d  yeafi  universally  esteemed,  and  much  lamented 
by  all  his  acquaintance ;  and  left  all  bis  MSS.  by  will  to 
Trinity-college^  Caoibrtdge,  of  which  he  was  once  fellow, 
and  iris  cabinet  of  Roman  coihs  t6  the  public  library  tbere^- 
with  a  complete  catalogue  of  them  drawn  up  by  himself,- 
of  which  Mr.  Nichols  printed  twenty  copies  in  1780,.:  for 
tlie' use  of  particular  friends.  His  correspondence  included 
all  the  eminent  atittquaries  of  his  time ;  and  the  late  Mt* 
Greorge  Allan  of  Darlington  possessed,  by  the  gift  of'bist 
grandson,  a  large  collection  of- letters  to  and  from  him, 
the  principal  of  which  are  printed  in  the  ^^  Reliquiae  Ga« 
leanae,'*  as  a  valuable  addition  to  antiquarian  literature.- 
The  originals  are  still  in  the  possession  of  Henry  Gale^ 
esq.  The  ^<  Bibliotheca  Topographica  Britaonica,^  No.IL 
mi^tains  mauy  other  fragments  and  notices  of  the  labours 
of  Mr.  Gale. » 

GALE  i(Samdel),  brother  of  the  pl'eceding,  and  young* 
est  son  of  the  dean,  was  born  in  the  parish  of  St*  Faith, 
aear  St  Paul's,  London,  Dec.  1 7,  1 6S2«  was  educated  umier 
ftis  father  at  St  Paul's  school,  and  intended  for  the  univer- 
sity, buthb  elder  brother  Roger  being  sent  to  Cambridge, 
and  his  father  dying  1702,  he  was  provided  for  in  the  cus- 
tom-house, London,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  was  one 
of  the  land  ^^urveyorfir  there.  He  was  one  of  the  revivers  oE 
the  society  of  antiquaries  in  1717,  and  their  first  treasurer. 
On  re^iffn^ng  that  Office  Feb.  21,  1740,  the  society  testified, 
their  opinion  of  bia  merit  and  services,  by  presenting  ,him 
with  a  hfind^otne  silvercup,  value  ten  guineas,  with  a  suit- 
able inscription.  ^He  was  a  man  of  great  learning  and 
uncommon  abilities,  and  well  versed  in  the  antiquities  of 
Stigland,  ht  wkfeh  he  left  ipany  valuable  collections  her 
t^nd  bim;  but  printed  nothing  in  his  life-time,  except 
^A  H48tqi^  df  Winchester  Cathedral,'*  London,  1715, 
b^i^ufl  by  Henry  e^rl  of  Clarendon,  and  continued  to  that 
year,  with' cuts.  A  few  of  his  communications  have  been 
sincepfinted-in  the  <^  Ar^hsbrologia,"  and  sofpe  in  the  ^'  Bibl. 
7opi  Biritanmca."  He  died  of  a  fever.  Jan.  10,  1754,  at 
his  lodgings  at  Hampstead.  His  library  and  printa  were 
sold  .by  auction  in  the  same  year,  by  Langford,  bjat  ^ia 
MSS.  became  the  property  of  Dr.  Stukeley,  who  married 
his  sister,  and  some  of  them,  afterwards  descended  to  Dr. 

1  Nichols's  Bow;fer.— RfliquitB  Galeani^  ia  the  &ib]<  Top*  «b«Yf  mentioBed. 

325  6  A  L  EL 


Duqarel,  al  whose  sale  they  were  purchased  by  Mr.  Goiigb. 
A  list  of  them,  which  may  be  seen  in  our  authority,  suffi- 
ciently attests  his  industry  and  knowledge  as  an  antiquary.  * 
:  GALE  (Thomas),  an  English  surgeon,  was  born  in  1507  ; 
and'  educated  under  Richard.  Ferris,  afterwards  serjeant- 
surgeon  to  queen  Elizabeth.  He  was  surgeon  in  the  army 
of  king  Henry  VIIL  at  Montruil,  in  1544  ;  and  in  that  of 
king  Philip  at  St.  Quintin,  in  1557,  but  afterwards  settled 
ki  London,  and  became  very  eminent  in  the  practice  of 
surgery.  He  was  living  in  ^586.  Tanner  gives  the  fol- 
lowing list  of  his  writings  :  **  The  Institution  of  a  Chirur- 
geon."  **  An  Enchiridion  of  Surgery,**  in  four  books. 
*>  On  Gun-shot  wounds.**  **  Antidotarie,*-  in  two  books. 
All  these  were  printed  together,  London,  1563,  8vo.  "  A 
compendious  method  of  curing  praeternatural  Tumbun^.*' 
*^  On  the  several  kinds  of  Ulcers,  and  their  cure.'*  **A 
Commentary  on  Guido  de  Cauliaco.**  **  Aii  Herbal,  for 
the  use  of  surgeons.**  •*  A  brief  declaration  of  the  wor- 
thy Art  of  Medicine,  and  the  office  of  a  Chirurgeon.** 
"An  epitome  of  Galen  de  Natural  Facultat.*'  The  two 
last  were  printed  with  a  translation  of  ^  Galen  de  Methodo 
Medendi.**  It  cannot  be  supposed  that  any  of  these  are 
now  of  much  value,  but  some  of  them  contain  curious 
information  respecting  the  state  of  the  profession  at  that 
time.  • 

GALEANO  (Joseph),  a  physician  of  great  repute  at 
Palermo ;  and  not  for  skill  and  learning  in  his  profession 
only,  but  for  bis  taste  also,  and  knowledge  of  theology, 
mathematics,  poetry,  and  polite  literature  in  general,  was 
bom  hi  1605.  There  are  several  works  of  his  in  Italian, 
upon  different  maladies ;  and  some  also  in  Latin,  particu- 
larly "  Hippocrates  Redivivut  paraphrasibus  illustratus,** 
published  in  1550.  We  owe  to  him  also  a  coHection  of 
little  pieces  of  the  Sicilian  poets,  entitled  *^  The  Sicilian 
Muse,"  in  five  volumes.  He  died  in  1675,  greatly  regret- 
ted ;  for  he  was  a  kind  of  oracle  with  his  countrymen.' 

GA  LEN  (Claudius),  after  Hippocrates  prince  of  the 
Greek  physicians,  was  a  native  of  Pergamus  in  the  Lesser 
Asia,  where  he  was  born  about  A,  D.  131,  in  the  reign  of 
the  emperor  Adrian.  His  father,  whose  name  was  Nicon, 
was  an  able  architect,  and  spared  neithei^  trouble  nor  ex- 

'  Nichols's  Bnwycr.  '  Tanner's  Bibl.— Atkin'f  Bio!|f.  Memoirs  of 

Medicine,  p.  9^.  3  Manget.— M^reri.— Dkjt.  Hirti 


ff  A  L  E  FT.  tSd 

pence  in  the  edlucation  of shi^  aoii.  Galen  sUsdied  fWith 
success  all  the  phibsopby  of  bis  time,  but  finally  applied 
himself  to  mecticine  as  fats.profession«  Satyjroand  Peiops^ 
two  eminent  physicians  of  his  time,  were  his  chief  precep- 
tors in  that  science.  But  his  application,  to  the  works  «rf 
Hippocrates  contributed  more  than  any  other  instruction 
to  the  eminence  he  attained. 

Having  exha,u8ted  all  the  sources  of  literature  that 
could  be  found  ^it  home,  he  resolved  to  travel,  in  order 
to  improve  himself  among  :,the  must  able  <  pbyi^icians 
in  all  parts ;  intending  at  the  same  time  to  take  every 
opportunity,  which  his  travels  would  give  him,  of  in- 
specting on. the. spot  the  plants  and  drugs  of  the  seveml 
c»)untries  through  which  he  passed.  With  this  view  he 
went  first  to  Alexandria,  where  he  continued  some  years; 
induced  by  the  flourishing  state  of  the  arts  and  sciences  in 
that  city.  From  thence  he  passed  into  Cilicia ;  and,  tra- 
velling throup^h  Palestine,  visited  the  isles  of  Cr^te  and 
Cyprus,  and  other  places.  Among  the  rest,  he  made  two 
voyages  to  JLemnos,  on  purpose  to  view  and  examine  the 
Lemnian  earth,  which  was  spoken  of  at  this  time  as  a  con- 
siderable medicine.  With  the  same  spirit  he  went  into 
the  lower  Tyria,  to  get  a  thorough  insight  into  the  true 
natupre  of  the  Opobalsamum,  or  balm  of  Gilead.  Having 
completed  his  design,  he  returned  home  by  the  way  or 

He  was  now  only  twenty-eight  years  of  age,  and  had 
made  some  considerable  advances  toward  improving  his 
art»  He  had  acquired  a  particular  skill  in  the  wounds  of 
the  nerves,  and  was  possessed  of  a  method  of  treating 
them  never  known  before  ;  for  Galen,  as  well  as  all  other 
ancient  physicians,  united  surgery  to  medicine.  The 
pontiff  of  Pergamus  gave  him  an  opportunity  of  try- 
ing his  new  method  upon  the  gladiators,  and  he  was  so 
successful  that  not  a  single  man  perished  by  any  wounds 
of  this  kind.  He  had  been  four  years  at  Pergamus,  exer- 
cising his  faculty  with  unrivalled  fame,  when,  being  made 
uneasy  by  some  seditious  disturbances,  he  quittied  his 
country  and  went  to  Rome,  resolving  to  settle  in  that 
capital.  But  his  views  were'  disappointed.  The  physi- 
cians there,  sensible  of  the  danger  of  such  a  competitor, 
found  medns  by  degrees  so  coriipletely  to  undermine  him, 
that  he  was  obliged,  after  a  few  years,  to  leave  the  city. 
He  had,  however,  in  that  time  made  several  acquaintances^ 

28^  GALEN*      ' 

both  of  coAftiderable. rank,    atid  the  first  character  fbr 
leaf ning.     Among  others,  he  bad  a  particular  connection 
ivith  Endemus,  a  peripatetic  philosopher  of  great  repute. 
This  person,  he  cured  of  a  fever,  which  from  a  quartan, 
bad  degenerated  into  a  triple  quartan,  by  the  iil-judged 
fipplication  which  the  patient  had  made  of  the  theriacum ; 
a<id  what  is  somewhat  remarkable,  Galen  cured  the  maisxdy 
with  the  same  medicine  that  had  caused  it ;  and  even  pre- 
idicted,  when  the  fits  would  first  cease  to  return,  and  in 
wbat  time  the  patient  would  entirely  recover.     Indeed,  so 
great  was  his  skill  and  sagacity  in  these  fevers,  that  if  we 
may  believe  his  own  words,  he  was  able  to  predict  from 
the  first  visity  or  from  the  first  attack,  what  species  of  a 
fever  would  appear,  a  tertian,  quartan,  or  quotidian.     He 
>vas  also  greatly  esteemed  by  Sergius  Paulus,  praetor  of 
Rome  ;  as  also  by  Barbarus,  uncle  to  the  emperor  Lucius  ; 
bySeverus,  then   consul,  and   afterwards  emperor;    and 
lastly,,  by  Boethus,  a  person  of  consular  dignity,  in  whcwe 
presence  he.  bad  an  opportunity  of  iiiaki>ng  dissections, 
und  of  she\ying,  particularly,  the  organs  of  respiration  and 
the  voice.  ^  His  reputation,  likewise,  was  much  increased 
by.  the  success  which  he  bad  in   recovering  the  wife:  of 
Soethus,  who  on   that  occasion  presented  him  with   four 
bundred  pieces  of  gold.     But  that  on  which  he  valued 
bimseif  most,  was  the  case  of  a  lady,  who  was  said  to^  lie 
ixi  a  very  dangerous  condition  ;  whose  disorder  he  disco- 
vered to  be  love,  the  object  of.  which  was  a  rope-dancer; 
)thusi^  rivalling  the  discovery  of  the  love  of  Antiochus' for 
StratonUe,  which  had  given  so  much  celebrity  to  Erja^s- 
tratus.  /f 

After  a  residence  of  about  four  or  five  years  at  itbme, 
be  return^  to  Pergamus  ^.  But  he  bad  not  b^en  there 
long,  when  the  emperors  Marcus  Aurelius  and  Lucius 
Verus,  who  had  beard  of  bis  fame,  sent  for  him  to  Aquileia, 
wbere  they  .then  resided.  He  bad  no  sooner  arrived  in  this 
city,  than  the  plague,  which  had  shewn  itself  a  little  be- 
foreii  broke  out  witb  fresh  and  greater  fury,  so  that  ^he 
emperors  were  obliged  to  remove,  attended  by  a  very 
^mall  retinue.  Lucius  died  on  the  road,  but  his  corpse 
was  carried  to  Rome ;  and  Galen  found  means,  though 
not  without  some  trouble,  to  follow  soon  after*     He  bad 

*  He  telU  U3  irii  another  place,  that  causes  conspired  in  determining liiiD  (• 
b«  was  forced  from  Rome  at  this  time  thAt  measure.  Galen  de  lib.  propu 
by  tbe  pla|^e,  and  apparestiy  both     c.  1. 

G  A  JL  EJJ.  ^??l 

not  been  long  returned,  when  Marcus  acquainted  him  with , 
his  intention  to  take  him  in  his  train  to  Germany ;  but 
Galen  excused  hirAself,  ailedging,  that  iEsculapius,  for 
wh6m  he  had  a  particular  devotion,  ever  since  the  Gpd 
cured  him  of  a  mortal  imposihume,  had  advertised  him  In 
a  dream  never  to  leave  Rome  again.    The  emperor  yield- 

^  ing  to  his  solicitations/ he  continued  in  the  city;  and  it 
was  during  the  absence  of  Marcus  that  he  composed  his 
celebrated  treatise  '*  De  usu  partium/'  and  some  others. 

All  this  w|iile  the  faculty  persecuted  him  continuallyt 
insomuch  that  he  was  apprehensive  of  some  design  against 

'  bis  life.  Under  this  suspicion,  he  retired  very  often  to  a 
country-house,  where  Gommodus  the  emperor's  son  re-» 
sided.    That  prince  was  then  under  the  tuition  of  Pitho- 

.  laus,  to  whom  the  emperor  had  given  orders,  if  his  son 
should  be  taken  ill,  to  send  for  Galen.  This  order  gave 
him  an  opportunity  of  attending  the  prince^  in  a  fever, 
which  appeared  very  violent  on  the  first  access.  He  had 
.,  the  good  fortune  to  remove  the  disease,  arid  the  following 
eulogium  was  made  by  Faustina  the  princess:  **  Galen,'* 
says  she,  *^  shews  his  skill  by  the  effects  of  it,  while  other 
physicians  give  us  nothing  but  words."  He  aliJo  cured 
Sextus,  another  son  of  Aurelius  Marcus,  and  predicted  the 
success,  against  the  opinion  of  all  his  colleagues.  Thus 
be  raised  his  fame  above  the  reach  of  envy ;  and  he  con- 
tinued not  only  to  preserve,  but  increase  it.  The  empe- 
ror, after  his  return  from  the  German  expedition,  was  sud- 
denly  seized  in  the  night  with  violent  pains  in  the  bowels, 
which,  being  followed  by  a  great  flux,  threw  him  into  a 
fever.  Next  day,  he  took  a  dose  of  hiera  picra,  and  ano- 
ther of  the  theriacum  * ;  after  which,  the  physicians  who 

*  The  em|ieror  daring  his  abseoce  qusfity.    Ibid,  de  Antidotis,  lib.  i.    I 
had  sent  to  Galen  to  preparo  ihe  the^  it  remarkable^  that  Uiis  medicine  waft 
riacum  in  the  manner  he  bad  seen  it  so  much  esteemed  by  a  succession  of 
done  by  his  first  physician  Demetrius,  emperors  after  Nero,  that  in  preparing 
The  commission  was  executed  entirely  it»  they  ordinarily  examined  the  drogt 
to  the  satisfaction  of  Marcus,  as  he  themselres.    To  this  purpose,  we  And 
signified   after   his   return  to  Rome,  our  author  observing  in  tlw  same  work 
Galen  observes,  that  the  emperor  was  (lib.  xiii.)  that  he  had  mado  the  therb* 
a  good  judge  of  this  medicine,  being  acum  €»r  the  emperor  Severva,  but  it 
liked  to  take  it  every  day  as  a  preser-  was  not  so  good  ns  this  made  for  Mar* 
.   vative  against  poison ;  and  he  found  cus ;  because  Commodus,    who   sue- 
that  made  by  Galen  so  good,  that  he  coaded  this  last  prmce,  had  ngt  taken 
resolved  to  make  use  of  it  soon  ader  it  care  to  get  good  drags,  the  cinnamoo. 
was  finished,  contrary  to  the  usual  cus-  especially,  which  was  one  of  the  prin* 
tom  of  letting  it  stand  awhile,  till  the  cipal^  being  bad* 
•pium  had  lost  some  of  its  soporiferous 


G  A  L  E  N. . 

had  attended  bis  penou  in  tbe  amy,  ordfered  Kmi6  he 
kept  quiet,  giTing  him  nothing  bat  a  little  b^otb  for  the 
f{iace  of  nine  boars.  Galen,  being  called  in  soeo  afti^',* 
attended  with  the  rest,  and  thejf  upon  feeling  ihe  patient's 
pnlse,  were  of  opinion  tha;t  he  was  going  into  an  ague.' 
The  emperor,  obsevring  that  Galen  stood  still  withoat  ap-» 
proaching  him,  asked  the  reason :  Galen  pef4ied,  that  bis 
poise  being  touched  twice  by  his  .pbysici^iis^  be  depended 
upon  them,  not  doubting  but  they  were  better  judges  oC 
the  pulse  than  be  was.  The  emperor,  little  satisfied  with 
this  answer,  immediately  held  out  bis^arm.  Galen  having 
considered  the  pulse  with  great  attention,  '*  I  pronounce 
(says  he)  that  we  have  nothing  to  do  here  with  the  access 
of  anagne;  but  the  stomach  is .  overcharged  with  some^ 
thing  that  remains  undigested,  which  is  the  true  cause  of 
the  fever."  These  words  were  no  sooner  uttered,  than  the 
prince  cried  out  adoud,  *'  Thait  is  the  very  thing,  yon  have 
bit  tbe  case  ^^actly  ^^'  and  repeating  the  words  three  times, 
asked  what  must  be  done  for  his  relief*  ^^  If  i%  was  the 
ease  of  any  other  person,*'  replied  Galen,  '^  I  should  orde« 
a  little  pepper  infused  in  wine,  which  I  have  often  tried 
with  success  in  this  case;  but  as  it  is  the  custom  to  admi^ 
nister  to  sovereign  princes  only  mild  remedies,  it  offices 
%o  apply  hot  to  tbe  stomach  a  piece  of  flannel  dipped  in 
the  oil  of  spike."  Marcus  did  not  neglect  to  make  use  of 
both  these  remedies ;  and  in  tbe  issue  said  to  Pitholaus, 
bis  son's  governor,  "  We  have  but  one  physician  *.  Galen 
is  the  only  valuable  man  of  the  faculty." 

Thus  distinguished  above  his  contemporaries,  did  this 
prince  of  physicians  continue  to  practise  at  Rome,  the 
papital  of  the  world,  till  his  death,  which  happened  A*  D^ 
301,  in  bis  7pth  year;  He  had  usually  enjoyed  a 'perfect 
state  of .  health,  the  effect  of  observing  k  strict  regimen 
both  in  diet  and  exercise  :  for,  being  subjected  to  frequent 
disorders  in  his  younger  daysf,  he  studied  his  own  con- 

f  It  is  sQoiewbat  remarkable,  that 
totwitbstanding  bit  frequent  attend- 
ance) as  «0ll  af  cores  performed  upon 
this  emperor,  he  never  acqciired  the 
title  of  Arcbiater.  I^e  Cierc's  Hist, 
Lib.  xi.  c.  i.  p.  3.  Perhaps  the  titl^ 
was  not  coined  at  that  time. 

f  Before  he  was  eight  and  twentf, 
ke  hardly,  passed  a  year  without  some 
disorder ;  we  have  already  mentloo.ed 
an  imposthume>  which  was  Qt^red  by 

the  assistance  of  iEsculapius.  Of  this 
lie  gives  the  following  account:  *'  Be- 
ing afflicted,"  says  he,  «*  with  a  fixed 
pain  in  that  part  where  the  diaphragm 
is  fastened  \a  tbe  liver,  I  dreamt,  tha( 
iEscubpius  advised  me  to  open  that 
artery  which  ties  between  tbe  thumb 
^nd  second  linger  of  my  right  hand.  I 
did  so,  and  immediately  found  my^ellT 

a  A  LtE  N;  as* 

Blitutioa,  wd^Nviog  )fif^d.  tte  i9)et.^Qds  C|f> 
followed  tbeia  ^trictlV*  Tbis  wa;sx  nothing  more  than  tak- 
ing care  to  eat  suclx  meats-as  werB  of  easy  and' equal  dige$« 
iiQUj  abstainiog  particularlj  Imm  summer /fruits,  condoiug 
himself  tio  figs  and  rakias^ .'aod  u&lng  a  constant  and  eqnal 
exercise. .  By .  following  thes^  ri^lesy  he  never  bad  any 
disteoiper^  iBxcept  once  a  fever  of  one  day's  continuancei 
occasioned  by  too  mnob  ptudy  and  over-fatigue* 

He  Wks  aiuan  endowed  wiijb  excfellent  parts,  and,  haviog 
the  advantage  of  tb6  best  education,  be<^ame  net  only  aa 
eminent  physici|in»  bnl  also  a  great  philosopher ;  and  was 
particulaa'ly  happy  in  a  facility  of  expression,  and  an  u|i4> 
affected  eloquence  ;  but  the  style  of  bis  works  is  extremely 
diffuse,  his  sentedces  are  sometimes  perplexed,  and  some- 
times absolutely  obscure.  The  great  number  of  bookf 
which  we  have  of  his  composing,  to  pass  over  those  we 
have  lost  ^,  are  a  convincing  proof  how  little  pains  it  cos( 
him  to  write.  Suidas  tells  us  that  h^.  wrote  not  only  oa 
physic  at)d  philosophy,  but  also  on  geometry  and  gram^ 
naar.  There  are  reckoned  above  five  hundred  books  of 
bis  upon  physic  oaly,  and  about  half  that  number  upoa 
other  sciences.  He  even  composed  two  books^  containing 
a  catalogue  of  his  works;  shewing  the  time  and  place  in 
which'«ome  of  them  wer^  composed,  together  with  the 
occasion  of  writing  them,  and  the  proper  order  of  reading 

Without  entering  into  a  long  detail  of  all  the  particular 
treatises  written  by  Galen^  a  vast  collection  of  which  is  in 
the  British  Museum,  it  may  be  aufScielit  here  to  notice 
the  different  editions  of  the  whole  of  his  works  that  have 
been  transmitted  to  us»  The  Greek  editions  are  those  of 
Aldus  and  And.  Asulanus,  printed  at  Venice,  1525,  in 
5^  vols,  folio,  and  of  Hieron.  Gemuseeus^  at  Basil,  1538,  ioi 
the  same  form.  The  Latin  editions  aire,  that  of  Paris, 
1536,  folio,  printed  by  Simon  Colineus;  aud  reprinted 
at  Lyons,  in  1554,  with  additions  and  corrections,  by  Joan. 
Freilonius;  that  of  Basil,  1542,  folio,  printed  by  Frobe- 
Bius,  and  edited  by  Gem.usaeus ;  those  of  Basil  again  in 
1549,  1550,  and  1562;  the  last  of  which  contains  a  pre- 

^  It  is  certain  some  of  them  were  temple  was  one  of  the  schools  of  the 

lost  ID  his  life-time  by  a  fire  which  de-  physicians.     LeClerc,  "  Hist,  of  Phy- 

stroyed  the  Temple  of  Peace  at  Rome,  sic/'  p.  III.  lib.  ii.  c.  j. 
where    they    were    deposited.      That 

•f  These  stand  at  the  head  ef  the  list  of  Iiis  works,  by  Charlie r. 

ftS4  GALE  N.' 

&ce  by  CoQrad  Geiiner,  in  which  he  ccmitnents  with  grent 
judgment  on  the  merits  of  Gaien  and  bis  \vorksy  and  of 
his  different  translators  :  the  edition  of  Venice,  1562,  with 
the  corrections  of  John  Baptist  Rasario  :  ten  editions  pub- 
lisbed  at  Venice  by  the  Juntas  in  different  years  between 
1541  and  1625;  tbe  ninth  of  which^  printed  in  1609,  and 
the  last,  are  precisely  the  same,  and  are  the  best  and  most 
correct :  lastly,  an  edition  printed  at  Venice  in  1541 — 45, 
by  John  Farre^s,  in  7  vols.  8vo,  with  the  notes  of  Ricct. 
An  edition  of  Galenas  works,  both  in  Greek  and  Latin,  in 
an  elegant  form^  was  published  at  Paris,  in  1 3  vols,  folio, 
by  R£n6  Cbartier,  including  also  the  works  of  Hippocrates; 
it  is  deemed  a  correct  work. 

'    As  a  physician,  the  ancients  bad  the  highest  esteem  for 
faim.    Atheneeus,  his  contemporary,  shews  the  great  opi- 
nion he  had  of  his  merit  as  a  philosopher,  by  making  him 
a  guest  at  his  feast  of  the  philosophers ;  where  he  not  only 
compliments  him  upon  the  great  number  of  his  writings, 
but  adds,  that  in  elocution  and  perspicuity  of  style,  he 
v^as  inferior  to  none^.     Eusebius^  who  lived  about  an 
hundred  years  after  him,  observes,  that  the  veneration. in 
which  Galen,  was  held  as  a  physician,  was  such,  that  many 
looked  upoq  him  as  a  God,  and  even  paid  him  divine  wor- 
ship ;  accordingly  Traljian  giv^s  him  the  title  of  <<  most 
divine."     Oribasius,  who  flourished  soon  after  Eusebius, 
and  was  himself.  Archi^ter  to  Julian,  testified  his  esteem 
for  Galen,  by  the  extracts  he  made  of  his  works,  as  lyell 
as  by  the  j^raises  which  he  bestows  upon  him.     £tius  and 
Paulus  ^gineta  have  also  copied  G^en,  especially  the 
last,  and  his  works  were  commented  oil  by  Stephen  the 
Atb^nistn.-  Avicemnay  Averroes,  and  the  rest  of  the  Ara- 
biaii  physicians,  who  take  the  best  of  what  they  have  from 
Galen,  have  not  been  wanting  in  their  praises  of  him. 
After  all,  however,  it  is  certain  he  had  in  his  own  time  a 
considerable  party  Co  contend  with,  and  these  latter  ages 
have  raised  up  some  powerful  adversaries  to  his  name.  The 
practice  of  Hippocrates,  which  be  laboured  to  re-establish, 
did  not  triumph  over  the  other  sects,  immediately  upon 
Galen's  declaring  against  them.    The  sect  of  the  metho-* 
,  dists  (as  it  was  called)  supported  its  credit  for  some  ages 

^  It  is  not,   indeed  Athensus,  but     author  was  very  ancient.    Casaubon'ft 
'  the  author  of  the  arguments  prefixed     notes  upon  Atb^naeus. 
•  to  his  koolu,  that  says  this,  bat  that 

G  A  L  E  Nt  23S 

'ft6m  that  time/ and  even  furnished  pliysicians  to  thd  ent* 
.perors  long. after.     Yet  it  gradaalty  mouldered  away;  and 
notwithstanding  the  efforts  of  the  moderns^  the  party  of 
Gaien  is  very  numerous  at  this  day. 

Galen  is  the  writer  that  contains  by  far  the  most  anatomy 
ofall  the  ancients.  He  has  given  a  itiuch  more  complete 
anatomical  account  of  the  human  body  than  any  of  his  pre- 
decessors^ or  even  successors  for  a  thousand  years  after. 
There  can  be  no'  doubt  that  he  dissected  the  bodies  of  the 
inferior  animsds.  But  Vesalius,  the  first  of  the  moderns 
who  ventured  to  call  in  question  his  infallibility,  affirmed 
that  he  had  never  diissecced  a  human  subject;  and  this  seems 
now  the  general  opinion,  particularly  of  Haller,  and  other 
learned  historians  of  the  art. 

Thus  we  have  exhibited  the  bright  side  of  this  physi- 
'-  cian's  character,  but  we  must  not  close  this  memoir  with- 
out shewing  the  other  side  also  :  for  the  greatest  geniuses 
have  their  blemishes  and  defects,  which  too  are  often  in 
proportion  greater,  or  at  least  are  seen  more  conspicuously 
by  being  linked  to  so  much  splendour.     The  foible  which 
stands  foremost  on  this  side  of  Galen's  character,  is  his 
vanity,  which  was  so  excessive  as  to  carry  him  beyond  the 
bounds  of  prudence  and  decency.     His  writings  are  fuU 
somely  filled  with  his  own  praises,  and  he  magnifies  him* 
self  in  the  same  degree  as  he  debases  other  physicians  who 
differed  from  him ;  in  refuting  whom,  he  throws  out  the 
flowers  of  an  acrimonious  rhetoric  with  an  unsparing  hand. 
We  have  already  given  a  convincing  proof  of  the  good 
opinion  he  entertained  of  himself,  and  how  little  scrubu- 
lous  he  was  to  make  his  own  eulogium  in  his  recital  of  M. 
Aureliu9*8  disorder.     That  whole  book  abounds  with  stories 
of  the  same  cast,  which  also  at  the  same  time  serve  to  im- 
peach him  of  pride,  and  a  disdain  and  contempt  of  every 
body  else.     In  this  spirit  we  see  him  giving  way  to  most 
injurious  reproaches  against  th6  methodists,  whom  be  calls 
^^the  asses  of  Thessalus,'^  who  was  the  principal  founder 
of  the  secti     He  observed,  indeed,  more  decency  towards 
Erasistratus,  Asclepiades,  and  others  of  'the  more  ancient, 
physicians;  but  still,  amojig  the  praises  he  bestows  upon 
them,  there  escapes  from  him  haughtiness  enough.     But 
he  grows  absolutely  insupportable,  in  the  ostentatious  pa- 
rade which  he  makes  of  having  done  in  physic  Something 
like  what  Trajan  had  done  in  the  Roman  empire.    <*  No 

356  GALEN. 

pybrspQ  wfafttfioevier  before  me.  (sfrys  -h^)  hath  *9hew:9  ^h^ 
true  method  of  treating  diseases^  Hippocrates,  indeed, 
pointed  out  the  fame  road ;  but  as  be  was  the  first  who 
discovered  it,  so  he  went  not  so  far  therein  as  was  to  be 

Galen  is  likewise  reproached  with  being  superstitious; 
and  we  have  given  an  instance  of  his  opening  a  veiui  in 
consequence  of  a  dream.  He  tells  us  also  in  the  same . 
place,  that  be  had  two  more  dreams  of  the  same  kind ; 
and  says  in  another  place,  that,  being  once  con9i>lted  in 
the  case  of  a  swellc^d  tongue,  he  directed  a  purge,  and 
somewhat  cooling  to  be  held  upon  the  part ;  the  patienit 
took  the  purge,  and  had  a  dream  the  same  night,^in  which  he 
was  ordered  to  apply  a  gargle  of  lettuce  juice,  which  suc- 
ceeded very  well*  But  this  superstition  was  the  religibn 
of  his  country,  of  which  ^sculapius,  as  he  tells  us,  .was 
the  pod,  and  was  held  to  be  that  particular  God  ^hose 
province  it  was  to  assist  the  sick  in  dreams. 

He  is  also  charged  with  bearing  a  particular  enmity  to 
the  Christians  ;  it  is  true,  that  speaking  of  the  methodists 
and  other  sects  in  physic,  he  says,  ^^  That  their  several 
followers  were  as  obstinately  attached  to  their  parties,  as 
the  disciples  of  Moses  and  Christ  were  to  theirs.*'  But 
this  does  net  imply  any  particular  ill  will  against  the 
Christians,  or  that  he  thought  worse  of  them  than  the 
pagans  generally  did*  As  to  the  story  that  is  told,  of 
Galenas  hearing  in  bis  old  age  of  the  miracles  wrought  itl 
judasa  by  the  name  of  Jesus,  and  resolving  to  take  a  journey 
thither  to  see  them,  but  that  he  died  on  the  road,  or  upon 
the  borders  of  the  country,  after  lying  ill  ten  days  of  a  fe« 
ver ;  it  is  merely  a  monkish  forgery.* 

GALEOTI  (Martio),  or  Galeotus  Martius,  was  born 
at  Narni,  in  the  papal  territory,  and  was  for  some  time 
an  instructor  of  youth  at  Bologna,  but  removed  and  kept 
a  private  school  in  Hungary.  Being  there  distinguishied 
by  Matthias  Corvinus,  king  of  Hungary,  he  was  admitted 
into  his  family,  made  his  privjate  secretary,  and,  it  is  sup* 
posed,  presided^  over  the  education  of  his  son  John  Cor- 
vinus. He  was  also  keeper  of  the  library  at  Buda.  In  this 
situation  his  fame  reached  Louis  the  Xlth,  king  of  France, 
who  invited  him  into  that  kingdom.     Galeoti  went  accord* 

•    '  Life  prefixed  to   his  Works,  by  Chartier.— Mor«ri.— Haller  Bibl.  Med. 
Pract.— >Chaufepie. — Saxii  Oaomast. — l^homsott'f  Bist.  of  the  Roya)  Society. 

O  A  L  E  O.T'I.  «« 

ingly  to  meet  the  kiog  at  Lyons,  but  Lcmtt  hi^ppenihg  to 
con^  out  of  the  city»  they  iqet  a  litlile.  without  the  gates, 
and  Galeotiy  attempting  to  descend  hastily  topay  due  bd- 
Boura  to  the  king,  fell,  and  being  very  fiit,  was  so  much 
hurt,  that  he  died  very  soon  after.  In.  1478^  Galeoti 
published  a  collection  of  the  bon-mots  of  Mattbiaa  Cor-4 
vioua,  ^*  De  jocose  dictts  ac  fsictis  regis  Matt.  Comni/^ 
inserted  in  the  folio  collection  of  writers  on  the  history  of 
Hungary.  There  is  also  by  him  a  treatise  in  4tp,  entitled 
'^  De  homine  interiore  et  de  corpore  ejus,"  aud  others^ 
^^  De  incognitis  vulgo,"  never  printed ;  *<  De  doctrinir 
promiscua,*'  Lyons,  ]j[52,  8vo,  which  is  a  miscellany  of 
physical,  medical,  and  astronomical  <][uestions.  For  some 
of  bis  sentiments  the  monks  accused  him  of  heresy,  ^nd 
he  had  contentions  with  them,  but  he  was  protected  by 
pope  Sixtus  IV.  who  had  been  his  pupil.^ 

GALESINI  or  GALE3INIUS  (Peter),  of  Milan,  a 
learned  ecclesiastical  antiquary,  and  apostolical  notary,' 
flourished  in  the  sixteenth  century^  under  the  pontificate 
qf  Gregory  XIII.  aud  Sixtus  V*  He*  was  an  able  scholar 
inttbe  ancient  languages^  and  hptd  devoted  miuch  of  his- 
time  to  resiearch^s  in  eoolesiastioal  history.  He  endea- 
vojired  to  correct  and  illustrate  the  ^'  Roman  Martyrology,'^- 
by  uew-^modelling  it,  and  adding  a  number  of  new  facts^ 
respecting  the  saints.  This  he  dedicated  to  pope  Ore* 
gory  XIII.  and  published  it  at  Milan  in  1577,  but  it  never 
was  approved  by  the  Roman  censors,  who  thought  it  too* 
Ipug  to  be  recited  it)  the  canonical  office ;  ^nd  others  have* 
apcused  him  of  many  inaccuracies^  He  wrote  also  the* 
<*  Lives  of  the  Saints  of  Milan,''  printed  there  in  15182; 
some  notes  on  the  Greek  Septuagint,  Rome,  1567,  and  a' 
*'  Commentary  on  the  Pentateuch,"  ib<  1587.  His  other 
works,  are :  translations  from  Greek  into  Latin  of  some  dis- 
courses of  St.  Gregory  Nyssen  and  Theodoret ;  new  edi- 
tions of  the  histories  of  Sulpicius  Severus  and  of  Haymo' 
of  Halberstadt,  in  folio ;  the  acts  of  Milan ;  a  tract  con- 
cerning the  obelisk  which  Sixtus  V.  raised  in  1586;  and* 
another  on  the  tomb  which  the  same  pope  erected  in 
honour  of  Pius  V.;  a  history  of  the  popes,  entitled 
'*  Theatrum  Pontificale ;"  *<  S.  Didaci  Coroplutendis  Ca- 
nonizatio,,'V  Rome,  15&8 ;  <<  11  perfetto  Dittionaria/'  Latiti 

1  Morerl— 'Diet.  Hi«k« 

SS»  O  A  L  E  8  I  N  L 

and  Italian,  Venice,  1659,  and  I6S4.  We  have  no  fdr-* 
ther  particalars  of  bis  life,  except  that  he  died  about 
the^year  1590** 

GALIANI  (Ferdinand),  an  Italian  wit,*  was  bom  inr 
Naples,  about  1720.  He  was  descended  of  a  noble  fa- 
mily, bis  father  being  a  marquis,  and  his  uncle  archbishop 
Itpd  great  almoner  to  the  king,  who  is  celebrated 'in  thef 
History  of  the  two  Sicilies,  for  baring  been  the  chief  au* 
thor  and  promoter  of  the  famous  concordaie  of  1741, 
which  hkppily  terminated  the  jurisdictional  disputes  be* 
tween  the  court  of  Naples  and  the  holy  see.  To  thehiglf 
preferments. and  care  of  this  uncle,  Galiani  was  indebted 
for  a  liberal  education,  and  it  is  said  that  he  displayed 
tery  early  an  extraordinary  genius  in  every  study.  At 
the  age  of  sixteen,  he  bad  mastered  the  Latin  and 
Creek  languages,  and  was  equally  acquainted  with  clas-i 
steal  literature,  the  mathematics,  philosophy,  and  with  the 
civil  and  canon  law. 

At  the  age  of  twenty,  about  1740,  he  published  a  lu- 
dicrous work,  which  evinced  the  turn  of  his  genius  for  wit 
and  humour.  It  was  a  prevailing  custom  at  that  time  in 
Naples  (as  well  as  in  other  cities  of  Italy),  on  the  d^ceas^ 
of  any  great  or  eminent  person,  to  make  a  large  collectioti 
of  songs,  sonnets,  epigrams,  elegies,  and  inscriptions,^  iii 
praise  of  the  real  or  reputed  talents  and  virtues  of  the  de- 
ceased. The  abuse  to  which  such  a  practice  is  liable, 
called  loudly  for  reformation^  and  GaUani  catching  the 
opportunity  of  the  death  of  a  famous  public  executioner, 
named  Jannaccone,  sported  a  droll  funereal  collection  of 
prose  and  verse  in  his  praise,  in  which  the  manner  and 
style  of  the  respective  authors,  accustomed  to  that  sortdf 
compositions,  were  ingeniously  personated  and  burlesqued. 
Much  about  the  skme  time,  Galiani  had  an  opportunity 
in  another  work,  of  producing  another  specimen  of  hi^ 
humour*  Pope  Benedict  XIV.  had  applied  to  his  uncle, 
the  great  almoner,  to  procure  him  a  complete  collection 
of  the  various  materials  which  compose  mount  Vesuvius* 
Th&T  prelate  intrusted  the  commission  to  his  nephew;  who 
actually  undertook  to  make  the  collection,  aocompanyin^ 
each  article  with  a  short  philosophical  comment.  Soon 
after,  he  addressed  them  in  a  box  to  the  pontiff,  with  afi 
humorous  inscription  to  the  whole,  **  Sr  filius  Dei  es,  fac 

'  Dupin.*— Morerk— Baillet  Jogemeni. 

G.Ath  IAN  l  Ma 

tit  LAPIDE9  isti  FADES  fiaiit;*— The  turn  of  thU  motto  was 
easily  apprehended  by  the  pope»  who  was  himself  one  o£. 
the  wittiest  men  of  his  age,  and  it  could  not  fail  to  pror. 
cure  Galiani  what  he  hinted  at.  He. accordingly  received 
soon  afterwards  a  rich  abbey,  worth  four  thousand  ducat% 
(nearly  seyen  hundred  pounds)  per  annum..  Galiani  soon, 
afterwards  displayed  his  abilities  in  philosophy,  by  pub* 
lishing  about  1745,  his  well-known  political  tract  *<  Trat-? 
tato  deUa  ^Mooeta,'"  (a  Treatise  on  Money).  This  was 
unanimously  pronounced  in  Italy  an  original  and  capital 
publication,  which  firmly  established  his  reputation  in  the 
world.  He  was  now  appointed  secretary  to  the  Neapolitan^ 
ambassador  in  Paris,  where  he  soon  exhibited  other  spe-^ 
cimens  of  his  philosophical  abilities,  by  publishing  aa. 
"  Essay  on  the  Commerce  of  Corn.'*  This  new  work  wa$ 
very  favourably  received  in  France,  where  some  of  their 
philosophers  wer^  candidly  wont  to  say,  **  Le  petit  Italiea 
est  en  cela  plus  instruit  que  nous.**  By  the  word  petii^ 
they  allude  to  the  diminutive  stature  of  the  author* 

Being  soon  recalled  to  Naples,  he  was  appointed  a 
i^ounsellor  in  the  tribunal,  of  commerce,  an  office  of  ma* 
gistracy  not  incompatible  with  the  order  of  a  clergyman^ 
He  retained  this  place  during  the  remainder  of  his  life  i 
lE^nd  as  it  required  much  time  and  application  to  perfornx 
its,  duties,  M.  Galiani  after  this  was  not  so  active  in  literary 
c^xertions  as  he  had  been  heretofore.  In  1779  he  pub* 
Jished  a  work  '^  on  the  Origin  of  the  Neapolitan  Dialect." 
This. per formi^nce,  however,  does  not  bear  an  accuratei 
correspondence  to.  the  title,  and  was  judged  superficial 
and  unsatisfjBctory.  In  1780,  he  published  a  treatise  oi^ 
the.Armed  Neutrality,  which  he  dedicated  to  the  late  em- 
press Catherine  of  Russia.  This  work,  on  a  question  en* 
.tirely  pew  and  con\plicated  in  the  system  of  public  law  of 
Europe,  fell  likewise  considerably  short  of  the  expectation 
entertained  by  his  admirers.  He  died  in  1789,  and  since 
liis  death  it  has  been  asserted  that  he  was  indebted  to  other 
writers  for  the  substance  of  some  of  those  volumes  which 
he  published  under  hi9  own  name,  and  by  which  he  a^^^ 
quired  his  reputation;  but  we  know  not  upon  what  autho- 
rity this  a.^sertion  h^,s  been  made« ,  Galiani  was.  short  in 
«tat\ir^,  full  of  vivacity,  wit,  and  humour, ,  ai^d  a  grea(t  fa- 
yourite  on  thatiiccount  in  all  companies,^ 

1  Du^t.  lihit  &c. 

MO  G  A  L  t  L  S  L 


GALILEI  (Gauleo),  the  celebrated  astronotn^i^  atid 
itiEtbeinatieiany  was  the  son  of  Vincenzo  Galitei^  a  n^ble* 
man  of  Florence^  not  less  distinguished  by  bis  quality  and' 
fortune)  than  conspicuous  for  his  skill  aud  knowledge  itk 
music ;  about  some  points  in  which  science  he  maintained 
a  dispute  with  the  famous  Zarlinas.     His  wife  brought  him 
thi»$oO)'  Feb,  19;   1564,  either  at  Pisia,  or^  which  is  more 
pl^babfe,    at  Florenqe;      Galileo  received  an  education 
Miliable  to  his  birth,  his  taste,  and  his  abilities.     He  wend 
through  his  studies  early,  and  his  father  then  wished  tbaV 
lie  should  apply  himself  to  medicine  ;  but  ha<(^ing  obtained 
at  college  some  knowledge  of  mathematics,  his  genius  de*« 
clared'  itself  decisively  for  that  study.     He  needed  no  di- 
yeetions  where  to  begin.     Euclid's  Elements  were   well 
known  to  be  the  best  foundation  in  thi^  science.      He 
therefore  set  out  with  studying  that  work,  of  which  hd 
made  himself  master  without  assistance,   and  prqceeded 
thence  to  such  authors  as  were  in  most  esteem,  ancient 
alnd  mod<srn.     His  progress  in  these  sciences  was  so  extra- 
ordinary,   that  in  *  1*5  8^,   be  was  appointed  professor  of 
mathematics  in  the  university  of  Pisa,  but  being  tiierd 
continually  harrassed  by  the  scholastic  professors-,  for  op-< 
posing  some  maxims  of  their  favourite  Aristotle^  he  quitted 
that  piftce  at  the  latter  end  of  1592,  foir  Padua,  whither 
hjb  was  invited' very  handsomely  to  accept  a  similer  profes* 
sorsbip  ;  soon  after  which;  by  the  esteem  arising  ft'om  his 
genius  and  erudition,  he  Was  recommended  to  the  friend* 
ship  of  Tycho  Brache.     He  had  already,  even  long' before 
1586,  wgritten  his  **  Mechanics,*'  or  a  treatise  of  the  be«^ 
nefits  derived  from  that  science  and  from  its  instruments^ 
together  with  a  fragment  concerning  percussion,  the  first 
published  by  Mersennus,  at  Paris,  in  1634^  in  ^^  Mersenni 
Opera,'^  vol.  I.  and  both  by  Menoless,  vol.  I. ;  a^  also  bis 
<^  Balance,*'  in  which,  after  Archimedes's  problem  of  the 
crown,  he  shewed  how  to  find  the  proportion  of  alloy,  oi* 
mixt  metalsi  and  how  to  make  the  said  instrument     These 
he  had  read  to  his  pupils  doon  after  his  arrival  at  Padua,  in 

While  he  wa«  professor  at  Padua,  in  1609,  visiting  Ve^ 
nice,  then  famous  for  the  art  of  making  glass,  he  beard  o( 
th<e  invention  of  the  telescope  by  James-  Metius,  in  Hol^ 

•  'While  he  was  lecturer  at  Padua,  GustaTUi.  Adolphus  king  of  Sweden  waf 
•ne  of  kis  hearers.    The  lectures  then  ^veir  by  hioi  still  remain  at  MiUau 

C  A  L  I  L  E  L  241 

Iftnd,  This  notice  was  sufficient  for  Galileo ;  his  curiosity 
was  raised ;  and  the  result  of  bis  inquiry  was  a  telescope 
of  his  own,  produced  frona  this  hint,  without  having  seen 
the  Dutch  glass.  All  the  discoveries  he  made  in  astronomy 
were  the  easy  and  natural  consequences  of  this  invention, 
which  opening  a  way,  till  then  unknown,  into  the  heavens, 
gave  that  science  an  entirely  new  face.  Galileo,  in  one 
of  his  works,  ridicules  the  unwillingness  of  the  Aristote-^ 
lians  to  allow  of  any  discoveries  not  known  to  their  master, 
by  introducing  a  speaker  who  attributes  the  telescope  to 
him,  on  account  of  what  he  says  of  seeing  the  stars  from 
the  bottom  of  a  deep  well.  "  The  well,"  says  he,  "  is  the 
tube  of  the  telescope,  the  intervening  vapours  answer  to 
the  glasses.'*  He  began  by  observing  the  moon,  and  cal- 
culating the  height  of  her  mountains.  He  then  discovered 
four  of  Jupiter^s  satellites,  which  he  called  the  Medicean' 
stars  or  planets,  in  honour  of  Cosmo  II.  grand  duke  of 
Tuscany,  who  was  of  that  noble  family.  Cosmo  now  re- 
called him  from  Padua,  re-estal^lished  him  at  Pisa,  with  a 
very  handsome  stipend,  in  1610;  and  the  same  year,  , 
having  lately  invited  him  to  Florence,  gave  him  the  post 
and  title  of  his  principal  philosopher  and  mathematician. 

It  was  nbt  long  before  Galileo  discovered  the  phases  of 
Venus,  and  other  celestial  phaenomena.  He  had  been^^ 
however,  but  a  few  years  at  Florence,  before  he  was  con- 
vinced by  sad  experience,  that  Aristotle^s  doctrine,  how- 
ever ill-grounded,  <  was  held  too  sacred  to  be  called  in 
question.  Having  observed  some  solar  spots  in  1612,  he 
printed  that  discovery  the  following  year  at  Rome;  id 
which,  and  in  some  other  publications,  he  ventured  to 
assert  the  truth  of  the  Copernican  system,  and  brought 
several  new  arguments  to  confirm  it*.  This  startled  the 
jealousy  of  the  Jesuits,  who  procured  a  citation  for  him  to 
appear  before  the  holy  office  at  Rome,  in  1615,  where  he 
was  charged  with  heresy,  for  maintaining  these  two  pro- 
positions; 1.  That  the  sun  is  in  the  centre  of  the  world, 
and  immoveable  by  a  local  mptien ;  and,  2.  That  the 
earth  is  not  the  centre  of  the  world,  nor  immoveable,,  but 
actually  moves  bv  a  diurnal  motion.  The  first  of  these 
positions  was'  declared  to  be  absurd,  false  in  philosophy, 

«  fla  demosstrated  a  vtry  •ensiblc     a  phraonetton  of  great  coasei^timcf 
ehaay*  m  the  o»«^aitudt  of  tb«  ap-     to  prov«  th«  Cop^aieaa  Uitory, 
|»arent  diameters  of  Mars  and  Veous  j 

Vol.  XV.      *  R    . 

S43  G  A  L  I  L  £  i« 


and  formaUy  heretical^   being  contrary-  to   the   expisst 
.Mtord  of  God ;  the  second  was  also  alleged  to  be  pbik»^ 
sopbioally  false,,  and,  in  a  tbe^logic^view,  at  least  erro* 
neous  in  point  of  faith.     He  was  detained  in  the  inqui^ 
dtion  till  Feb.  1616,  on  the  25th  of  which  month  sentence 
was  passed  against  him  ;  by  which  he  was  enjoined  to  re<» 
jiounce  his  heretical  opinions^  and  not  to  defend  them 
either  by  word  or  writing,  nor  even  to  insinuate  theoi  into* 
the  mind  of  any  person  whatsoever ;  and  he  obtained  hia 
'discharge  only  by  a  promise  to  oonform  himself  to  this 
order.     It  is  bard  to  say  whether  his  sentence  betrayed' 
greater  weakness  of  understanding,  or  perversity  of  mlL 
Galiled  clearly  saw  the  poison  of  both  in  it;  and  tberefbre^ 
following  the  known  maxim,  that  forced  oaths  and  pito-* 
mises  are  not  binding  to  the  conscience,   he  went  ony 
making  further  new  discoveries  in  the  planetary  system^ 
and  occasionally  poblisbing  them  with  socb  tnfereticesaBd 
remarks  as  necessarily  followed  ^ooi  them^  notwithstanding' 
they  tended  plainly  to  establish  the  truth  of  tlie  above-men- 
tioned condemned  propositions.  •    .',;/. 
He  continued  many  years  confidently  in  this  course,  na 
juridical  notice  being  taken  of  it ;  till  he  had  the  presump^ 
tion  to  publish  at  Florence  bis  '^  Dialog!  della  due  massime" 
Systeme  del  Mondo,  Tolemaico  et  Copemicauo;"   dig* 
logues  of  the  two  greatest  systems  of  the  world,  the  Ptole- 
maic and  Copernicfm,  in  1632.     Here,  in  examinitvg  tba 
grounds  upon  which  the  two  systems  were  built,  be  prqi*> 
duces  the  most  specious  as  well  as  stroiigest  argunventis  for 
each  of  those  opinions;  and  leaver,  it  is  true,  the  ques-*' 
'  tion   undecided,  as  not  to  be  demonstrated  either  way^ 
while  niiany  pfasBUomena  remained  insolvable;  but  all  ihia 
is  done  in  such  a  manner,  that  bis  inclination  to  the  Cp^* 
.pernican  system  might  be  easily  perceived.    -Nor  had  be 
forborne  to  enliven  his  production  by  several  smart  strokes 
of  raillery  against  those  who  adhered  so  obstinately, .  auid 
were  such  devotees  to  Aristotle^s  opinions,  as  to  think  its 
crime  to  depart  from  them  in  the  smallest, degree.     This 
-excited  the  indignation  of  his  former  enemies,  and  be  was 
agkin  cited  before  the  inquisition  at  Rome;  the  congre- 
gation was  convened,  and,  in  his  presence,  pronounced 
sentence  against  him  and  bis  books.     They  obliged  him  to 
abjuVe  bid  errors  in  the  most  solemn  manner^  committed 
him  to  the  prison  of  their  office  during  pleasure^  and  en- 
joined him,  as  a  saving  penance,  for  three  years^  to  repeal   - 

ine^  a  week  the  seven  penitential  psatois;  reserving^  how- 
ever^  to  themselves  the  power  of  moderating)  cbaogingy 
or  taking  away  altogether,  or  in  part,  the  abovamentioned 
paqisfameut  and '  penance.     Upon   this  sentence  be  wa» 
dfiuioed  a  prisoner  till  1634,  and  bis  ^^  Dialogues  of  the 
System  of  the  World''  were  burnt  at  Rome.     We  rar^ety 
meet  with  a  more  glaring  instance  of  blindqesa  and  bigotry 
than  this*,  and  it  was  treated  with  as  much  contempt  by 
our  author  as  consisted  with  his  safety. 
(  He  lived  ten  yeara  after  it,  seven  of  which  were  em«> 
ployed  in  making  still  further  discoveries  with  his  teles- 
cope; but,  by  continual  application  to  that  instrument^ 
,    added  to  the  damage  be  received  in  his  sight  from  the  noe- 
^  tucsal  air>  his  eyes  grew  gradually  weaker,  till,  in  163^9 
1^  became  totally  blind.     He  bore  this  great  calamity  with 
patienoe  and  resignation,  worthy  of  a  philosopher.     Th« 
loss. neither  broke  his  spirit,  nor  hindered  the  course  of  his. 
studies.     He  supplied  the.  defect  by  constant  meditations^ , 
by  whick  he  prepared  a  large- collection  of  materials;  and 
began  to  dictate  his  own  conceptions,  >  when,  by  a  distem- 
per of  three  months  continuance,  ^wastipg  away  by  degrees^ 
he  expired  at  Arcetri  near  Flore.nciet,  Jan*  8,  1642^,  ia. 
the  same  year  that  Newton  was  born.,    In  stature  he  was 
small,  but  in  aspect  venerable,   and  bis  constitution  vi- 
gorous ;  in  company  be  was  aifable/  fr,ee,  and  full  of  plf  a«« 
santry.    He  took  greatdelight  in  architecture  and  paioU 
Ing,  and  designed  extremely  welK     He  played,  exquisitely 
OJ1  the  lute;  and  whenever^ be  spent  any   time  in  .the, 
country,. Jbe  took  great  pleasure  in  husbandry.     Hii  learner 
iiiigwas  v«ry  extensive;  and  be  possessed  in  a  high  degree,. 
a  clearness  and  acuteness  of  wit.     From  the  time  of  Arqbi^ 
medes,  nothing,  had  been  done  in,  mechanical  geometry 
till  GaliJieo,  who,  being  possessed  of  an  excellent  judg'> 
lueot^  and  great  skill  in  the  most  abstruse  points  of  geo- 
meitry,  first  extended  the  bsouodartes  of  that  science,  and 
began  to  reduce  the  resistance  of  solid  bodies  to  its  laws. 
Besides  applying  geometry  to  the  doctrine  of  motion,  by 
which  {^ilosopby  became  established  oi;  a  sure  foundation, 
be  made  surprising-  discoveries  in  the  heavens  by  means  of 
'     •  ■  •         ' 

*  Tt  will  appear  more  extraordinary,  f  In  the  [nst  eight  years  of  his  life 

wb^n  it  is  considered  that  the  prosecu-  he  livMi  out  of  Florence,  soiiietimtf  in 

tion  wtfhHpgun  and  carried,  ou  bgr  the  the  aeighbourin^  towns,   and  some- 

Jesuits*  aa order  instituted  to  be  a  se-  .tiroes  at  S^eitna,     ViUorio  Siri's  **  II 

iblnary  of  leafntn^  in  the  view  of  pro-  Mercurie/'  d(c, 
dttclpg-chalspi^Qi-of'Uie  papal  «hair. 

R  2 

944  6  A  L  I  L  £  L 

bit  telescope.  He  made  the  evidence  of  ttie  Copernicaiv 
nys^em  more  sensible,  when  be  shewed  from  the  phases  of ' 
Venus,  like  to  those  of  the  moon,  that  Venus  actually  re* 
Tolves  about  the  sun.  He  proved  the  rotation  of  the  sun 
dn  his  axis  from  his  spots ;  and  thence  the  diurnal  rotation 
of  the  earth  became  more  credible.  The  satellites  that 
attend  Jupiter  in  his  revolution  «bout  the  sun,  repre^^ 
sftnted,  in  Jupiter^s  smaller  system,  a  just  image  of  tte 
great  solar  system  ;  and  rendered  it  more  easy  to  conceive 
bow  the  moon  might  attend  the  earth,  as  a  satellite,  in 
her  annual  revolution.  By  discovering  bills  and  cavities 
in  the  moon,  and  spots  in  the  sun  constantly  varying,  he 
shewed  that  there  was  not  so  great  a  difference  between  the 
celestial  bodies  and  the  earth  as  had  beeo  vainly  imagined* 

•  He  rendered  no  less  service  to  ^ience  bj  treating,  in 
a*  clear  and  geometrical  manner,  the  doctrine  of  motion, 
which  has  justly  been  called  the  key  of  nature.     The  ra- 
tional part  of  mechanics  had  been  so  much  neglected,  that 
hardly  any  improveoient  was  made  in  it  for  almost  2000 
years.   But  Galileo  has  given  us  fully  the  theory  of  equable 
motions,  and .  of  such  as  are  uniformly  acceieil4.ed  or  re^ 
tarded,  and  of  these  two  compounded  together.     He  was 
the  first  who  demonstrated  that  the  spaces  described  by 
heavy  bodies,  from  the^  beginning  of  their  descent,  are  as 
the  squares  of  the  times;  and  that  a  body,  proj^ted  iq 
any  direction  not  perpendicular  to  the  hori2K)n,  describes- 
a  parabola.     These  were  the  beginningfi  of  the  doctrine  pf 
the  nK)tion  of  heavy  bodies,  which  has  been  since  earned 
to  so  great  a  height  hy  Newton*     In  geometry,  he  in- 
vented the  cycloid,  or  trochoid  ;  though  the  |iropertie9  of 
it  were  afterwards  chiefly  demonstrated  by  his  pupil  Tor- 
ricelli.    He  invented  the  simple  pendulum,  and  made  use 
of  it  in  his  astronomi*cal  ex{!>erimepts :  be  bad  also  thoughts 
of  aj^lying  it  to  qlocks ;  but  did  not  execute  that  design  : 
the  glory  of  that  invention  was  reserved  for  bis  son  Vip^n* 
2to,  who  made* the  experiment  at  Venice  in  1649;  and 
Huygens  afterward  carried  this  invention  to,  perfection. 
Of  Galileo's  invention  also,  was  the  machine,  wit^  which 
the  Venetians  render  their  Laguna  fluid  and  navigable.  He 
abo  discovered  the  gravity  of  the  air^  and  endeavoured,  to 
compare  it  .with  that  of  water,  besides  opening  up  several 
other  inquiries  in  natural  philosophy.     In  short,  he-rwas 
not  esteemed  and  followed  by  philosophers  only,  but  was 

honoured  by  persons  of  the  greatest  dlstinctiqa  o^  .aUL 

GALILEI.  ft43 

^  Oaliteo  had  scholars  too  thst  were  worthy  of  so  great  d 
master,  by  whom  the  graTitation  of  the  atmosphere  was 
fully  established,  and  its  varying  pressure  accurately  aiid 
conveniently  areasured,  by  the  column  of  quicksilver  of 
equal  weight  sustained  by  it  in  Jthe  barometrical  tube.  The 
^elasticity  49f  the  air,  by  which  it  perpetually  endeavours  Hb 
expand  itself,  and,  while  it  admits  of  condensation,  resbta 
iu  proportion  to  its  density,  was  a  phenomenon  of>  nei^ 
Jcind  (the  common  fluids  having  no  such  property),  and  was 
of  the  utmost  importance  to  philosophy.  These  principles 
opened  a  vast  field  of  new  and  useful  knowledge,  and  ex^- 
piained  a  great  variety  of  pheenomena,  which  bad  been  ac^ 
^K>unted  for  before  that  time  in  a  very  absurd  manner.  It 
seemed  as  if  the  air,  the  fluid  in  which  men  lived  from  the 
beginning,  had  been  then  but  first  discovered.  Pbiloi- 
tfophers  were  every  where  busy  inquiring  into  its  various 
^ropetties  and  their  effects;  and  valuable  discoveries  re* 
warded  their  industry.  .  Of  the  great  number  who  dis* 
trnguished  themselves  on  this  occasion,  may  be  mentioned 
Torricelli  and  Viviani  in  Italy,  Pascal  in  France,  Otto 
Guerictc  in  Germany,  and  Boyle  in  England. 

GaKleo  wrote  a  number  of  treatises,  many  of  which  were 
published  in  his  life-tinie.  Most  of  them  were  abo  coUedted 
after  his  deaths  and  published  by  Mendessi  in  2  voti. 
4to,  under  the  title  of  "  L'Opere  di  Galileo  Galilei  Lyn- 
iee6,^'  in  1656.  Some  of  these,  with  others  of  his  pieces^ 
were  translated  into  English  and  published  by  Thomas  Sa-^ 
lisbury,  in  his  Mathematical  Collections,  in  2  vols,  folid. 
A  volume  also  of  his  letters  to  several  learned  men,  atid 
solutions  of  several  problems,  were  printed  at  Bologna  in 
4to.  His  last  disciple,  Vincenzo  Viviani,  who  proved  a 
'tiE^ry  eminent  mathematician,  methodized  a  piece  of  bis 
ihaster's,  and  published  it  under  this  title,  *'  Qmnto  libro 
de  gli  Elementi  d'  Euclidi,'*  &c.  at  Florence  in  1674,  4to. 
Viviani  publisbecf  some  more  of  Galileo^s  things,  being 
extracts  from  his  letters  to  a  learned  Frenchman,  where 
iie  gives  an  accpunt  of  the  works  which  be  intended  to 
have  published,  and  it  passage  frofii  a  letter  of  Galilee 
dated  at  Arcetri,  Oct.  30,  1655,  to  John  Camiilo,  a  ma-^ 
thtoiatician  of  Naples,  concerning  the  angle  of  contact. 
Besides  all  these,  he  wrote  many  other  pieces,  which  were 
unfortunately  lost.  Galileo  had  two  daughters  and  a  son 
hy  a  Greek  woman  he  lived  with ;  the  daughters  became 
nuns ;  one  son  conttnued  the  family,  which,  Frisi  says,  is 

246  G  A  L  I  L  E  I; 

but  lately  extinct;  one  turned  missiohfl^ry,  arid  was  in- 
duced from  religious  scruples  to  burn  many  of  his  grand-^ 
fiither's  works ;  and  the  third  ran  away. ' 

GALLAND  (Antony),  a  learned  antiquary  of  Franci, 
naember  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions,  and  professor  of 
j^rabic  in  the  royal  college  at  Paris,  was  born  of  poor  pa- 
rents at  Rollo,  a  little  town  of  Picardy,  in  1 646.  Afier 
baving  laid  the  foundation  of  learning  at  Noyon,  he  went 
to  Paris,  where  he  learned  Hebrew  and  the  Oriental  lan- 
guages; and  afterwards  made  a  long  voyage  into  the  East, 
and  acquired  an  uncommon  knowledge  of  the  manners  slnd 
of  the  doctrines  of  the  Ma|iometans«  He  returhed  to  his 
own. country,  and  was  made  Arabic  professor  in  1709;  bnt 
did  not  live  many  years  after,  his  death  happening  at  Paris 
in- 1715.  He  was  the  author  of  several  works,  the  princi- 
^pal.  of  which  are,  1.  '^  An  account  of  the  Death  of  sultau 
Osman,  and  of  the  Coronation  of  the  sultan  Mu^tapBa.'* 
2.  *^  A  collection  of  Maxims  and  Bon  Mots,  drawn  from 
the  Oriental  writers."  *S.  "  A  Treatise  upon  the  origin  of 
.Coffee."  4,  "  Arabian  Tales."  AU  these  ure  in  French. 
The  last,  usually  called  <^  The  Arabian  Nights  Entertain* 
ments,"  is  a  popular  book  all  over  Europe,  aud  has  be^ 
published  in  various  editions  in  English  fot' above  a  century. 
Galland  was  also  the  author  of  many  curious  dissertations 
upon  some  scarce  medals,  wh'rch  hav^e  been  highly  com- 
mended.  He  had  likewise  prepared  a  translation  of  the 
Alcoran,,  with  notes;  and  a  system  of  the  Mahometan 
theQlogy,  more  exact  than  any  that  has  yet  appeared ;  but 
i2e.did.n0t  live  long  enough  to  publish  them.  * 
.  GALLAND  (Augustus),  was  proctor- general  of  tlie 
domain  of  Navarre,  counsellor  of  ^tate,  ^nd  deeply  vers<ed 
in  the  knowledge  of  the  royal  rights  in  France,'  and  in  the 
iistory  of  that  country.  His  works  are  replete  with 
curious  and  profound  erudition.  They  are,  1.  *<  Memoirs 
for  the  History  of  France  and  Navarre,'*  folk).  '  2.  "Trea- 
tises on  the  Ensigns  and  Standards  of  France,*'  &c.  3. 
*^  Discourse  addressed  to  the  king  on  the  origin  and  rise 
of  the  City  of  Rochelle,**  Sva  ^.  *•  A  Treatise  ugainst 
the  Frs^nc-alleu,  a  claim  of  exemption  from  Imposts  and 
personal  Services,**  in  4to.  He  is  supposed  to  kavd  died 
about  1644,  but  at  what  age  is  uncertain. ' 

1  Fabroni  Vit9  Italoniui,  vol.  I.-^Hatton*8  Dictionary. — Elos'io  di  Galil^^ 
by  frrisi.-^Brdcker.^— Saxir  Onomast. 
.    s,  Mor«ri. — Niceron,  vol*  YI.  tad  X.--rS|uui  Opqniaat* 

*  Moreii— Diet.  Hi«t. 

.  O  A  L  L  E.  ^  ?47 ,. 

GALLE  (Servatius),  or  Gall^us,  a  Dutch  writer, 
wbo  was  born  at  Kotterdam,  accordiog  to  the  inscription 
Ou  his  portrait,  or  according  to  otiher  authorities,  at  Zu- 
riczee,  in  1 627,  and  died  at  Campen  in  1 709,  was  a  cler* 
gyman  and  an  able. philologist  His  principal  work  is  bis 
treatise  on  the  *^  Sybilline  Oracles/*  2  vols.  4to,  the  first 
iOf  which,  containing  the  Oracles,  was  published  at  Am- 
sterdam in  1699,  and  the  second,  which  consists  of  disser-- 
tations,  appeared  soon  after.  In  this  he  has  brought  to- 
gether every  thing  relating  to  these  celebrated  fictions, 
but  neither  with  success,  nor  judgment,  according  to  Fa*» 
bricius  and  his  biographer  Reimar,  who  speak  with  harsh^- 
ness  of  his  abilities,  and  give  us  an  extraordinary  instance 
ipf  bis  Ignorance  in  classing  Agathias  and  Jamblicus  among 
Latin  writers.^  They  also  seem  to  intimate  that  be  fre- 
quently,  borrows .  without   acknowledgment.     Gcalle   was 

'  more  successful  in  a  very  porrect  edition  of  ^^  Lactantius/* 

,. published  at  Leyden  in  1660.  He  had  also  begun. an 
isditioQ  of.  ^^  Minuting  Felix,^^  but  did  not  live  to  com- 
plete it.* 

GALLINI    (-Sir  John),    a  native   of    Italy,    a  cele- 

,  Crated  stage-4&ucer  and  dancing-master,  some  time  pa- 
tentee of  the  opera-house,  and  always  proprietor  of  the 
f^oncert- rooms  in  Hanover-square,  seems  to  merit  sofme 
^aotiee,  although  rather  from  the  fashion,  than  the  worth 
of  rbi$  character.  He  came  into  this  country  early  in  Hfe, 
after  having  obtained  considerable  distinction  as  a  dancer 
^  Pairis^  aad  first  appeared  on  our  opera  stage  in  1759, 
where  his  style  of  dancing  pleased  very  much,  and  per- 

.  formed  in  1759  in  the  opera  of  ^^  Farnase,"  composed  by 
Perez,  where  he  is  styled  **  II  Signer  Giovanni  Andrea 

.  Galilni,  director  of  the  balli,  and  principal  dancer,"  and 

^occasionally  appeared  on  the  same  stage  until  1763,  after 

which  his  name. is  no  longer  to  be  found  in  books  of  the 

lyric  theatre,  either  as  ballet-master  or  principal  dancen 

It  was  soQU  after  his  professional  celebrity  at  the  opera«- 

.  bouse  that  he  married  lady  Elizabeth  Bertie,  sister  of  the 
4ate  earl  of  Abingdon.  Admitted  at  first  as  a  dancing- 
.master,  by.bis  vivacity,  talents,  knowledge  of  the  Italian 
language^  ,and  manners,  he  so  insinuated  himself  into  the 
favour  of  this  noble  family,  as  to  bring  about  this  not  veiy 
creditable  alliance.    Many  ridiculous  stories  were  in  circu^ 

*  Moreri,— Diet  Hiit.— Reimarus  de  Vit^  Fabricii.^-Saxii  Onomastp 

«f  G  A  L  L  I  N  I. 

lation  at  tbe  time,  of  sigoor  Gallini's  expectotidiD6  dl  the  > 
honours  which  would  accrue  to  him  by  hb  marriage  iotd  a 
noble  family  ;  which  he  imagined  would  confer  on  bim  tbe 
title  of  My  lord.     But  he  was  soou  conviuced  of  his  mts^  . 
take,  and  content  with  an  inferior  title.     When  tbe  mar* 
riage  became  a  subject  of  conversation,  Dr.  Burney  hap*' 
pened  to  hear  in  the  gang-way  of  the  opera  pit  tbe  foUoW'* 
ing  conversation.     One  of  two  ladies  going  into  tbe  froot 
boxes,  says  to  the  other,  ^^  It  is  reported  that  oAe  of  tbe 
dancers  is  married  to  a  lady  of  quality;"  when  GaUioif. 
who  h'appened  to  be  ifi  the  passage  near  the  lady  wbo 
spoke,  says,  "  Lustrissima,  son  io." — ^*And  who  are  yoii?'? 
demanded  tbe  lady. — ^^  Eudenza,  mi.chiamo  signor  Gal*' 
)ini  esquoire."     This  match,  as  is  usual  with  suchdisfNTQ^  . 
portioned  alliances,  was  not  the  source  of  permanent  fe^ 
licity.     They  lived  asunder  many  years.     Liauly  Elizabetb  ^ 
died  Aug.  17,  1804,  aged  80.    , 

'  By  his  great  benefits  at  the  theatre,  and  fashion  as*^  . 
dancing-master  at  the  principal  schools  and  houses  of  tbe 
nobility  and  gentry,  he,  with  unwearied  diligence  and  ex- 
cessive parsimony,  had  accumulated  a  fortune  sufficient  to 
purchase  in  1786  the  patent  of  the  opera  hou^e,  when  be 
became  sole  impresario  of  that  theatre. 

It  was  difter  this  period,  in  going  to  Italy  to  engage  per- 
formers,  that  he  obtained  his  title  at. Rome  of  the^^pop^  . 
who  made  him  *^  Cavaliere  del  speron  d'Oro,"  knight  of 
the  golden  spur,  the  only  order  which  his  holiness  bES  to 
f)eslOw.  Qut  lord  Kenyon,  when  his  title  was  introduced 
in  court  on  a  trial,  refiised  to  acknowledge  it,  and  treated 
the  assumption  with  indignation  and  contempt.  Sir  Jobi^ 
however,  continued  to  retain  it,  and  was  abetted  by  the 

Although  he  was  extremely  worldly,  dextrous  at  a  bar- 
gain, and  cautious,  in  his  dealings  with  mankiiid,  be  he** 
came  an  unfortunate  projector  in  his  attempt  at  a  rapid, 
increase  of  his  property.  The  rooms  in  Hanover^square, 
we  believe,  were  very  productive^  as  be  let  every  Door  and 
every  room,  not  only  to  concerts,  balls,  and  assemblies^ 
but  to  exhibitions,  lectures,  and  lodgers  of  all  kinda,^ 
scarcely  allowing  himself  a  habitable  apartment  for  hi^ 
own  residence.  When  the  opera  house  was  burned*  dowb 
in  1789,  he  advanced  30,000/.  tpwards  rebuildiag  it,!aifid 
sent  an  architect  to  Italy  to  procure  plans  of  all  the  great 
thesttres  of  that  coyutry,  out  of  whicl)  to  choose  the  pio&t 

G  A  L  L  I  N  i:  %^* 

^gible  for  the  new  cbnstraction ;  but  itliasbe^n'giene- 
rally  betitrved,  that  by  some  jumbie  of  clashing  interests^ 
or  cbieane  of  law,  the  manageitient  was  taken  out  of  his 
hands,  and  he  not  only  lost  his  power  but  his  money. 
While  the  great  theatre  in  the  Haymatket  wai  rebuilditig, 
sir  JcAtn  fitted  up  the  opposite  little  theatre  as  a  temporary 
opera  h^use,  but  it  was  so  small  and  inconvenient,  that  it 
C0it1d  Acitf  contain  an  audience  sufficient  to  cover  his  e«- 
pences.  The  next  year  the  Pantheon  was  transformed  into 
an  dpera  house  before  that  in  the  Haymarket  was  finished ; 
and  the  unfortunate  knight  of  the  golden  spur,  tired  of  the 
squabbles  and  accidents  which  happened  previous  to  the 
openrng  of  his  new  theatre,  sold  his  patent,  and  afterwards 
v^oHy  oonffiined  himself  to  the  produce  of  his  Hanoveiv 
mpiare'romas,  and  the  exercise  of  his  profession  as  a  danc^ 
'iog<4iiaster,  to  the  end  of  his  life. 

Indeed,  at  the  time  of  the  French  rdtoIuiHon,  be  coul^ 
iiet  resist  the  tebiptations  which  were  thfown  out  in  that 
country  for  tAtning  the  penny'  in-  th6  purchase  6f  the 
estates  of  the  guillotined  and  emigrant  nobility  and  gentry 
tinder  the  title  of  national  domains.  And  he  bought  an 
estate  near  Boulogne,  which  cost  him  30,000/, ;  but  of 
which,  by  the  artifice  of  French  lawyerd,  and  connivance 
of  ibe  u^Qtpers,  he  was  never  abl6  to  obtain  secure!  pos- 
session and  at  length  abandoned  all  hopes  of  the  estate 
or  his  tii^ney.  This  IbSs  had  much  less  effect  upon  his 
avaHeiotA  character  than  could  be  expected,  considering 
that  he  Was  so  rigid  an  economist,  that  his  private  life 
would  furnish  materials  for  a  new  drama  on  the  subject  of 
frugality,  it  his,  however,  be^n  justly  said  of  him,  that 
be*  was  generally  considered  a^  the  most  able  teabher  of ' 
bis  art  that  ever  appeared  in  this  country  ;  and  is  supposed, 
by  'bis  incessant  labours  in  this  respect,  notwithstanding 
his  great  looses,  to  have  left  money  and  effects  to  the 
4imount  of  tOO^OOO/.  to  portion  his  family,  which  consisted 
of  a  son  and  two  daughters.  He  was  a  very  shrevrd^  iu-? 
telligent  man,  who  perfectly  knew  the  world ;  and,  if  bb 
was  not  generotrs,  he  wais,  however,  honourable  in  his 
dealings ;  and  if  few  had  cause  to  be  grateful  for  his 
bounty,  1V0  one  bad  a  right  to  complain  of  his  injustice. 
^'  lA  tbe  height  of  his  professicmal  practice  and  favour  h6 
ipubtisb^d  a  book,  in  which  he  gave  a  history  of  dancings 
from  ity  origin,  and  the  manner  in  which  it  is  practised  in  va« 
rioiis  p^ts  of  the  world.  It  appealed  in  1762,  under  the  title 


of  "A  Tretlit^  0n.  tte  ayt^f  DaociRg^  hj  Gknraiioi  Andrtu 
Galiioi,  direclor  of  tbe  daaoers  at  the  royiU  theatre  in  the 
.Hay«nark€^/'  8vo. .  Until  the  move  elegant  f^  Lettrea  smr 
la  Dance^^  of  the  cetebrated  baliet^mastor  Noverre*  pnbt- 
lisbed  at  Stiutgard  in  1760,  bad  penetrated  into  tUs  caoo- 
•try>  Gallini's  book  was  much  read  and  talked  of  as  aibtevary 
performance;,  but  uniuckilyy  in  a  work. of  M.  CahnM^e^ 
^ublish^d  at  ^he  Hague*  i^i  three  small  ?olumes,  17^4r,  i2mo» 
we  find  all  tbe.bistor^al  part  .of  GaUini's  treaitise^  with. the 
^ame  sto»es;of  tb^  wonderfal  powers  of  the  ancient  mtdiies 
Bathyilus  tand  Py lades,  at  .Rome,  their  c|uai9rel^  and  the 
feuds  it ooG^^ioned;  and  liis  biographer. seems  to  think 
that  he  never  bad  literatune  sufficient  to  wrke  an  original 
.work  in.  bi^  own  language,  or  even  to.tnaoslate  such  aiuiie 
us  that  of  .NoTerup  or  Githusaei  into  any  language.  Gallini, 
by  taemperanca  and  exerei^^  enjoyed. a  good  stale  of 
l»sakby^and  escaped  ideorepiiude.  to  the.Wt:  for  it  was 
said  Jn^tbe  priivbeici  fKv^utita.tbat  ^*  sir  John  Gatlini,  on  8a^ 
ilnrday,  5thof  Januaryv>1805,  rung  his  bell  at  eight  o'clock, 
and,,  upon  his  servaoft  entering,  bis  chambep,  ordered  his 
breakfasj}  to.  be  prepared immedia^ly,. bis chmse^otba^ 
the  door  at  nine  o*olQck,.  and.  bis  chariot  in  watting  nt 
ihree^'^  A  few  minutes  after  ginns  these  direction^. he 
jcaomplained  of  not  being  well,  and  said,  *^  I  will  resli  till 
nine  o'clc»ck."  In  half  an  hour  he  tang  bis  bell  again,  and 
iDEdered  medical  a^tance,  as  be  had  a  violent  pain  in,  bis 
stomach.  On  Hayes  and  Dr.  Wood  immediately  aUeiided ; 
but  at  nineo'clockheexpired  without  agfoan,  aged  aibopt7tl.^ 
.  GALLOIS  (John),  a  learued  Kreuobman,.  was^boi^of 
a  good  family,  ajtParis,  in  1632^  He  badsitudied  4iv«iBii)ty, 
ecclesiastical  > and  profane,  histoiy,  pbilos^phy^  matbemn- 
tics,  tbei^Oriental,  together  with  tbe  ItaUap,  ^paai$b,  £og^ 
lisb,  apd  German  languages ;  and  was  deemed  an  uni«^cir* 
.sal  scbobr.  Hejs  now  memorable  chi.e6y  for.  having  b^en 
the^fimt  who  publisbcid  the  <^  Journal  de^  Sgava^V'  ^i^ 
.conjunction  with  Sallo,  who  bad 'formed,  the  ^psign 
.of  tfais^  work.  The.  first  journal  was^  {^iblisbed  Pn  Jw*  S^ 
J66S ;  but  these  gentlemen  censured  new  books  with  so 
jQouch  severity,,  that  the  whole  tribe  of  iauthors  rose  up 
against  their  work,  and  ef&ptualiy^  cried,  it  down.  Do 
£aUo  abandoned  it  entirely,  after  having  published  a  tkird 
journal,  in  March  foUowii^.  -  GalJois  was  delermiMd.  M 

A  8«e8's  Cyclopc<lia.--Gc9t.  Ji^ag.  1105. 

G  A  L  L  O  I  S.  $tn 

vrntinue  it,  yet  did  not  venture  to  send  oat  a  Ibufdi 
jotrrnal  till  Jan.  1666,  and  then  not  without  an  fattmbW 
!0utvertt8eaieDt  in,  the  begioning  of  it,  in  which  it  isde« 
dared,  that  the  author  ^  will  not  preeume  to  criticise,  but 
mriy  simfily  to  give  an  account  of  books."     This,  and  the 
*f)rotectioii  shewn  by  the 'minister  Colbert,  who  was  much 
.fiteiisfed  with  the  work,  gradually  reconciled  the  public  to 
-Che- Joiimal«r  Thus  began  literary  journals, which  have  been 
-continued  from  that  time  to  this  under  various  titles,  a»d 
'by  various  authors ;  among  whom  are  the  nanet  of  Bayle 
«^d  Le  Cierc*     Gallois  continued  hia  journal  to  1674, 
iwben  more  impomlwt  4>oeupmtions  obliged  him  to  drop  it, 
or  rather  tmnsfet  it  to  another  person.    Colbert  had  taken 
liim  into  his  hcMise.  the  year  before,  with  a  view  of  being 
'  tanght  Latin  by  him ;  and  the  minister  of  state,  it  is  said, 
•fook  most  of  ^bis*  lesson j|  in  bis  coadi,  as  he  journeyed  from 
Vertoilles  to  Paris.    Voltaire  observes  on  this  occasion, 
ahat  ^<  the  two  men,  who  have  been  tbe  greatest  patrons 
of  learning,  Louis  XI V.  and  Colbert,  neither  of  tbemnnr 
'  derstOHod  Lattn.^'     Gallois'  bad  been  made  member  of  the 
«cad«myof  sciences  in  1668,  and  of  the  French  academy 
in:i675.     He  lost  his  patron  by  death  in  168&;  and  then^ 
^  being  nt  liberty,  was  first  made  librarian  ta  the  king,  and 
.afterwards  Greek  professor  in  the  royal  college*     He  died 
of  tb£^  dropsy  in  t.707  ;  and    in  I7i0  a  cat^ogue  of  hip 
bpokfWas  primed  at  Paris,  coasistiog  of  upwards  of  12,000 
^volumes.    It  isrema^rkable  of  this^^eamed  i^an,  that  though 
he  bad  served  mmy  friends  by  bis  interest  with  Calbert, 
yet  he  bad  neglected  to  make  any  provision  for  Umself : 
Whence  it  bappet)edj  that,  at  the  death  of  that  minister, 
)ie  t^as  but  in  poor  circumstances,  ahhoogh  an  abb6;  ^ 
.    GALLONIUS  (Anthony),  a  native  of  Home,  where 
he  died  in  1605,  eacelied  in  theology,  and  was  priest  of 
the  congregation  of  the  oratory*     His: works  were  nu- 
merous, but  be  is  chiefly  known  by  his '^*  gli 
instfumenti  di  Martirio,  &c.'*;  '^  A  Treatise?  on  the  de- 
ferent kinds  of  Cruelties  inflicted  by  the  pagans  onHhe 
Martyrs  of  the  primitive  Cburojb,  illustrated  with  engrav* 
ings  of  the  instruments  of  torture  made  use  of>  by  them/* 
This  work,  first  published  in  Italian  in  1591,  was  compiled 
from  unquestionable  authorities.  In  1594  the  author  trans* 
:1m^  it  into  Latin,  and  published  it  at  Borne,  under  tl^e 

Hi  G  A  L  t  0  N  I  U  S. 

title  *  De  Sanctorum  Martytnm  CrwciatilMM,  &c.**  illus- 
trated vfith  wood  eutft.  It  has  since  gone  through  matif 
editions  on  the  continent.  In  1591  he  {Published  hit 
*  History  of  the  Virghls,**  also  in  Italian  ;  «  The  Uves  df 
Certain  Martyrs,'*  1 597,  4to ;  "  Th^  LHe  of  St.  Philip 
Neri ;"  and  "  De  Monaehatu  Sancti  Gregorii,"  the  ac*- 
count  of  St.  Gregqry  when  a  monk,  ih  1604.* 

GALLUCCI  (Angelo),  ati  Italian  Jesuit,  was  born  at 
Matcerata  in  1 593,  and  in  his  thirteenth  year  entered  the 
'Jesuits*  college,  i^rhere  he  war  educated,  and  where  bt 
ttfterwards  taught  Aetoric  for  twenty-four  years.  He  died 
«t  Rome,  Feb.  i28,  1^74.  He  is  the  aiuthor  of 'some  Latih 
prations,  but  principally  of  a  history  of  the  wars  of  the 
Ketherlands,  ^  Commentatii  de  Bello  Birigico,"  including 
the  period  from  1593  to  1609.  This  history,  which  is  writ* 
ten  in  I.atin,  ¥^s  published  at  Rome,  1671,  2  vols.  fol. 
dnd  in  1*677  in  2  vols.  4to.  It  was  afterwards  traOshted 
into  Italian  by  James  Cellesi.  His  style  is  pure,  but  lesi 
-ftowing  than  his  predecessor  on  the  same  subject,  Strada.  * 
'^  GALLUCCI  (John  PAt/L),  a  learned  Italian  astronomer^ 
"♦rtio  lived  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  was  a  member  off 
<he  academy  of  Vefiice,  is  said  to  have  invented  an  instrti^ 
knent  for  observing  the  celestial  phcBnomena.  He  pubtisheA 
%evefal  works,  among  which  are,  1.  "  pella  fabrica  etnsl^ 
4i  diversi  stromenti  di  Astr6nomia  et  Cosmografia,**  Venice, 
1 597.  2.  «  Specimen  Uraniciim,'*  Venice,  1 593.  3.  *«  Cop*. 
iestium  corpOrum  et  rerum  ab  ipsis  pendentium  Explieatio,^ 
Venice,  1605.  This  work  has  been  improperly  ascribed 
to  Paulus  Galvicins  in  the  catalogue  of  Thtianus's  library. 
4.  "Tiieatrum  mundi  et  temporis,**  Venice,  15^9;  5. 
**  De  Themate  erigendo,  parte  fortunse,  divisiorie  Zodiac?, 
'dignitatibus  Planeftarmn  et  temp0ribus  ad  medicandum  ac- 
commodatis.**  This  is  printed  with  "  Hasfurtus  de  cOg^ 
lioscendis  et  medendis  morbis  ex  corpdrum  ccelestitmi  po«- 
sitione,  cui  argumenta  et  explicattonem  inscripsit,'*  Ve- 
nice, 1584.* 

'  GALLUCCI  (Tarquinius),  an  Italian  Jesuit,  was  bom 
at  Sabina,  in  Italy,  in  1574,  and  was  for  some  years  a  ce- 
lebrated professor  of  rhetoric  at  Rome.  He  was  then  madls 
irector  of  the  Greek'  college  in  that  city,  where  he  dictel 
July  28,  1649.  Re  published  a  small  volume  of  orations 
to  varioQs  literary  arguments^  an  oration  recited  by  him  at 

>  Mor^rl— Gen.  Diet.  •  Gea.  Dict.--^Moreri.    '  ^  ibid. 

GAL  LtJCtJ  I.  «5I 

Ibe  faneral  of  cardinal  BeUanmoe^'aWo  **  Virgilianfli  Winr 
dicaUonesyV  with  three  commeniaries  qq  tragedy,  coinedy^ 
and  elegy,  Rome,  1621,  4lo.  He  was  a  gtreouaus  de« 
fender  of  Virgil,  iQ  whose  behalf,  agitintt  Homer,  he  coa^ 
tended  wtlh  madam  Daoier.  His  moat  considerable  pub* 
lication  was  a  commentary  on  Aristotle^s  Morals,  published 
at  Paris,  2  vols.  fol.  1632 — 1645. ' 

GALLUS  (Cornelius),  an  ancient  Roman  poet,  and  a 
person  of  distinction,  was  born  at  Frejus,  in  Provence,  or 
as  some  think  Friuli,  in  Italy.  He  was  the  particular  fa- 
vourite of  Augustus  Caesar,  who  made  him  governor  of 
Egypt,  after  the  death  of  Antony  and  Cleopatra ;  but  he 
was  guilty  of  such  mal-administratU)n  in  his  government^ 
that  be  was  condemned  to  banishment,  and  deprived  of 
his  estate.  This  disgrace  so  afflicted  him  that  he  put  an 
end  to  his  life,  when  he  was  aged  about  forty-three,  in 
the  year  26.  Virgil  has  complimented  him  in  many 
places ;  and  the  whole  tenth  eclogue  is  on  the  subject  of 
his  love  to  Lvcoris,  the  poetical  name  of  Gallus's^  mistress, 
whose  cruel  oisdain  is  there  lament<ed»  Gallus  had  written 
four  books  of  elegies  on  his  amour,  which  Propertius  com- 
mends; but  Quintilian  thinks  him  not  so  tender  as  Tibuk- 
lus  or  Propertius.  .As  to  tho^e  six  elegies  which  have  been 
published  under  his  name,  the  critics  are  agreed  that  they 
are  spurious,  and  that  they  were  written  by  Maximus 
Etruscus,  a  contemporary  with  Boethius.  Aldus  Manutius 
met  with  some  fragments  at  Venice  ascribed  to  Gallus; 
which,  though  written  in  a  better  taste^  than  the  former, 
Joseph  Scaliger  has  proved  to  be  also  spuriiaus.  Some 
think  he  is  the  auttior  of  the  little  poem  called  ^^  Ciris,^* 
found  among  the  works  attributed  to  Virgil.  His  iragr 
ments  have  been  printed  with  the  editioqs  of  Catullus, 
printed  in  1659,  1755,  &c.  ^ 

,  GALLY  (Henky),  an  English  divine,  born  at  Broken- 
bam,  in  Kent,,  in  August  1696,  was  admitted  pensioner  of 
Bene't  college,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Fawcett,  May  8, 
1714,  and  became  scholar  of  the  house  in  July  following. 
He  took  the  degree  of  M-  A.  in  1721,  and  was  upon  the 
king's  list  for  that  of  D.  D.  (to  which  he  was  admitted 
April  S5,  172H)  when  his  majesty  honoured  the  university 
of  Cambridge  with  his  presence.     In  1721  he  was  chosen 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri. 

S  Vottiu*  ^  Pott.  Ut.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Ut.-^Saxii  Onomast 

154  G  A  L  L  Y. 

kotarer  of  St  Paurt  Covent^^rden^  ami  tnsUtiited  tb€)i 
same  year  to  the  rectory  of  WaYMden^  or  Wandeii,  itt 
Buckinghaoisbire.  The  lord  diaacelk)r  King  .appointed 
him  his  domestic  chaplain  in  172d,  pfefinrred  him  to  a  prcs^ 
bend  in  the  church  of  Gloucester  in  17^S,  aiid  to^aAotheri 
in. that  of  Norwich  about  thi«e  years  after.'  He  presented'^ 
him  likewise  to  the  rectory  of  Ashney,  alias  'AsbtOfl,  iri^ 
Northamptonshire,  in  1730;  and  to  that  of  St.  Giles's in^ 
the  fields,  •  in  1732 ;  his  majesty  made  him  also  one-  of  his^ 
chaplains  in  ordinary  in  October  17^5*  Div  Gaily  diedi 
August  7y  1769.  He  was  the  au^or  of,  K  ^' Two  ser^ 
mens  on  the  Misery  of  Man,  preached  at  Su  Paulas  Cp^ 
yeiit<>garden,  1723,'*  8vo.  2.  *<  The  Moral  Characters  of^ 
Theophrastus,  translated  from  the  Greek,  with  notes,  and' 
a  Critical  Essay  on  Characteristic  Writing,''  1725,  9vo^'^ 

3.  '>  The  Reasonableness  of  Church  and  College  Fine^- 
asserted,  and  the  Rights  which  Churches  and  Colh^s^ 
have  in  thefar  Estates  defended/'  1731,  8vo.  This  nvasan- 
ansmer  to  a  pamphlet  called  ''  An  Enquiry  into  the  Cus- 
tomary Estates  and  Tenants  of  those  who  bold  Lands*  of 
Ghufch  and  other  Foundations  by  the  tenure  of  three  Lives* 
and  tweBty-»one. years.     By  Everard  Fleetwood,  esq."'8vo.- 

4.  "  Serax>n  before. the  House  of  Commpons,  upon  the^ 
Accession,  June  11,  1739,"  4to.     5.  **Soake  Considera- 
tions upon  Clandestine  Marriages,"  1750,  8 vo.    This  was 
much  enlarged  in  a  second  ^edition,  the  year  following^  and 
bad  the  honour  afterwards' to  be  noticed  ii>  the  house  of 
commons  in  the  ddbate8;on  the  marriage  act.     6.  >'  A  Dis*-  ■ 
sertation  against  pronouncing  the  Greek  laDgoageacoord*-  AccenU,"  1754,  1755,  8vo.     7.  ff^A  Secoild  Di«i 
sertation,''  on  the  same  subject,  8  vo.^      .':  .     ^:    : 

GALVANI  (Lewis),'  from  whose  name  the  appellation.- 
of  Galvanism  was  given  to  a  supposed  ^nev  principle  ill 
nature,  aUo  called  animal  electricity,  wasboru  Sept.  1^  ^ 
1737,  at  Bologna,  of  a  family,  isever^  o£  which  had  distitr* 
guisbed  themsel?es  in  the  professions  of  law  and  diiutiity*    ' 
III  i)is  early  youth  he  shewed  a  great  jpropensity  to  religi-^ 
ous  austerities ;  but  being  dissusuled  frum  entering  into  an 
order  of  monks,  whose  conrent  be- frequented,  he  directed' 
bis  attention  to  the  study  of  medicine.     He  pursued  this'  j 
study  under  able  masters,  and  gained  their  esteem,  espe-    - 

cially  that  of  professor  Galcazzi,  who  received  him  into    ^ 

-  '  •  •      ' 

^    ^  Nichoii's  Bowver.— Lord  Orford's  Works,  vol,  V.  p:  3fi,  "      ,- 

G  A  L  V  A  It  h  Ut 

lun  iiM9^  and  g«.ve  him  hisdmigbter  in  marriage.  To  tbitf 
Hiioii  kh  st^cess  in  life  is  in  a  great  naeasave  to  ba  ascribed* 
Id  1762)  after  haviag  suslained  an  inaugural  dwsis,  .'<  De 
.OssibuV'  he  was  appoinled  public  lecturer  in  the  univer-^ 
•ity  of  fiologua,  and  reader  in  anatomy  to  tbe  institute  in 
that  city^  cls^eily  by  the- interest  of  bis  wife's  relatieAs* 
3y  the  excelience  of  bis  method  of  teaching  he  obtained 
.crowded  audtenoes,'  and  by.  his  researches  and  espertmetit^ 
in.  physiology  and  comparatire  anatoiny.  he  established  a 
higjtk  reputaiioQ  throughout  the  schools  <rf  Italy.  A  smgu- 
lar  accident  is  said  to  have  giren  birth  to  the  discoyery 
which  has  immortalized 4ns. name.  His  wifc^^  to.  whom  he 
was  most  tenderly  attached,  being  in  a  declining  state  of 
health,  used  a  soup  made  from  frogs,  as  a  restorative ;  and' 
some  of  these  animals,  skinned  for  the  purpose,  happening 
to  lie  on  a  table  in  Galvanfs  laboratory,  on  whieb  was 
ptj^eed.  an- electrical  .machine,  one  of  the  assistants  in  his 
ei:periments,.  by  accident,  broughtihe-poiiit  of  a  scalpel 
near  the  crural  oerves  of  a  frog  lying  not  far  from  the  con- 
ductor. Instantly  the  muscles  of  the  limb. were  agitated 
wit;h  .strong  convulsions.  The  experiment  was  repeated, 
the  fact  ascertained,  and  a  long  series  of  new  eBperiments,; 
ingeniously  varied^  were,  put  in  execution^  by  which  he 
investigated  the  law  of  nature  of  which,  accident  had  thus 
given  him' a  glimpse^  .  His  first  publication  or  tbe  Subject 
was  printed  lor  tbe  institute  at  Bologna  in  179},.  and  en- 
titled *{  Aioysii  <}alvani  de  viribus  Electricitatis  in  motu 
Muscuiari  Commentarius;".  This  work  immediately  excited 
tbe:attentioB  of  philosophers  both  in  Italy  and  other  coun<^ 
tries»..  and  the  e^^periments  were  repeated  and  extended. 
In  the  hands  of  the  celebrated  Yolta,  the  agent  wqb  in*' 
creased  in  power  to  a  great  extent;  and,  directed  by  the 
genius  of  sir. Humphrey  Davy,  it  has  already  led. to  most' 
important  discoveries  in  regard  to  the  composition  of  many* 
^bstances,  heretofore  deemed  elementary,  and  bids  fair 
to  change  the  whcde  face  of  chemical  science.         - 

In^  coni unction  with  his  physiological  inquiries,' the du^ 
tiesof  his  professorship,  and  bis  employment  as  a  surgeon ' 
and  accoucheur,  in  which  practice  be  was  very  eminent,' 
gave- full  occupation  to  tbe  industry  of  Calvani.  3  Besides 
a  number  of  curious  observations  on  the.  urinary  organs, -^ 
and  on  the  organ  of  hearing  in  birds,  which  were  published- 
in  the  Memoirs  of  the  Institute  of  Bologna,  he  drew  up 
Various  memoirs  on  professional  topics^  which  liave  re- 

i4§  GAL  VAN  I. 

Qiainjed  inQdlted.  ,.  He  regularly  held  learned  odnversatimk 
with  a  few  literacy  fcieods,  iq  which  oew  works  were  read 
and  commented  upon.     He  was  a  man  of  most  amiable 
character  in  private  life,  and  possessed  of  great  sensibility^ 
Insomuch  that  the  deat^  of  his  wife,  in  1790,  threw  bitt 
into  a  profound  melancholy.     Him  early  impressions  on  the 
subject  of  religion  remained  unimpaired,  and -he  was  al** 
ways,  punctual  in  practising  its  minutest  rites.     During  theP 
troubles  in  Italy  he  had  espoused  the  side  6t -the  old  esta>« 
falished  goyernment,  and  was  stript  of  all  his  offices,  be-^ 
cause  he  refused  to  take. the  oaths  of  allegiance  to  the  new 
Cisalpibe  republic  ;  and  most  of  his  relations  perished  by  ^ 
sudden  or  violent  deaths,  many  of  them  in  defence  of  their 
country.     In  a  M;ate  of  melancholy  and  poverty  ~be  retired 
to  the  house  of  his  brother  James,  a  man  of  very  respect^* 
able  character,  and  fell  into  an  extreme  debility.    The  re* 
publican  governors,  probably  ashamed  of  their  conduct* 
towards  such  a  man,  passed  a  decree  for  his  restoration  to ' 
his  professional  chair  and  its  emoluments :  but  it  was  now ' 
too  late.     He  expired  Dec.  5,  1798.^ 

GAMA  (Yasco,  or  Vasquez  di),  an  illustrious  Portu*^ 
gueze,  is  immortalized  by  his  discovery  of  the  passage  to.' 
the  East  Indies  by  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  ^  The  mari?* 
time  town  of  Sines  in  Portugal  was  the  place  of  hi^  birtb,  * 
his  faotlly  was  good,  but  not  noble,  till  made  so  by  the 
honours 'he  acquired.     In  1497,  Emaime)  king  of  Portugal, 
earnestly  desirous  of  making  discoveries  in  those  parts  of  . 
the  globe,  appointed  Gama  to  command  an  expedition  to 
endeavour  to  sail  round  the  Cape,  then  called  the  Cape  of 
Tempests*    Yasco  highly  pleased  with  this  appointment^A. 
which  suited  his  undaunted  and  adventurous  spirit,  sailed  . 
from  the  Tagus,  July  8,  having  two  ships  besides  his  own,  . 
and  a  store  ship.     At  Lisbon  he  was  generally  considered 
as  going  to  certain  destruction,  'and  th^  whole  equipment.  . 
as  devoted ;  but  though,  on  his  approach  to  the  Cape,  he 
actually  encountered  dreadful  storms,  his  perseverance  was  , 
not  to  be  conquered^     Like  Columbus,  he  had  to  contend 
with  the  mutinous  despondence  of  his  own  people,  as  well  . 
as  with  the  elements,  but  was  superior  to  all.     Having, 
doubled  the  Cape  on  the  2(Hh  of  November,  he  sailed 

along  the  eastern  coast  of  Africa,  but  met  with  inveterate  . 


^  Rees'g  aoa  Klcholsou's  Cyclop8Bdias.'«*Thomso9*9  HUt.  of  the  Eojal  Sootetx* 
•-^Philoiopbiclir  Trabsaetions. 

G  A  M  A.  2Si 

b^Mity  tnd  tmpkterj  horn  the  Moori^  settlers,  except 
tbe  king  of  Melindn.  He  proceeded  as  far  as  Caliqnt^ 
doubled  tbe  Cape  again  in  April  1499,  and  returned  to 
lisbon  in  tbe  space  of  two  years  and  filAiost  two  months; 
Tbe  king  and  nation  were  oveijojed  at  this  success,  and 
bf»  was  created  c<Hiot  of  Vidtguere,  and  admiFal  of  the 
lui\Wf  Persian,  and  Arabian  seas.  Gama  now  rested  e 
few  y^ars,  while  Cabral  was  sent  out  with  thirteen  ships  i 
and  John  de  Nova,  with  a  reinforcement  of  three  more, 
visited  Calicut ;  but  it  was  found  that  greater  force  was 
Ifanledf  Md  in  1502,  be  set  sail  again,  having  twenty 
ships  imder  his  coounand*  He  returned  in  September  1 503 f 
F^  thirteee.  sbipa  laden  with  riches.  When  Emanuely  . 
Idng  ^  Portugal  died,  the  credit  of  Gama  continued  un^ 
iaip4»ired,  and  in  ]  $24,  he  was  by  hili  successor,  Jobn  III* 
appointed  viceroy  of  India.  He  returned  thither  a  tbhr4 
^me,  and  esiaUisbed  his  seat  of  government  at  Cochin^ 
bnt  died  on  the  24th  of  December  1525,  almost  as  soon  ap 
he  WM  sealed.  He  was  honoured  with  tbe  title  of  don  foi 
himself  and  his  posterity,  lind  created  a  grandee  of  Portu«> 
gal,  Oama  wfu^  formed  by  ni^ture  to  conduct  the  most 
arduous  entevpfisel.  His  intrepidity,  which  waa  invinci«- 
b}e,  wfts  not  more  remarkable  thaii  his  sagacity  and  pru^^ 
dence  :•  and  tJie  feelinga  of  bb  heart  appear  to  wonderful 
advEUtage^  when  we  find  him,  amidst  all  tbe  extravagancy 
of  piiblip  applause,  after  his  first  return  from  India,  droop* 
i9g  6>r  the  loss  of  his  brother  and  companion  of  his  voyage, 
Pai|li)s  de  Cema,  and  unable  to  enjoy  bis  fame.  He  ioA 
ftfen  sent  his  flag*sbip  home  before  him,  under  tbe  com* 
Ifeppd  c^  CSoiello,  bis  next  oMcer,  that  be  might  attend  and 
sooth  the  death-bed  of  this  beloved  brother.  Such  a 
victory  pf  tenderness  over  urdent  and  successful  ambition^ 
g^ves  a  better  picture  of  bis  heart  than  the  most  elaborate 
eulogiuiB.  The  poem  of  Camoens,  entitled  <'  The  Ln^ 
^iad,"  on  Giima's  first  expedition,  is  now  well  known  in 
fim  coun^  by  Mickle^s  able  tradslation.  ^ 

GAMACHES  (Stephen  Simok),  a  writer  of  some  emi* 
nwce,  and  a  member  of  the  Freneh  academy  of  sciences^ 
W9|(  bom  at  Meulan  in  1672,  and,  entering  the  clmrcdi^ 
pibtiiiued  the  office  of  canon  of  the  Holy  Cross  de  U  ]^« 
feoejpnere,  aod  died  at  Paris  in  1 7  56 .  He  was  m uch  esteemed 
for  his  literary  talents,  which  appeared  in  the  foltowuig 

Vol.  XV.  ^  S^ 

253  GAM  AC  H  E  S. 

^rorks:  I.  <*  Physical  Astronomy,'*  1740,  4t6.'    f .  «  tSte^ 
rary  and  Philosophical  DtsserUktions,'*  1755,  8vo.     3.  **  Sys- 
tem of  the  Christian  Philosopher,"   1721,  8vo.     4.  <^  Sys*' 
tern  of.  the  Heart,"  p.ubiished  in  1 708,  under  the  feigned 
name  of  Clerigny.     5.  **  The  Elegancies  of  Language  re>* 
duced  to  their  Principles,"  a  book  called  by  one  writer,  the 
'^Dictionary  of  fine- Thoughts,"  and  by  others  pronouticdd 
to  besLwork  which  every  man  who  whites  should^  read-' 
/i.GAMBARA  (Lorenzo),  was  an  Italian  poet  of  the  sijc- 
teentbioenttii^y,  protected  and  beloved  byr  cardinal  Aleic*^' 
ander  Farnese,  whose  writings  were»  much  esteemed  in  hiir 
day,  hnt  now  are  thought  flat  and  insipid/'   He  wrote; 
1.  '.^A  ^Ld^n  treatise  on  Poetry^   in   which  <he  dis^uadeii 
Christian  poets  frooi  using  pagan  mythology i"'    This  was 
the  0minde  banarable  for  many  Ui^ntioos   a^d' profane 
poema:  written  in  his  youth/    2^.  '<  A  Lattin  'po^m  -on  Co^ 
iusnbusi"  V  Alsoeck>gues,(«dtilledi  ^^^  VenaMMria^^'and.dtb^r 
pfodiicticaui.     Mur^iis  treau  this  atiriio^r'  w'itb  the  »gtp^aal^t 
cbotempt^  but  he  is  highly  praised  by^  4Siraldi  tmd  MjtttUi^ 
tins.  -^He  died  in  1^586^'  at^he  age  of. 90.*  '    »    -  ^   -  --"♦  * 
GAMfiARA  (Veronica),-  an  Italian  poMess^  born  Mti 
1.43r5^ .  was  the  daughter ;  of'  the  count  John  (Frafieis  Oani*^ 
bara^  iand  was  married  in  1509  toiGibetto  X.  lord  of  Gori 
reifgio,  wbeni.she  survived  manj^  years.     Her  natui'al'diS'^ 
position,  the  oourse  oi  her  education,'  and,  above  all  pet-^ 
bapSy»the:instnictiom  and  advice  of  Peter  Bemfbtd,-  led  her 
in  her  youth  to:  devote  a  part  of  her  leisure  to  the^cultiV^-^ 
.  tiM  of  her  rpoeticisd  talents,  which; through  aUthe  vibb8i«« 
tildes  ofherfutare-life,  was  her  occasional  amtisei&ient.'  ''Itt 
1528  she  went  i  to  re^de.  at  Bologna,  <^  with  a  brother  wk'd 
was  governor,  of  tbatxitj,^  where  ^e  established  a  kind iof 
academy;  that  waa  frequemedbymany  of  tbeiiteritti,'  wbd 
then  resided  at  the  Roman  court.   -On  her  return'  to  'C^r- 
ireg^o,^  she  had  the  honour  of  receivirfg  as'faergtk^stfthe 
emperor  Ghavles  V.     She 'died  in'  155<).  •   Her 'writings 
which  had  been  dispersed  inJ various  collections  t>f  tbetiine; 
'  were  corrected  and  published  by.  Zamboni  in  nid^  ^Efpes* 
cia,  8vo,  with  a  life  of  the  authoress.    They  dispfaiy  a;  pie- 
puliar  originality  and  vivacity,  .both  in  sehtinient  and  1^'^ 
guage,  which  raise  them  far  >above)tbose  insipid  efFosicfha^ 
which  under  the  nao^e  of  sonnets  at  that  tiibe*  inundated 
Italy.*  ■  .•..,...        .'.!'.» 

1  Diet.  Hist  *.  Tirabo8cIii,«— Moff«n.rr)^a3ui  Onomatt. 

^  Tirai>Q8cbi,  vol.  VIL— Roscoe's  Itfo^f—Morcri. 

G  A  M  B  OLD.  2S9 


GAMBOLD  (John),  a  pious  bishop  among  the  Mora^k 
vian  brethren,  was  bom  near  Haverford  Wes  in  Sduth^ 
Wales,  and« became  a  member  of  Christ- church,  Oxford^ 
"Where  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  May  30,  1734;  and 
^waa  afterwards  vicar  oi  Stanton  Harcourt,  in  Oxfordshire^ 
to  which  he  was  presented  by  Dr.  Seeker,  when  bishop  of 
Oxford.  At  this  place,  in  .1740,  he  wrote  *^The  Martyr* 
dom  of  Ignatius,  a  Tragedy/'  published  after  his  death  by 
the  rev.  Benjamin  La  Trobe  ^th  the  Life  of  Ignatius^ 
drawn  from  authentic  accottats^  and  from  the  epistles  wiii* 
ten  by  him  from  Smyrna  and  Troas  in  his  way  to  Bome, 
1773,  8vo.  A  sermon,  which  he  preached  before  tbft 
university  of  ^Oxford,  was  published  under  the  title  q( 
**  Christianity,  Tidings  of  Joy,'*  1741,  8?o-  In  1742  he 
published' at  Oxfprd,  frofn  the- University '^press^  a  neat 
edition  of' the  Greek  Testament^  but  without  kis  name^ 
.^^  Textu  per  icm(inia!Milliaho,'  cum  ijiv^'ione  pericoparum.  & 
'  interpuucturi  A.  Beugelii,''  l2mo.  >  Joining  afterwajrda die 
Churthrof  the  Brethren*,. established  by  an  act  of  parlia«- 
meht  of  1749 1,'  and  known  by. the  liame  of  ^*  Unitas -Fra^ 
trum,V  or,* the tUnited  Brethren;  he  was,  for  many  years, 
iAieVegular  minister  of  the  congregation  settled  at  Loudoa), 
and  f  resided  in  Neville's*court,  Fetter*lane,  ¥^ere  he 
pVeached  at  the  chapel  oi  the  society. .  His  connexion  with  ' 
these  sectaries  commenced  in  I748,wwheu  PeterrBoehler 
visited.Oxford,  and  held  frequent  .meetings  with  John  and 
Charles- Wesley,  for  the  edification  qS  awakmed  people, 
both  learned  and  unlearned.  His  discourses  were  in  Li^, 
and.. were  interpreted  by  Mr.  Gambold.  He  was  cfpnse-* 
crated  a  bishop  .at  an  English  proviocial'  synod  held  at 
<Lindley  house  in-  Nov.  1754,  and  was  greativ  esteemed  for 
l^ts  piety  and  lelurning  l>y  several  JEngHsb  bisobps,  who  had 

*  The  foU$^wmgparticttlartt  were  com-  and  patron,  to  associate  with  pefople^ 

municated  to  the;  author  of  the  '*  A&^c-  amcmg  wbom,  though  he  might  h^'iii-  , 

dbtes^  Bo#fer'^  by  a:  friend  #ho  ko^w  .voeent,  havebeen  somie  monMhSros  dM- 

himinUiec^rljrpaft<»flife:  VMr.Oam-  jacters.    When  he  wm  youngs  he  bad 

bold  was  a  singular,  over-zealbus)  but  nearly  perished  through  disregard  to 

Innocent  enthusiast.  -  tie  hirti  nbt  quite  - bta  person.  -  'At  Ihis^  thMe  he  was^kindly 

jfire.en<ragh  in  hin^  ^rm  a  f999n4  Sr*  .  rtjiieTed  by-  bis  bmlili^r  collegian  in  the 

.  mean  Slylites,  He  was  presented  to  Stap*',  same  department ;  Pr.  Free,  a  person 

ton  Harcourt  by  bishop  Stecket,'  I  think  wetf  known  in  London  y  but  the  tale  is 

la-  V739,  but  caabat  be'  eeirtaia;  •  He  liot  wortk  g«rkig.»*   - 
hadbBe|^9nly«b^plai|iofChinst-charch^         f  The  "Petition  of  the  Krethr^n" 

not  a  stuHent  (the  name  given  to  the  on  this  occaston,  mo&t  probably  dfrawn 

fellows),  af  that  royal  foundation.     He  -up  by  Mr.  GatnboUlv  is  preserved  ia 

deserted   his  flock  in    jl742,    without  the  <<  Journals  of  the  House  of  CoB»- 

giyinganxnoticeto  his  worthy  diocesan  mens,*'  vol.  XXV*  p.  717, 

S  2  ■ 

itct  e  A  M  B  6  L  XL 


hum  bit  oo9i«npofi^6fl  in  ike  vnifenitV  «f  ^(brd.  In 
IJM  n  oon|^€gatKHi  wet  ttculed  by  hitBop  Gaoibdd,  afc 
jOMtfaiH,  in  tutiand.  Sdon  ^ter  be  had  joined  tbe  hr«^ 
IbneQ^  he  piihltftb«d  a  treatise^  vrklen  wbile  he  hm^  at 
£teAira  Haf court,  afid  wbioh  provea  hiaiteady  attachnnamt 
to  4^e  dttivch  «f  ^oglaird,  entirelijr  eomisOni:  wi^  bia  eon^' 
4ieiiioD  vffkh,  and  miotatry  in,  thm  lehttrch  of  the  brefehpeo. 
Tfafl  litle  «£it  ia,  ^^  A  short  autpmary  of  Cbrtttian  Doctiinc^ 
in  tim  itay  of  question  and  ansiwr ;  the  anavrets-  being  ali 
made  tnldif  aonad  and  iranaraU^  words  of  the  CoiBn»on»r 
|»rayer4M>ok  of  Ac  ahureh  of  England.  To  ii4ifh  are 
added,  awia  aattraotf  out  cf  the  Homilies.  Collected  for 
Iheaeiviae  of  a  fe^  peraott^,  aMin,hecaof  the  eptafalisbed 
ckiuneb ;  .but  iinagiped  ootJto  he  oni^efQl  to  others.'^  We 
k&9m  not  the  lexaiet  date  of  this  tueatise ;  bu€  a  siaeood  edit 
;^€aief  it  aras  printed  io  1767,  i3ma.  Mr.  Gambold  alsa 
l^uyished  in  17$1,  aw,  ^  Mdocims  and  Theological  ideaf 
smhI  Senteeo«s^  collected  out  of  several  dissertations  and 
. dmei|r»es  eif  oeum  Binaendorf,  Aom  1738  ttti  1 747."  Hi« 
^^  Hymns  for  the  use  of  tha  Bretbran^'  vnere  {urkitad  ie 
Ita^  ITid,  and  1760)  lone  Ujmat^  andta  sngall  liyron*- 
Jheeii  for  tbe  cbildnen  lietllDfigviKg  to  the  brethiien's  <ongre«* 
^atiata^  were  priaiied  entjreiybr  Mr.  Gambold's  own  band 
in  Liediacy  honse  at  Chelsea,  a  letteit  from  l/bL  damhdd 
to  Mr.  Spangeaberg,  Jane  4,  17^  cootainmg  a  eonciae 
and  aiel^wHrisien  obnraoter  of  tho  eoisat  of  Zinzendorf,  was 
jns^vtefd  in  Mr.  James  Mmaonr^s  **  Essay  towards  giving 
3oate  jtaet  idteas  of  the  persanal  cfaoracter  of  count  ^inaen*" 
4oif,  the  present  advocate  and  ovdinavy  of  the  bmthrenh 
«fallfcbes,^'  1754,  -tvo.  In  J 752  be  \)«a8  «Mikor  of  ^^  Six*- 
Heea   X>isoeipnfes  eta  the  depend  Article  of  the  Creed, 

r  ached  at.  Bevlfn  by  the  ondinary  of  she  Brethaan,f^  i  ^Hdd 
June  1753  appeared  ^^Tbe  ordinary  of  the  Brethren's 
churches  bisr  short  and  pexeipaptory  reworks  qu  th^  w^y  ^n^ 
maaiieff  wherein  he  has  been  bithefle  itxeated  in  eonttoasar-* 
5sies,  &c.     Translated  from  th.e  High  Dutch,  with  a  jpre- 

iaf^  W  J^a  Qa<nboid>  mniswg^r  of  thQ  ^kd^el  mV^teix:^ 
lane.''     In  the  same  year  he  pubUsbed,  <*  Twpiir{F*one 

disipourses,  or  dissertatip^s*  upp^n  tUe  A^g^burg  Cpxifes* 
sion,  which  is  also,  ibe  Brethren's  Confiassion  of  Faitb ;  de« 
Jivered  by  the  ordinary  of  the  Brethren's  churches  befora 
the  seminary.  To  which  is  prefi;Ked  a  .aynjpdical  wcUing 
ipeiatkig  to  the  sul^ect.  Translated  from  the  High  Dutch, 
by  f.  Okeley,  A.  Bt'*    la  1754  he  was  editor  of  <<  A  mo* 

6  A.  M  B  O  I.  D.  «ll 

defet  fien,  fcr  thm  Cburah  dP  the  Breijirimi^'  9^.  Sv9  \  m(k  % 
prefiscer  bjr  himadf.  In  tb«  sannc  yeari  iti  oorrjuntiiioii  Wtlb* 
Mr.  Hatttniy  secMHary  to  the  'bre<bren>  he  arls6  drow  up 
^<  Tte  i*e{>tei«ntatfoii  «f  the  oomiliittcie  of  tb4  Kligir«h 
<K»if^it^stti0n  in  utvion  WitH  the  Monvien  cb»rah|''  ^4-*. 
dressed  to  the  archbiillop  of  York ;  ipnd  also  '<  The  plaAllr 
ciiseof  the  representatives  of  the  people  kQom^ii  by  theiuioMt 
of  the  United  Fratrutn,  from  the  year  1727  ttil  thelse  tifuea^: 
with  regard  te  their  conduct  in  this  odantry  under  Marft-* 
^reientation."  And  in  1755  bctassistod  in  the  publica^tioiK 
ef  <<  A  letter  from  ^  minister  of  the  MoraTtan  branch  of 
Are  Unitas  Ftatfum^  logetrfaer  with  sqiims  additiotial  not^ 
by  the  Engliih  edito)*^  to  the  aulfaor  6f  the  Moratians  com« 
paeed  and  deieotiid ;''  and  «ilso  of  *^  Ah  exposition^  ^i'  true 
state  of  the  ib^tters  objected  in  England  te  Dk<i  |»eopla 
known  by  thti  n*me  of  Uaitas  Ffatruki^ ;  by  tb<!  Didififtiy  of 
the  hrmbren ;  the  tMMes  aiid  additions  by  itib  edit^**'  In 
17^6  b*  pretiiiUed  at  Fetter^tane  ch&pel,  and  printed  after* 
wafda^  a  aentton  upon  tt  piabltd  famt  and  bmhiliattoa^  ^t# . 
ting  fbj^th  *^  the  reasN>naUeoe»s  and:  extent  of  >  religidua  re%- 
tereme^."     He  mtta  not  dudy  a  gooi  sehokr,  but  ii  itoati  4i 

great  parts^  and  of  «in^lar  inediam4:al' fug^nuity.  It  wfa 
cte  in  both  thiair  iK^es  before  the  learned  Bowj^er  tl^as'ati^ 
quAim^d  tffth  brs- liaedts )  but  he  no  iooner  knetw  tketf^ 
than  h^  wsis  bappy  in  his  acqo&intttnde,  und  rsry  fr^lquendy 
ipplied  t6  hiiti  as  aft  occasional  assistaiitib  oar#6^iing:tbe 
press ;  in  tvtitch  dapaoity  Mr.  {jmftihM  jHipectatttiideit 
(among  tMiry  (Other  valuable  phWdaanm)  die  bdautiAil 
ftnd  tery  wcentate  edition  laf  lord  diviicisdler  Biicon's  works 
in  1765}  4nd  in  17611  he  was  furofesMity  t(h^  editoK,  moi 
took  an  Mti%«  paM  in  tbe  tmnstetion  iroio  the  Ub^  Duti^lk, 
f»f  ><The  iltfttdry  of  Ofe#afteidd;'*  cooUintf^  a  ^^tksi»rip<, 
tion  of  the  douniny  ami  its  inhabitants;  and  particularlry  a 
refaetJon  tif  tb«  ^i^kki  isH^ried  od  for  abdte  th^sil  thirty 
jre^vs  by  tbd  Uditds  Fraarum  at  Nevir  Hermhsit  asid  Licli^ 
tenfefe  rniAMK  6ot%nPry^  ^  Dkt^id  Ctant^  ^  sIlastraMl  watk 
m^  «ltfd  dtker  ^^dpfjeruphflki :  printed  for^  thf  brtfthpen^s 
sdi^eby'for  «)li»f«ythidr«neeof  9te<Ste  eannong  th^  Hea«- 
itbm/'  9'«i^.Sfd;  ifr4U«  ^AUMiinnof.  itGa  he  retired  t* 
bl»  iRfrKvfttdoantryy  ¥kim4  lm\'^&H^  at  Hi»f(eHord  Weti^ 

t  GANDX '(<riMt9)j  iM. «Jkle>krfiit^  ajtboUgh  little  kooim^ 
was  born  in   1619,  and  instructed  by  Vandyck;  and  his 

'  *         '  Niohols*8  Bowytr. 

i«t  :g:an;d*y;    >  . 

works  are  &  sufficient  proof  of  .the  signal  iinprovecDeAtiie 
received  from  the  precepts  and  example  of  that  greai 
master.  The  cause  of  bis  being  so  totally  unknown  »wasi 
bis  being  brought  into  Ireland  by  the  old  4nke  of  OroMiid', 
and  rietiiined  in  his  service. -And  as  Ireland  .was.  at' that 
time  in  a  very  unsettled  condition^  ^  tlie  merit  and  the- me* 
moiy  of  this  master  would  have  been  entirely  unnotibed^  if 
some  of  bis  peiformancesy  which^still  subsist,  had  not' pre* 
served  him  from  obtiviou^  There  are  at  this  dnaeinltie^ 
land  many  portraits,  painted  by  him,  of  noblemen^ and 
persons  of  fortune,  \idiich  are  very^  little  inferior  to.  Van- 
oyck,  either  for  expression,  colouring,  .  or  dignity ; '  and 
several  of  his  copies  alter  Vandyck,  which  were  in  the  Or- 
mond  collection  at  Kilkennyj  were  sold  fiar  original  paint- 
ings of  Vandyck.     Mk.  Gandy  died  in. 1689.^ 

GANGAN£LLI  (JoHN' Vincent  Antony),  who  vv»s 
elevafed  to  the  popedom  by  the  nameof  .Clement  XIV. 
was  the  son  of  a  {^sician^  and  born  in  1705.  ile  was 
educated  at  Rimini,  near  his  birth^tplace,  and  at  the  age 
of  eighteen  entered  into  the  franciscan  onier  at  Urbino; 
After  finishing /his  studies  at  various  seminaries,,  he  'waa 
appointed  in  1740  to  be  professor  of  divinity  in  the  college 
of  St.  Bonaventure,  at  Rome..  In  this  situation  he  gained 
the  good  opinion  of  pope  Benedict  XIV.  who  gave  him  the 
place  of  counsellor  of  the. holy. office;  and  io  1759  Cle-v 
anent  XIII.  made  htm-  a.caniinal.  It  is  .said  that  in  att 
his  intercourse  with  his  brethren  and  at  their  pubUc  assem^ 
blies,  he  endeavotnred  to  lower  their  tone,  and  to  pei^suadiS 
them  thatit  was'  ahnost  too  late  to  oppose  the  will  of  tbd 
sovereigns  <^  £urope  by  a  display  of  ecclesiastical  powers 
S^  This  eould  :not:  •  be  very  aoceptabie  to  the  cardinals,  who 
I>er8ist4^  in  tb^  opinioirof  the  poi^r.of  the  reigning 
,  pontiff^  and  encouraged  him  in  his  disputes  with  Erance 
and  other  kingdcmis.  .  On  the  death  of  Clemeot  XIU.  Gsm^ 
ganelli  was  elected  in  his  room  in  May.  1769,  chiefiy/bjr 
the  influence  of  the  courts  of  France  and  Spain^  .who  now 
tirged  him  to  suppress  the  orde^  of  Jesuits,  and, although 
be  did  not  enter  on  that  measure .  without ;mi;yph  deUbe^a^ 
4ion,  it  was  at  last'Carriedyand  fbrms  therprinoipaKi^Ment 
of  his  pontificate.  .  He.signed  thert>ri^f  ffor -^tbisvpurposd 
on  July  .21,  1773,  and  h  is  said,  mt^  c^ni^ei^te  re)iH^ 
lance.    The  consaqpenee  >to :  papal  power'  was  aor  doubt 



^    GANGANE.LLI.  $«t 

gi$eaA»  ,biit  k  appeared  after  all'to  be  bat  ooe  link  in  th# 
gt?eat  cbain  of  causes  fRbicb  must  relieve  tbe  world  entirely 
^<Ho  its  influence.  Ganganelli  did  not  long  sotvive  tb» 
pvent,  dying  8q»w  22,  1773.  .  After  his  death,  a  life  of 
Jiim  was  published  by  Caraccioli,  replete,  with  arreodotes 
iUustratire  of  bis  amiable  cbaraeter  and  liberal  sentimeats-; 
but  w^  juiow  not  how  to  give  credit  to  a  writer  whoisoon 
afterwards  pubtisbed  some  volumes  of  <<  Letters''  by  Gan« 
^anelU,  wlttcb,  it  is  now  universally  acknowledged,  were 
lbrgeriel«^  .  t 

'    GARAMOMD  (Claude),  a  French  engraver  and^  lett 
ter-fpunder^  was.  a  name>of  Parb,.  and  began  to  distinguisb 
himself  abbot  1510;  wben.he  fofinded  his  printing  ty^>e8^ 
dear ,  from  all  remains :  ef .  the  gotbic,  or,  as  it  is  usualljF 
called,  tbe  black  letter.     He  brought  them  to  so  great  a 
degree  of  perfection,  thai  be  ean  neither  be  denied  the 
glory  of  having  surpassed  whatever  bad  ^been  done  inr  tixis 
way  Jbefore,  nor  that  of  not. beisig excelled;  by  any  of  fats 
succ^s^ors  in  this  useful  mechanic  art<  /His  txjpm  'weim 
prodigiously  multiplied,  «  well  by  the  great  mumbiar  of 
matrices  which -he  engraved  of  ev^ry  size,  as  by:  the  ItstierB 
^bich  were  foilnded  from: these,  >  soithat  all  pnrts  of  fiorope 
were  suppliecl  with  thehi'j  and.  ar  often  as  they. were; used 
Vy  foreigners,  tfaey  took  caire,  .hyiway  of  recomowndio^ 
tbejr  woirks,  to  distifi^isb  than  by  his  narne^'  both  riii 
Italy,  Germany,  England,  aDd;evenrin'HaUai3d  ;  pattttav 
^ulariy  tbe  smsUtR<^msttv  by  w^ynf  exahUence;  was  knowdl 
emong  tbe  printera  ill  aU  tfaescbcauGiides,  by/ tbe  qame  6t 
Garamond^a  small  fi4»naB;  >;  Hei  likewise^,  by*  the^speoial 
commtind  of sFjraneis* I.  founded. three  specifes.of  Greek 
types  for .  the  uae  of  Rnhestififtepbeas, :  who^printed  with 
4i9jn  all.  bis  bean tifcil  edladnsv  .both  of: the  New  Testament, 
aod'several  Greek authers.  ::  Garamond/died  iii  15€(  ;  and 
alibis  fine  typesmame  into^tbe  hands  of  Fobrnier  the  elder, 
aneminaot  letter-founder  at. Paris. P  . 
.  G A RA^SGr  (Fft4NCi3),i  a  French  Jesuit,  and  the  author 
of.  tbe  eniffiity  biltMtednidse".Jetuits  and  the  Jansenists,  in 
tbftt  cfaifiith  of  ;Ro|iie^>'Was  bonribt  AigoulSme  in  15ft 5,  and 
haniog.'iaid  *4'  goodtifoHmdation  .of  jpaimmar-flearning,  en-^- 
teorec^of!  tb<^  J^uM  eoUege  in  16C]^.:  *  It  iras  tbe  sfS^cial 
Qi^re^pf;  .tho9e>  f^lhers^'  tcfMtiAt  none  into  their  society  but' 
youths^  gmiu9';ya|«d  Garaste  was'*npt.:wanting  in  good 

•J  .  }  i^i0rH»«^,   ::...>  <  Morerk 

t#4  QAB  A  SS  E^ 

9iluitl  'p«r^9  Hatf  4iA  lia>  ne^bct  to  Mnprove  ^Uea^  hf 
ftddi^snd  itudy;  of  wktoh  be  gwre  jm  admirable  jprd^ 
SB  Jus  book  of  ekigs^  on  tM  desth  of  Htory  IV.  anrf  in 
i:  poeoi  in  heroio .  i^ene^  addrosised  to  Lodis  XIIL  \i{>otl 
iaaagmmtioDi  io  tho  oame  of  the  cdlt^ge  ^  Poietiers; 
latlfs  cif  thtiM  two  pieocft  are^-  L  ^^  Eie^iaroid  ^d  fn<» 
nesla  morfce  HeDrki  magni  Ubtr.  singiilarisi-'  Pie^Mri^ 
liSily  4 to.  a*  ^^  Sactra  Rbelnenna  Oarimiia  il#r0fda  tio^ 
mnm  CoUegii  PktaipeiiBit  oblata  Ludo«i  Xlli.  Regi  C^Mwr 
liamssimpinsuainavgQratione/'  ibid.  The  two  following 
faeces  are  .abo  ascribed  :t6 :  biai :  !«'  ^^  Be  Wft^is^inblance 
ite  la  lumiere  da  SloteiliSfrido  Ja#iiMce>'*  Bootdeaux^  1619; 
^.  ^  Lea  cfaanpi..El3FAeq^  ponjr  JariBAcofytioil  do  Roy  Louis 
XUI.  lort  jqtt'jl  entroit^  a  fiourdeaujD  k  IViedaftion  de  isoii 

.  As  bo;bad  a  gnrat  4eal  cf  sflirllb  and  (imaginatioo,  and  a 
ctfong  iiK^p,  be  became  afSiopijlar  ppaachet^  ^n  tbe  <hitf 
eities  of  Franee.  ..-He  aivjqiistasri  biiuself  in  tbe  fhilMt 
viidi'Uiiora>meii  viTaoity^ ,  .sod  bad  »a .  pdfcoiiai^  turn  fei^  fber 
Hvit  then  in^  roigiiei.  viu^b^  Jieiag  teo£cir<^  by  a  «uititble  / 
deliY^ryy  made  deep:  impfeBifoba  iqifsa  bia  ail#iende4    Bvi€ 
be  wa6  no$  coa^fiiot  with  tbefaoabur^iie  tbuadid  t^bis  ^eti 
His  avbkiofi  led  hioi  ta  ^m  at  bdbg  moi^e  OKtehaivdy 
aervicMble  by  ii^  wisitiDg*.    Witb  ^t  spirit)  wbilQ  y^  ht 
bis  oonMsiste,  be  pebibibed  in  1614.  a,;  deffffftce  of  the  JeM 
saila  agaioflt  tbr^c^  of  tbeii  adversbrieitat  bnoe;    Tbii^  pieei^ 
be^entitledi  *^  The.  Hevoscope  of  ADts^doton^  togesber  with 
theiife^  deatby  borialr  and  apbtbeosss  ef  Ma  tvKo^^  cnU9hi<k 
.fpemaas  Man^iereand  He^deialfiere.^    Tbe  treatise  ap«* 
Ipeasad  under  a  feigned  nanbCM'^d  wasdfasvik  vp  in  Ati 
itooiadi  style^  bet.iaoiiwirtivittan^  by  buf^iiery^;  and^ 
in  tbe  auise  ntgm;  «nd:  slyle,  be  priosed  in  161^,  ^<  The 
Gal?in«ilic  Xiixir^  or.Refenn^  Pbilosapiier^s'StOHe)  flnst 
di^  op  by  Cabin  aa  Geneva^  and  afeeimvda  ffoHshed  by 
Isaa^  Casaubon  at  I^onttet^  wilfa  the  testamentary^  cod^x 
of  Attfci-'C^ton^  lately  feuhdnpos  Charanttin«-bri^."  l%e 
first  of  ftbes^  k.  entitled  ^^  >Aminm  8abtb||pli  Osipiurlif^ 
frairis  borosceptts,''  4uu  %4nlw«rp»  l#44y  4tfc  *  Tb^  ie^ 
eond  '^  Andres  SebiappiiCk^iBiia  Amifo  Eixir  GiiAi^M^ 
Onm^V  &c.  ibid*  165.1^  8to«.  .In*llielNMlie'aiUifcfi^  tiftf 
tbree  following  pteoeai;   L.t^l/Antumfd^  ^  ^ftklkMim 
deleLettrede6laratWftdttiFere.C4iM»r  J«l%  CMi    a*. 
<*  Plajrdoye  du  Piei;re  de  laMartiliere  Avocat  en  nurleBient 
pour  le  Recteor  de  VVjmemt£  ^it'-^ith  Scentrn  tea  Je«^ 

Harass  8:  ^ifet 

Witt/'  PiAsi  iGlSf,  av([».  3.  ««  PMH  HM«Wnli«rK  Aifld^ 
AeM^itf  a  t^»riii{ei»i  adv^us  PV^ibif tcrbi  ft  BdlMUiftMb 
Colklgii  OtiMihObtoiiii  hlkbiU  Iti  6«natti  PiitfitfeA^i.  anltt. 
14^1 1,"  PftKfl,  i^if,  9to.  Nic^roti t>b^rve4,  chM  Mr iUb 
fhor'g  §atiri€al  style  Waiyery  like  tbut  of  the«lfMli«  Sdltdf^ 
pius,  whieh  #as  apparency  th(^  reaibtt  Of  his  chfiiftihg  ift^ 
iteaftk,  #lilch  suited  bim  iexftbtly  v^«lL  .       -» 

Tbe  iwd  subsequent  yc^iu^s  he  ^mpldyed  bilk  peh  Iti  AMMI 
Ulid  pane^fic,  boih  grossly  tx^ggttAiei.  Tb^Mr  ptMiS^ 
liyrics  Hre,  1. '^Oraisen  L'Aiidre«; 'd«  Ne^^oidtid  pf^MMt 
Pfesideflt  du  Pltrlemetit  de  BoiirdtatlX.**  iThU  ol'ittcm  Wi(| 
made  iti  1616,  wh^n  tbat  president  died,  aiid  wa^  priln«A 
with  his  reitionstrances  atLy<H)4,  i6St,  4te.  2.  '^Coldft^ 
Henribo  Mligho  in  poiite  titiVo  positti^,  Ottrmeft/*  PiHii^ 
!617,  4tOi  That  fittnous  equestrfah  statue  wu  ^reeAM 
Aug.  25^  1614.  The  sMtife  i»»  '^  L6  batkqii^  d««  Pli^jr^ 
doiers  de  Mt.  8eWlti^  ^r  Ctitfftet  d<^  rEsj^luMlH"*  letf; 
8vo;  a  lf>ii^(ilMt  attack  dh  the  ui^nrat^  S^tthl; 

III  1 618,  be  tbdk  tb«  ibiir  vows,  kbd  betettus  li  Mbisf  ttF 
his  oitta*.  I'hif  ii  «he  higher  tide^  toHfttt^d  dn  that  0^ 
itby  tAht  bf  ihe  thMtotic  Itt^titatMrfft ;  MA  tPOtr  ftUttfti!', 
b^ilg  ih^eUby  admttMd  t6  t^ad  «itt  ^lidy  this'  MMittbit 
iiiyst^rieii  6f  Ms  f«H^dfi,  id  H'f&^y^rs  ilpt>eMM  M^ 
<h4i  sta^  6f  ih^  ptiMi6  iti  the  cHthttfcter  lof  a  >s^uii  Ufcadi^ 
ti^oo  fbi^  ttie  fiiitb^  ^giittst  the  ififiddif  tM  pti^ban^^  b( 
those  Mvst^bs.  Btut  in  ihetttetlif  Hme  his' pe)i  illr^ftt 
ttom  fyiti^  idte;  lit  1^6 j^o  be  printed  i  pteii«  isllttttM 
^*  lUbei&is  tabtmtA  by  tbe  tnfllistets,  piard^ariy  l^Mtt 
duMoahb,  Mihisterdf  eiMt^dti,  ih  ViUMrer  to  tftAbuf. 
UoMntH  inderbed  in  Ms  bodk"* '  C<^  tb^  In^dei^tion  of  ^^ 
f^is) ;  dnd  tw6  yeilrs  HftCiriirairds  be  ventttfed  to  ftttiti^k  thij 
^bst  6f  St^eti  Pmsqtitek*,  iti  Motbef  ptee^,  cfnMttod  « Ife« 
eber&h^  des  K^^cbereh^  ^ft  autifH  c^Tfeft  tPEHehne  f^^ 
^uknr."  Tbet^  ciitth^'bi^  giv^A  a  b^ttet  ^6itAeil  of  fte 
j^ulinr'strsthl  ofbrs^iiMbal  #rt,  tbbn  is  fuf tilirtbed  l^  xbt 
6f3sUe  dedifc^ory  to  IM^  1)dcflf.  tt  is  addressed  td  tbcr  tste 
sWfjp^Hto  P^cpiter,  ii1ii$t^«r  Ne  iiMy  bt  i  ^  fdr,"*  '^ays  Ue^ 
«  b^in^  itet'er^eiM  AMd  tp'INtd  t^t  your  f dligioti,  I  kbOW 
wok  ^  wMtifta^ty  yoa  took  ^  yeHif^dt^panHtire  bttt  of  tifi* 
Mf  i  ^Mid  thertffbM  I'attt  forced  to  Mritdto  you  at  a  Veii* 

ns^  tfbftto  addrieiirflfis  t>dtkM  wtuHisiref  you  mity  heJ^ 

Gatfassetbe  next  jear^  l€28.  published  <^  Lja-Doctriae 
icupeuife  des^.baAtts  ispipks  de  oe4eo^[>s^  &c  The  curiousi 
4oe(lrincj4>f  thf  ^.W]ts/mtpretei>dei^  to  wit^  of  this  ^e^  eott** 

mt  6  A  R  A  8  S  £« 

tp  Aspbin  ii^  Aqr  fimnd  theiMelves  under  a  nwesiiep'  of 
0<difei>i»g  thattfac^  v^r9  sonre  pissagds  in  it  which  eon^i 
malt  ke  msmxmd;  ttbd  tlM  F»  GarMBeiuid  promUeA  to-cXMr«^ 
rect  tlieiDi  without  performing  bis  prontitt.  On  tbift,  iAm 
ddelevs  agreeiiig  iHat  tlie  bo6k  otig^t  to  be  (miuNittedi  the 
oeiiiufe  w«f  ftccdrdkigly  piBied  Stpt  I^  and  imtnedKaiiety: 
l^iiUMhed^  wick  ilie  iMe  of  <<  Cenium  S.  Fiiduliati«  HiM-* 
kglcfli^  &0i  The  Oemiira  d  the  lacred  Fadid^  of  A^ 
Clergy,  at  Parity  upon  e  hook  entitled  Tbeologtoiil  8uift«^ 
9iat7  of  F.  FrhtioiB'GahMMe/'  The  sentence  was  to  thi» 
eiect^  that  the  venuHity  doiytnoed  aeveral  bereiiciily  er-' 
etoeooi^  adandatoui,  and  rash  prop68itions  $  set^ral  hU 
4ifio«tienB  ef  pasaages  of  Scripture^  and  of  the  holy  fhtbefti 
Ideeiy  cited)  atid  wrested  fitnn  their  truei  sense ;  and  mf 
infihitd  naerfmr  of  expressiofls  Unfit  to  be  wrifxen  or  read 
h J  dMrittiaatt  and' dMnea* 

'  This  senteti^e  fite  peffealy  agreeable  t«y  die  ahhet  of 
Ski  Oyniii%  eridque^  iriiich^  after  mafiy  hindMuees  '^\t»e& 
hy  the  Jesttiife,  cease  out  the  ttine  year,  entitled,  <<  A 
CbUtttMMi  bf  the  fiiuks  and  capital  Aittitieii  cOfitintiM  iti  ^d 
llieoldgicalSoibmaryiyf  F.  Fral)OisG«rasie*/'  Inati#0iW 
iO'i#hibb,  our  hutbor  wffrtei  *^  Atris  teuebAnt  ta  IreAitatloUi 
4ce.  AdTice  eonc^rain]g  the  reftnaitten  of  tbd  Theidtogleal 
Sonaaary  ef  ¥*  GaraasO."  This  Uaaye  <mt  aiteo  hefbTe  ttf6 
tod  of  the  yesiD,  md  oeiielud<eid  the  dispute  hetwdetv  fh«i 
tmo  aeiM>atants  in^particular.  Bet  the  awo  ordeirs  ef  Jei^iei 
and.  Jdneenists  in  general^  of  ^eui  these  wef^e  reftpeetM^ty 
the  champions,  grfewfrom  the  eonseqnenoei  of  it^  into 
audi  an.  hnplaoaMe  haired  and  vnttMsiiy  agaitikt  eadh  odier i 
iasenemed  net  bewranguiabaMeb^^rdbaiy  lll^  Witll 
re^pe^l  to  OaAttoe^  the  .tosi^ta  vsid  seme  hind  tf  predeweer 
They  did  not  ohstitiately  penriav  ki  auppenlbg  taitfi^'bttt 
banished  bim  to  ome  ef  -  their  bOCises  at  ft  ^reVt  dislilO<il! 
f^oth  Panb,  whi^te  he  \lkM  be«i4  wf  x^  mere^  This  fnintih^ 
watnt^  to  a  men  ef  his  aoibittoot  end  busy  tempei',  wftii 
#oiBd  then  death.  Atstcotdiwghf ^  as  if  w<eaty  of  ^loeliia  Mii 
Wh^tt  the  plague  imged  nelendy  in  l^oktidrs,  iu  (681,  M 
ahi^  eirheetly  ef  his  siiperasrs  to  atlMd  tboMttmw^d 
ieised  withtt;  learre  was  gfai^ed^  -and  iu  tbiltobMtiHbte 

.     .        .  •  ,  ;  •  .  .  •! 

^  He  intended  fbur  Tolvmei,  but  <9Mi»iiieB4cUasons,<fC4b«.ii(oil  UBaM- 

tl^  t^^o  ffMbniy  irefe  printed,-  and  am  b'ooks  a  ma'u  (^n  rea<f,  especiajfy  if  he 

abridgment  of  the  fourth ;   his  name  deiigni  to  set  up  for  an  author  who 

m  aht  ftlMtille«ip4se^  itod>iDUif  f^ri^  siaaerMkn««h«ritftl,«imsf6iil,'cte«^ 

Tilege  prefixed,  be  asstines  lb*  asms  fMMnif  llc^  ^        * 

of  Alexandre  dePExclusie*  Baylere* 

9^ce,  catching  the  oontagion^  he  died  among  die  infecfted 
persona  in  die  hoapkal,  on  the  14th  of  June  that  year. 
He  is  styled  by  bp.  Warburton,in  his  Commentary  on 
the  ^*  Essay  en  Man/'  an  eminent  casuiiit.^ 

GAtlCILASSO,  or  Garcias  Lasso  D£  i.A  Veoa,  a  ee!e« 
brated  Spanish  poet,  was  born  of  a  noble  family  at  Toledo^ 
in  1500  or  1503.     His  father  was  a  counsellor  of  state  to 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  and  employed  by  them  on  several 
important  negociations,  particularly  inun  embassy  to  pope 
Alexander  VI.   Garcilasso  was  edueated  near  the  emperor 
Charles  V.  who  had  a  partieulftr  regard  for  hiisi,  and  took  him 
^ith  biflft  in  his  military  expeditions,  where  he  became  as  rp^ 
gowned  for  his  courage  as  for  his  poetry,    fie  accompanied 
that  emperor  into  Germany,  Africa,  and  Provence ;  and 
it  was  in  this  last  expedition,  in  15S€,  that  he  commanded 
%  bftttalign,  when  be  received  a  wound,  of  which  he  died 
at  Nice,  about  three  weeks  after,  aged  only  thirty -three. 
The '  wound  was  made  by  a  stone  tiirown  by  a  countryman 
Irom  a  turret,  and  falling  upon  his  head.    The  Sp^ish 
poejtiy  arm  greatly  obliged  to  Garcilasso,  not  only  for  ex* 
tending  its  bounds,  but  also  for  introducing  new  beauties 
into  it.     He  had  strong  natural  talents  for  poetry ;  and  he 
did  not  fail  to  innprove  them  ly  culture,  studying  the  best 
poets  ancient  and  modern.     His  poems  are  ftiTl  of  fire^ 
^ave  a  nobleness  and  majesty  without  affectation ;  and^ 
(What  is  scmiewhat  singular,  there  is  in  the^  <a  great  deal  of 
<ease,  united  with  much  subtihy.     Paul  Joviu^  has  not 
eorupled  to  say  that  his  odes  have  a^tt  the  sweetness  of  Ho* 
^ace»    Though  his  imitations  of  the  ancients  may  be  traced 
throughout  almost  all  his  works,  yet,  as  they  are  conspicu- 
ous for  good  taste  and  harmonious  versification,  and  were 
written  amidst  many  distracting  occupations,  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  he  would  have  gained  great  celebrity  if  be 
4bad  lived  )onger.    The  learned  grammarian  Sanctius  has 
written  commentaries  upon  all  his  worlds,  and  has  illustrated 
iam  every  where  with  very  learned  and  curious  notes.' 
They  were  all  printed  at  Naples  in  1664,  with  this  title, 
^^  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega  Obras  Po^icas  con  annotationes 
4e  Franc.  Sanchez,*'  in  8vo.     We  must  hot  confound  this 
fleet  with  another  person  of  the  same  name,  ^'native  of 
Cusco,  who  wrote  in  Spanish  th^  Hii^tory  of  JFlotidjBk,  at>d 
Ihat  of  Peru  and  the  Ihcias.' 

*  Cleaii  Bjct  by  Bayle.— Morerl-xNJ^ron,  vpl.  :PPiX. 
^  AfitODla^nH.  BIsp.-rMoren,        ^       > 


•  GARDEN  (Francis),  tetter  known  to. tbtf  public  by 
the  title  of  Lord  Gardi^nstone,  was '  bom  at  Edmburgh 
June  24,  1721.  His  father  was  Alexander  Garden,  of 
Trotdp,  an  opulent  )and-boIder  in  '  AberdeenshVe;*- and 
bift  mother  was  Jape,  daughter  of  sir,  Francis  Grabt,,  of 
Cullen,  one  of  the  senators  of  the  college  of  justice^ ,  After 
pafsing  through  the  usual  course  of  liberal  educatioti  at 
ischool  and  at  the  university,  he  applied  to  the .  study  of 
law  as  a  profession,  and  in  1744  was  admitted  a  hiember 
.o^tbe  fatuity  of  advocateis,  and  called  to  the  Scottish  than 
In  his  practice  as  an  advocate  he, soon  began  to  be  distin- 
guished by  a  strong  native  rectitude  of  understanding  y.hy 
that  vivacity  of  apprehension  and. imagination, 'which  i^ 
commonly  denominated  genius;  by  manly  candour  in;  ar- 
gument, often  more  persuasive  than  subtilty  and.sojpfbasti'* 
cal  artifice ;  by  powers  which,  with  diligence,  might  easily 
attain  to  the  highest  eminence  of  the  profession.;  But  the 
same  strength,  openness,  and  ardour  of  mind  which  dis- 
tinguished him  so  advantageously  among  the 
^tbe  bar,  tended  to  give  him  a  fondness  for  the  gay  enjoy- 
ments of  convivial  intercourse,  which  was  in  some  respects 
unfavourable  to  his  progress  in  juridical  erudition^  yet 
.without  obstructing  those  promotions  to  which  his  talents 
entitled  himl  In  1764  he  became  his  majesty's  solicitor, 
and  afterwards  one  of  the  judges  in  the  courts  of  sessioii 
and  justiciary,  the  supceme  jqdicature^,  civil  and  criminal, 
for  Scotland.  On  this  occasion' he  assumed,  according  to 
the  usual  practice,  the  title  of  lord  Gardeuf^tonevr  His 
place  in  the  court  of  session  be  , continued,  to. occupy  till 
his  death,  but  had  some  year's  before  resigned  the  office 
,of  a  commissioner  of  justiciary,  and  iii  recompense  got  ^ 
.pension  of  200/.  per  annum.  Clear  discernnient,:  strong 
.pood  sense,  conscientious .  honestjr^  and  amiable^  benevo- 
lence, remarkably  distinguished  his  opinions  and  conduct 
Asajudge.     •  •  .    *.*.   ;' 

Ashe  advanced  in  years, ^hupianity,. taste,  thd  public 
spirit,  becam^  still-more  eminently  the.  predominant  prin^^ 
ciples  in  his  mind.  He  pitied 'the  condition  of;  t^.i  pea- 
santry, depressed  rather  by  theirvignorance.  of  .tbei'piost 
skilful  modes  of  labjaur,  aud^  by  their. remoteness,  from  t^e 
sphere  of  improvement,  than  by  any,  tyranny  ;Or^exiortioii 
of  their  landlords:  He  admired,  protected,  and  cuRiyatecjl 
the  fine  arts.  He  was  the  ardent  votary  of  political  liberty, 
and  friendly  to  every  thing  tfa^at  premised  a  ratibhid  ifiune- 

GARI>ENi  4tt 

.Horation  of  public  cecotiomy,*  and  the  priociplas  of  go- 
T.ernmeDt. .  In  1762  be  purohased  the  estate  of  Jobnstonr, 
ICO.  Kincardine.    Within  a  few  years  after  be  began  to  at- 
tempt a  plan  of  the  most  liberal  ioiprovement  of  <  the  yalue 
.of  tbiis  estate,  by  an  extension  of  the  Village  of  Laurence* 
kirk,<  adjoining.     He  offered  leias^s  of  small- farms,  and  of 
{ground  for  building  upon,  which  were  to  last  for  the  term 
spf  one  hundred '  years ;  and  of  which  the  conditions  were 
extremely  inviting  to  the  labourers  and  tradesmen  of  the 
surrounding  cou nuy.    -These  ofF^^rs  were  eagerly  listened 
to;  and  being  more  desirous  to  make  the  attempt  bene* 
.ficial  tatl^e  country  than  profitable  to  himself,  he  was  in^^ 
duced*  within  a  few  years  to  reduce  bis  ground*rents  to 
one.  half,  of  the  original  ratel     Weavers,  joiners,  sboe- 
^maliKars,  and  otlierartizans  in*  a  consi^lerable  number^  re- 
/•orte^  to  settle  in  the  rising  village.    His  -lordship's  ear- 
nestness for  the  success  of  his  project,-  atid  to  promote  the 
prosperity  of  the  people  wboot  be  bad  received  under  hi^ 
protection,  led  him  to  engage  in  several  undertakings,  by 
the  failure  of  which  he  incurred  considerable  losses.     Pro<^ 
jects  of  aiprint^Beld,  acid  of  manufactures  of  linen  and  of 
.stockings,  attenrpted  with  sanguine  bopetf  in  the  flew  village, 
atididhiefly  at  ^is  lordship's  cisk  and;  expence,  misgave  in 
^uch' a:  manner  as  might  wellb^m  dispirited  a  man  of  less 
steady  andvai:dent  pbUaqtbiioiiy.:   fint  the.  vHlage  still  coH^ 
titmed  to  a4vaDce  under  bis  k>rd$^ip?aeye  and  fostering  care. 
,  InJ7J9  b^  proQur^  it  tabe  erected  into  a  burgh  of  barony, 
leaving  a  magistracy,  an  annual  fur,  and  a  weekly  niarket* 
Her  pro.^ded  in  it<a  good  inn  for  the  irecepti^n  of  travellers, 
and  furnished  it  with  a  library  for  their  amusement,  the 
only  ,pneof  the  kind  probably  in  either  kingdom.    We  Ve- 
..mepiberyv  likewise,  an  ^/ium,  in  which  were  many^inge* 
joious  Gontributidnsy  both  in^proseand  verse,  by  the  lite- 
rati^ of  >  Scotland*  >  He  ^nvited^  an  ar^st  for  drawing,  from 
the;:  continent,   to  settle  at  Laurencekirk.     He  had  at 
i^gtbtbe:ple|»ure  of  seeing  a  considerable  linen-mariu^ 
;fac(oryiifixed  \  in  tit ;  ^and  before  ^  his  death  be  saw  hb  plan 
pfimfwomg  fke  condition  of  the  labourers,  by  the  forma- 
^  tU^mof  ai  new  ivallage  atXaui^encekJirk,  csd^vned  with  suc- 
o(iss(beyiHid.hiav.mo8t  sanguine' hOpe».    -He  has  iJcknow- 
.  ledge^ulaimeoioii:  conceminrg  Uiis  .village^  ^^Tbat  be  had 
tried  in  some  measure  a  variety  of  the  ptj^surets  which. man- 
kind pursue ;  but  never  relished  any  >o  much  a^  ^^  plefti» 
sure  arising  from  the  progress  of  his  village.'' 

m  &  A  %  d  E  K. 

.  Tn  1785|  by  tbe  c}e4kth  of  a  brother,  be  became  pot^ 
sesfed  of  (be  fignily  eatnt^a,  worth  ^out  aooo^.  a  year. 
Which  not  only  ^pable4  him  to  panue  his  usual  course  of 
liberality,  but  to  ieek  relief  from  the  growing  iqfirfDitiea 
of  bi^  ^ge^  by  a  partial  rela^^atioo  from  busin^sa,  which  he 
4eteriained  to  epaploy  in  travel.  Accordingly,  be  set  out  in 
{$ept.  1786,  9ii4  perforiBed  the  tour  of  Frsaoe,  Geneva 
$wij^s^r}and,  the  ^retherlands,  an4  Italy*  and  after  three 
years,  ri^turnf  d  to  bi%  native  eoiintry,  with  a  large  o^lec^ 
^ion  of  objects  of  natural  history,  aod  speoiipehs  of  the 
fine  ^rts.  H\^  \u$%  yearfl  were  speet  in  the  dischatige  of 
ibe  dntie^  of  his  p€|ice  as  a  judge ;  ie  pr rfonuiog  anany  ge« 
^^rpus  o(]iices  of  beneyolei¥?e  and  humanity,  and  in  pfo« 
paotfpg  the  comfort  of  (lis  tenPsOts.  As  an  amusement  for 
ibe  last  two  or  three  years  of  bis  life,  he  remed  yoiBe  of 
the  Ij^t  fogipve  piejees,  in  which  he  had  indulged  the 
gi^ety  of  bi«  fancy  iq  his  earUef  days ;  and  a  small  volmne 
iwfs  published  iioder  tbe  title  of  *^  Miscellaniei  ia  prosf 
f  iVd  yerse,*'  }n  whipb  the  best  pieces  are  upon  good  aur 
fhority  jttcribed  to  lord  Gardeostone*  He  revised  also  die 
f^  |4efnprwdi|0i»'*  wbipb  be  had  made  upon  bis  Um^k^ 
and  two  vpjuwep  of  them  w^e  published  during  his  life* 
itime,  und^r  the  tJ^le  of  ^^  TmveUiug  Memorandiims,"  con* 
jtainipg  a  mmh^f  of  ia/tarestfiig  observations,  criticisnis^ 
jyad  affscdptes.  A  third  vobixae  appeared  after  bk  4^atb} 
with  an  ^kccovot  of  bi/n,  fi^om  which  we  have  borrowiid  the 
^Keate^  pait  pf  tbi^  .artiele.  His  lordabip  died  July  22, 
179?»  d^^eply  r^retHe^l  by  bis  friends  and  by  bia  CQ|iiury« 
Si«  i|a$t  pvkbAifiatioe  was  *'  A  Letter  to  the  Inhabitaots  of 
|^ure9^JarA:«,"  ooiit$iinj«g  fiondli  saluury  advice  J 

^AKPI/NSR  I^Am&k  »  bfwe  ofiiqer  of  the  arasy,  and 
UPt  jifes^  i^el^bf^^  for  bis  pietyt  was  bqro.  at  Carriden,  i* 
J^itbgo^h^er^  Af^Qlkiid^  Jao.  10,  168^7  *6»  Hewaa 
1^^  l^n  ^  cf^tai^  Patmk.  Gabrdiner,  of  the  family  of  Ter^- 
jlfOf41j^a^,  by. Mo*  Mary  Bodge^  of  the  fapnly  of  Glsids*^ 
limir.  .His  iMiijf  was  mHit^rj,  his  fadier,  h)s  uncle  by 
t^.m^hf^^fifiid^  aed  bis  elder  brother,  ^1  fell  in  battleir 
He  wj^  ediicat^  at  the  school  of  lialithgow,  bat  wa^soeu 
X/^moj^  from  ii%  lOwiug  to  bia  early  jseal  to  fi^Uow  bia  £s^ 
tber's  prpfession.  At  tbe  jige  of  faurteea-  he  haden  ea^i- 
|l|gA>  ooqipiission  in  the  OiH»b  aenrice^Mi  wfaieb  lie  qdu* 

*  ti^prdfixed  to  his  M€moraodui]is:<^inQ]a}r's  StatUtiAal  iUM[rts*-v-filfia)i 


tinued  until  1702 ;  when  he  received  the  sapie  from  queea 
Anne,  and  being  present  at  the  battle  .of  Ramillies,  in  hU 
nineteenth  year,  was  9everely  wounded  and  taken  prisonoK 
by  the  French.     He  was  carried  to  a  convent,  where  be: 
resided  until  his  wound  was  cured  ;  and  soon  after  was  ex- 
changed.    In  1706  he  obtained  the  rank  of  lieutenant,  and 
after  several  intermediate  promotions,  was  appointed  ma-, 
jor  of  a  regiment  commanded  by  the  earl  of  Stair,  in  whose 
family  he  resided  for  several  years.     In  January  1730,  be^ 
was  advanced  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  same 
regiment,  in  which  he  continued  until  April  1743,  when, 
he  received  a  colonePs  commission  over  a  regiment  of 
dragoons.     During  the  rebellion  in  Scotland.,  in  1745,  his 
regiment  being  in  that  country,  and  the  rebel  army  ad-  . 
yancing  to  Edmburgh,  he.  was  ordered  to  march  with  the , 
utmost  expedition  to  Dunbar,  which  he  did  \  and  that  hasty 
retreat)  with   the   news  soon  afterwards  received  of  the 
surrender  of  Edinburgh   to  the  rebels,   struck  a  visible 
panic  into  the  forces  he  commanded.     This  aSected  his    . 
gallant  mind  so  much,  that  on  the  Thursday  before  the    . 
battle  of  Preston-pans,  he  intimated  to  an  officer  of  con- 
siderable rank,  that  he  expected  the  event  would  be  as  it 
proved ;  and  to  a  person  who  visited  him,  he  said,  *^  I 
cftnnot  influence  the  conduct  of  others .  as  I  could  wish ; 
but  I  have  one  life  to  sacriQce  to  my  country's  safety,  and 
I  shall  riot  spare  it."     On  Fridav  Sept.  20th,  the  day  be- 
fore the  fatal  battle,  when  the  whole  army  was  drawn  up, 
aboiit  noon,  the  colonel  rode  through  the  ranks  of  hi$  re- 
giment, and  addressed  them  in  an  animated  manner,  to 
exert  themselves  with  courage  in  defence  of  their  country. 
They  seemed  much  affected  by  his  address,  and  expressed 
a  very  ardent  desire  of  attacking  the  enemy  immediately; . 
a  desire  in  which  he,  and  another  gallant  officer  of  dis- 
tinguished rank,  would  have  gratified  them,  had  it  been 
in  their  power,  but  their  ardour  and  theix:  advice  were  over- 
ruled by  the  strange  conduct  of  thu  commander-in-chief,, 
sir  John-  Cope,  and   therefore  all   that  colonel  Gardiner 
could  do>  was  to  spend  the  remainder  of  the  day  in  making 
as  good  a  disposition  as  the  circumstances  would  allow.     He 
continue  all  night  under. arms,  wrapped  up  in  his  cloak, 
and  Weltered  under  a  rick  of  barley, which  happened  to 
be  in  the  field.     By  break  of  day  the  army  was  roused  by 
the  noise  of  the  approach  of  the  rebels;  and  the.fttaok   * 
was  made  before  sun^rise.    As  soon  as  the  enemy  came 
Vol  XV.  T 


within  gun-shot,  they  commenced  a  furious  fire ;  and  the 
dragoons  which  constituted  the  left  wing  immediately  fled. 
The  colonel  at  the  beginning  of  the  attack,  which  lasted 
but  a  few  minutes,  received  a  ball  ip  his  left  breast,  which 
made  him  give  a  sudden  spring  in  his  saddle  ;  upon  which 
his  servant,  who  had  led  the  horse,  would  have  persuaded 
him  to  retreat ;  but  he  said  it  was  only  a  flesh-wound,  and 
fought  on,  though  he  presently  after  received  a  shot  in 
his  right  thigh.  The  colonel  was  for  a  few  moments  sup« 
ported  by  bis  men,  and  particularly  by  about  fifteen  dra- 
goons, who  stood  by  him  to  the  last ;  biit  after  a  faint 
fire,  the  regiment  in  general  was  seized  with  a  panic  ;  and 
though  their  colonel  and  some  other  brave  officers  did 
what  they  could  to  rally  them,  they  at  last  took  to  a  pre- 
cipitate flight.  Just  ill  the  moment  when  colonel  Gardiner 
seemed  to  be  making  a  pause  to  deliberate  what  duty  re- 
q^iired  him  to  do  in  such  a  circumstance,  he  saw  a  party 
of  tiie  foot  fighting  bravely  near  him,  without  an  ofliicer  to 
lead  themy  on  which  he  rode  up  to  theni  immediately,  and 
cried  out  aloud,  "  Fire  on,  my  lads,  and  fear  nothing/* 
As  he  had  uttered  these  words,  a  Highlander  advanced 
towards  him  with  a  scythe  fastened  to  a  long  pole,  with 
which  he  gave  him  such  a  deep  wound  in  his  right  arm, 
that  Ivis  sword  dropped  from  his  hand,  and  several  others 
coming  about  him  at  the  same  time,  while  be  was  thus 
dreadfully  entangled  with  that  savage  weapon,  he  was 
dragged  from  his  horse.  .  7'he  moment  he  fell,  another 
Highlander  gave  him  a  stroke  either  with  a  broad -sword,  or  a 
Lochaber  axe,  on  the  hinder  part  of  the  head,  which  was  the 
mortal  blow.  All  that  his  faithful  servant,  John  Forster, 
who  furnished  this  account,  saw  further  at  this  time,  was, 
^t  as  his  hat  was  falling  off,  he  took  it  in  his  (left  hand, 
waved  it  a^  a  signal  for  him  to  retreat,  and  ad  led,  which 
were  the  last  words  he  ever  heard  him  speak,  "  Take  care 
of  yourself."  The  servant  immediately  fled  to  a  mill, 
about  two  miles  distant^  where  he  changed  liis  dress,  and 
disguised  like  a  miller's  servant,  returned  with  a  cart  about 
tvvo  hours  after  the  engasrement.  He  found  his  master  not 
only  plundered  of  his  watch  and  other  things  of  value,  but 
even  stripped  of  his  upper  garments  and  boots.  He  was, 
however,  still  breathing,,  and  from  appearances,  not  alto- 
gether insensible.  In  this  condition  he  was  conveyed  to 
the  church  of  Tranent,  and  from  that  to  the  clergyman's 
house;  .where  he  expired  about  eleven  o*clock  in  the  fore- 

G  A  R  D  1  N'E  R;  275 

noon,  Saturday  Sept.  21,  1745.  The  rebels  entered  \ih 
house  before  be  was  carried  off  from  the'  fields'  and  (rluh** 
dered  it.  His  remains  were  interred  on  the  Tuesday  fbl^ 
lowing,  Sept.  24,  at  the  parish  church  of  Tranent  Evehi' 
his  enemies  spoke  honourably  of  him,  and  seemed  to  join' 
in  lamenting  the  fall  of  so  brave  and  so  worthy  a  mani.^ 
Nor  was  it  for  bravery  only  that  colonel  Gardiner  was  dis-^ 
tinguisfaed.  He  was  perhaps  one  of  the  most  pious  men  of 
his  age  and  country.  He  was,  sslys  his  biographer,  in  tb6^ 
most  amassing  manner,  without  any  religions  opportunity, 
or  peculiar  advantage,  deliverance,  or  affliction,  reclaimed' 
on  asudden,  in  the  vigour  of  life  and  health,  from  u  life' 
of  licentiousness,  not  only  to  a  steady  course  of  regnlarity 
and  virtue,  but  to  high  devotion,  and  strict,  though  un-'' 
a^cted  sanctity  of  manners.  Ail  this  is  an^ply  illustrated' 
in  Dr.  Doddridge^s  well-known  life  of  this  gallant  heno,-' 
whose  death  was  as  much  a  loss,  as  the  cause  of  it,  the 
battle  of  Preston «-pans,  was  a  disgrace  to  his  country.- 

In  July  1726,  Col  Gardiner  married  lady  Finances  Er-^^ 
skine,  daughter  to  David  fourth  earl  of  Buchart,  by  whotn 
be  bad  thirteen  children,  fiveonly  of  which  survived  their 
father,  two  sons  and  three  daughters.^ 

GARDINER  (Richard),  an  English  divine,' a  native  of' 
Hereford,  where  he  was  born  in  1591,  was  educated  at'' 
tlie  school  there,  and  became  a  student  of  Christ^chtircb^'* 
Oxford,  about  1607.     After  taking  his  degrees  in  arts,  he ' 
entered  into  holy  orders,  and  was  noted  for  a  quaint  sin- 
gularity in  his  manner  of  preaching.     King  James  1.  being' 
much  pleased  with  a  speech  which  he  had  delivered  before 
bim  in  the  Scotch  tone,  when  he  was  deputy-orator,  gave ' 
him  the  reversion  of  the  next  canonry  of  Christ-church; 
into  which  he  was  installed,  on  the  death  of  Dr..Thomv 
Thornton,  in  1629  ;  and  .taking  his  degrees  in  divinity  the 
fiollowing  year,  he  was  made  one  of  the  chaplains  in  ordi*  ' 
nary  to  king  Charles  I.     In  1648  be  was  ejecteJ  from  his 
canonry  by  ^be  parliamentary  visitors,  and  lived  obscurely  • 
in  Oxford,  until  the  restoration,  when  he  wsis  re-instated 
in  his  stall,  and  from  that  time  devoted  the  profits  of  it  to 
charitable  uses,  with  some  benefactions  to  his  relations, 
and  to  Christ-church.     He  published  several  seimoms,  par- 
ticularly a  volume  containing  sixteen,  Loud.  1659,  8vo« 
2.  *' Specimen  Oratorium,'*  Lopd.  1653,  containing  some 

^  Doddridgt'tt  Life  of  Colonel  Gardiner,  tad  Funeral  Sermon  on  hin. 

T   2 

276  G  A  R  Q  I  N  E  R. 

Gtf.his  unW^HM^y  orations.    -This  was  reprinted  in  1657^- 
und  in  1^62,  with  additioBal  orations  and  letters.     Tberd' 
Vf^re  subseqiient  editions  printed  ^t  Oxford  in  1669  and 
^675^  &<;.  ye^.t^e  boolf  is  y^^Q9.     He  died  P^c.  20>* 
1670,  and  was  buried  ip ,  Cbrij^t^.^urob  catb^raU    with' 
a^  e)egan;t.  i^tin  ^pitapb^  writte,ii.a^  th^  de^ifeoi^bif  exe* 
Qutprsy  by  T)y.  Sbvdi,  wbo  §uoc^cided  bim  in  bil  Qaoonry.' 
-.  QARPIN.ER  .(SxifUlEw),  bishop  pf  Witich$st0r,  and 
^f^ocfellor  of  England^ .  was  tbe  iUegitifiiat«  son  of  Dr 
Lionel  Woodvili. or  Wydville,  de^in  of  JCK^t^r/ and  bishop 
qf  Salijsbury,  ^rpjtfaer  to  Ebgabatbi  oueeo  jQonsQi;tto  Cd«. 
waff]  ly,^     I^e-F^  borp  in  t4^S^  at  J^uxy  St.  Edmonds^  in* 
Suffolk,  and  took  his  nai^e  .from  .h^s  reppt/ed  &thert>  wbom 
his  mqther  viarried,  r^bougb  ia  a  m^enial  situation,  to  c^it* 
Cji^l  tbe  incontin/euce  of  the  bisbQPr     Affer  -^  properedu^^. 
catiop  at  spboo{^.|ie  writs  sen^tpTri^ity^b^U,  in  Cambridge;^ 
where  ,p^^suing.)bia^st^di§^  wi]Jii  diligeiip^^  b^  SQOn  ob^ 
tained  repqtation  J^y  tbe  q^M^^nets  of  his  partSy,  ^nd  was 
pjO'ticnlarly  gtistiingilisbed  for  i^is  ^egan^e.  io .  wriding  atid 
speaKitig  Latin,  an  well  as.  ^r  hi''  ^i^oofBinon  -skill  in  the 
Greek  Jangu^ge'it,    In  the  fpr^iif  r  be  ftiade  Cicero  hisip9Li>-. 
tern,  and  became  so  absolute  a  «uu>ter  of*  bis  styl^^  asto 
bjf  c)iaTged  with  affi^ctation  in  that  respect,.  ^With  theise 
a^tjainoients  in  classical  learning,   he  applied  himself  to 
the  civil  and  canpn  law ;  and  took  bis .  doctor's  degree  in 
t&e^  first  of  these,  in  1520;  in  the  iatter>  the  foliowiog 
year;  and  it  is  said,  was  the  sai^ie  year  elected  master  of 
liis  college.  >  » 

>  .'  ^m  hia  yii^ws  were  far  fromb^ing  confined  to  tbe  tini- 
▼ersity.     He  bad  .some  time  before  been  taken  into  the 
faoiily  of  j(be  ^uj^e  of  >]orfQlk,  and  tbe^ca  into  tbnt^f 
"     -  "•       .  *  '  -  » 

*  Mr.  Lo^f  e  f ay t,  that  one  of  Raw-  Suff«lk»  with  a  distinction  of  a  border  ^ 

linov't  MSS.  in  the  Bodleian  library,  .  and  at  ia6t  they  were  impaled  with  the 

with  oiore  probabiKty  qiaket  him  -a  arow  of  the  see  «f  ^iii«he«ter  wMrbeut 

younger  so«  of  sir  Tkoma/Oardi|»er,.  the  dirttinetion.     SirypeV  Meatofff^ls, 

kilt,  the  repreteittative  .of  a  very  ah.  vol.  III.    fiefbre  that  time  be  asujilly 

cient  family' in  I^ancallure.     LodlpB^f  went  by  tbe  naaie  of  Stephens;;    *     ' 

lilastrations,  vol.  I.  p.  102.    But  thi»  ■  }  Lelaod  cofUplim«ots  him  o«  this 

contradicts   all  former  accounts,   and  account,  in  a  poem  addressed  to  bim 

leaves  us  at  a  losn  to  conjecture  why  '  by  the  name  of  Stephen-  Gitrdineri  id 

lie  was  in  eafly  Life  often  oalled  Pr.  ,the  close -of  arbiob  he  ftiretela  him»  that 

Stephens.  his  brow  wouicl  be  honoured  witl|  a 

*f  Viz,  Gardiner ;  but  this  was  not  mitre ;  a  proof  that  his  surnaniiV  was 

dQ||^,..tiiL'af^ef,be  became  biabop  of  at  least  given  him  b|^  otbers  befi»re  h« 

Wjnchester,  wben  he  also  assumed  ;the  waa  a  bishop.    J>taQd*s  Encom.  Ulustr* 

armsof  the  Oardine:'*  ofOlemsford,'  in  Viror.  p.  4^. 

t  AOi.  Ox.  Tdl.  IJI,— ^i«».  Rrit.  rol  y;.^p,  jg7$5.  _  .      ,  ! 

O  A  R  D  I  N  E  R.  27T 

csifdxiinl  Wolsey,  who  made  him  his  secretary.    This  post  he 
now  held,  and  it^  proved  the  foundation  of  lys  risef  at  couirt..' 
The    cardinal    having  projected  the    treaty  of  alliafeic^' 
With  Francis  t.  in  1^2^^,  employed  bis  secretary  to  dHtw^ 
up  the  plan^  and  the  king  coming  to  bfs  house  at  More-^ 
parky  ill  Ifertfordshire,  found  Gardiner  busy  at  this  worV 
He  looked  at  rt,  liked  the  performance  exireniely  welV 
the  performer's  conversation  better,  and  bis  fertility  in  th^ 
invention  of  expedients  best  of  all;  ahd  from  this  dmtf 
Gatdinei' was  admitted  into  the  secret  ofslflPairs,  and  eri^ 
tirely  con6ded  in,  both  by  the  king  and  his  first  minister. 
He  reoeived  a  public  marH  of  that  confidence  in  1527,' 
when  he  was  sent  to  Rome,  in  order  to  negociate  the  a^« 
duous  business  of  Henry^s  divorce  from  queen  ^athariha; 
£dVrard  Fox,    provost  of  King's-college,    in  Cambridgey 
w^nt  with  him  on  this  embas^ ;  but  Gardiner  was  th^ 
chief,  being  esteemed  the  best  civilian  in  England  at  thii 
lime;  and  having  been  admitted  into  the  king's  cabinet* 
cduncit  for  this  affair,  he  is  styled  in  the  cardinal's  cre<^ 
dential  letters  to  the  pope,  *^  primary  secretary  of  the 
most  secret  counsels,'*     He  was  now  in  such  favour  with 
the  cardinal,  that,  in  these  very  letters,  he  called  Gar^- 
dinet  the  half  of  himself,  ^  Dimidium  sui,"  than  whom 
none  was  dearer  to  hini.     He  wrote  that  Gardiner  should 
unlock  his  [the  cardinal's]  breast  to  the  pope;  who,  itt 
hearing  him  speak,  he  might  think  he  heard  the  cardinal 
himself.    The  successful  issue  of  this  embassy  in  obtaining; 
a  new  commission,  directed  to  the  cardinals  Wolsey  and 
Campejus,  as  well  ai  Gardiner's  address  in  the  negociatiotf, 
may  be  seen  in  the  general  histories,  of  England.     Wp 
shall  only  notice  one  particular  not  mentioned  there,  which 
is  his  success'  in'  disposing  Campejds'to  make  m  toiir  to 
England.     This,  requiring  some    extraordinary  toanag^« 
ment,  Gardiner  took  it  upon  himself;  and  having  put  evety 
thill g  requisite  to  set  the  affair  in  a  proper  light  at  hom^, 
into  the  hands  of  bis  colleague  Fox,  dispatched  him  to 
carry  the  account  to  the  king,  who  jbined  with  Anfne  Bo- 
leyn  in  applauding  *  the  ingenuity,    intrepidity;*  and  ifi* 
dustry  of  the  new  minister. 

^     ^  There  is  a  letter  from  thit  lady  to  yoq  for  my  Ic^er,  wfaereia  I  peroeWe 

our  oeg ooiator  in  the  Paper-oiiiee,  mp-  the  willing  and  faithful  miad  you  have 

.poeedto  be  written  on  thit  oocasion,  to  do  ke  pleasure,*'  |bc*     See  tho 

'  which  bcfius,  **  Mr«  Stophmi,  I  tksak  whole  in  Biog,  Biit* 

27«  G  A  R  D.I  N  E  R. 

.  But  the  loudest  in  his  praises  was  the  cardioal,  in  whose 
private  business  Gardiner  had  reconciled  the  pope  to  the 
endowment  of  his  two  colleges  at  Oxford  and  Ipswich  *, 
out  of  the  revenues  of  the  dissolved  lesser  monasteries. 
This  added  to  the  rest,  made  such  an  impression  upon  the 
csrdiiial*s  mind,  that  crying  out,  **  O  inestimable  treasure 
and  jewel  of  this  realm!'*  he  desired  Fox  to  remark  those 
words,  and  insert  them  in  his  letter.  There  was  still  aop* 
ther  instance  of  Gardiner^s  abilities  and  attachment  to 
Wolseyi  which  had  its  share  in  exciting  this  burst  of  ad- 
ntMration.  During  the  course  of  this  emba<)sy,  the  pope 
falling  dangerously  ill,  the  cardinal  set  all  his  engines  to 
work,  to  secure  the  keys  provisionally,  to  himself,  in  case 
of  a  new  election,  and  the  suffrages  of  one-third  part  of 
the  cardinals  were  procured  for  him.  He  dispatched  orders 
immediately  to  provide  that  those  cardinals  should  be 
withdrawn  to  a  place  of  safety,  and  should  there  declare 
him  pope^  though  the  majority  should  appear  against  him ; 
assuring,  his  own  party,  that  they  should  be  vigorously  susr 
tained  by  king  Henry  and  his  allies.  This  scheme,  how* 
ever,  was  rendered  abortive  by  the  recovery  of  Clement 
VII.  but  the  pains  taken  in  it  by  the  cardinal's  agents, 
^mong  whom  Gardiner  had  at  least  an  equal  share,  could 
not  fail  to  be  highly  pleasing  to  him.  In  the  event,  in- 
deed, the  king  h^d  most  reason  to  be  satisfied  with  his  mi<<- 
nister^  who  gave  his  opinion  that  all  solicitations  at  Rome 
would  be  lost  time;  the  pope,  in  his  judgment,  being 
immoveftble  in  the  resolution  to  do  nothing  himself;  though  * 
he  might  not  improbably  be  brought  to  confirm  such  a 
aentence  as  his  majesty  could  draw  from  the  legates  f. 
^Henry,  fully  persuaded  in  the  issue  of  the  sincerity  and  ^ 
Judgment  of  this  advice,  recalled  Gardiner,  resolving  to 
.make  use  of  his  abilities  in  managing  the  legantine  ' 

During  his  residence  at  Rome,  he  had  among  other 
.  things  obtained  some  favours  at  that  court  for  bishop  Nix 
.  of  Norwich,  who  on  his  return  rewarded  him  with  the 
.archdeaconry  of  Norfolk,  in  15^9;  and  this  probaiply  was 

*  Gardiner  and  Fox^  were  the  per<r  othen  writteo  at  tlie  same  time,  or 

MMW  oo  whom  the  cardinal  chiefly  re-  eveo  later, 

lied  for  laying  the  plan  of  these  mag-         X  Th^  ^i"£>  ^^^  ^^  snfflnr  the  pr«h> 

-  mSoent  frandationi,    Strype.  eeMinga  to  be  btfpm  befoiw  the  car<«   . 

f  The  whole  letter  if  inserted  in  the  dinals  till  Oardioer's  ratum.    fumeVa 

Btof.  Brit,  as  an  instance  of  Oardi-  Hist  of  Reform.  foL  II«.     .    ■ 
mfi  elsiant  ityl#  in  RugliMht  shove 


the  first. preferme&t  be  obtained  in  ibe  church.*  Jn  trulihy 
it  must  be  owned  that  bis  merit  as  a  divine  did  fiol  entitle. 
,bi{n  to  any  extraordinary  expectations,  that  way,  but  as  be 
n^^  first  entrance  into  business  in  a  civil  capacity,  so 
.be  continued  to  exercise  and  improve  bis  talenta  io  «tate 
affair^,  which  gave  him  an  opportunity  of  rendering  bimr 
self  useful,  and  in  a^ manner  necessary  to  the  king;  who 
soon  .after  hia  arrival,  tooic  him  from  Wolsey^  and  declared 
.him  seci^etary  of  state.  Thus  introduced  into  the  ministry 
at  home,  besides  the  ordinary  business  of  bis  office,-  and 
the  lai'ge, share  be  is  said  to  have  had  in  the  administratioa 
of  affairs  in  general,  he  was  particularly  advised  widi  by 
the  king  in  that  point  which  lay  nearest  to  hia  heart;  and 
when  cardinal  Campejus  declared  that  the  cause  of  the  di** 
.varce;was  evoked  to  Rome,  Gardiner,  in  conjunction,  mth 
J'ox  the  almoner,  found  out  Cranmer,  and  discpvering  his 
opiniop,  introduced  him  to  bis  ma|estyt  whom  they  thus 
enabled  to  extricate  himself  out  of  a  difficulty  then  con* 
£idf  red  as  insuperable. 

As  this  step  proved  the  ruin  of  Wolsey,  la  bis  distresa 
he  applied  to  bis  old  servant  the  secretary,  who  on  tbis> 
occasion  is  said  by  the  writer  of  bis  life  in  the  Biog*^  Bri- 
tannica,  to  have  afforded  an  eminent  proof  of  bia  gratitude^  : 
in  soliciting  his  pardon  ;  which  was  followed  in-  three  days 
by  his  restoration  to  his  archbishopric,  and  6000/».  sent 
him,  besides  plate  and  furniture  for  his  bouse  and  chapel* 
It  is  certain,  however,  that  Gardiner  did  not  interpose  be«A 
fore  Wolsey  had  supplicated  him  more  than  once  in  th^ 
most  bumble  manner,  to  intercede  for  him,  and  it  is  equally 
certain  that  Gardiner  did  not  risk  much  in  applying  to  the 
king,  who  for  some  time  entertained  a  considerable  regard 
for  the  fallen  Wolsey.  Gardiner  also,  at  the  cardinaVa 
recommenclation,  in  1530,  introduced  the  pirovost  of  Be* 
verly  to  the  king,  who  received  him  graciously,  and  shewed 
him  that  he  was  bis  good  and  gracious  4ord,  and  admitted 
and  accepted  him  as  his  orator  and  scholar.  .Th^^se.  weri» 
matters  of  easy  management.  But  the  yeaic  bad  not  ex-* 
pired,  when  the  king's  service  called  the  secretary  to  a 
task  of  another  nature,  which  was  to  procure  from  the  uni- 
versity of  Cambridge  tbeir  declaration .  in  favour  of  bis  ma- 
jesty's cause,  after  Craumer'a  book  should  ^>pear.ii|  siip<9 
port,  of  it.  In  this  most  difficult  point  bis  did  colleague 
FdiCivas  joined  with  him ;  and  they  spared  no  pains,  ad- 
dress^ or  artifice  in  accomplishing  it    To  make  attends. 

390  G  A  R  D  I  N  £  It 

for  ftneli  an  utmserved  compliance  with  the  royal  will^/a 
door^was  presently  opened  in  tbe  church,  through  which, 
by  one  single  step  (the  archdeaconry  of  Leicester,  iatb 
which  be  was  installed  in  the  spring  of  1531),  Gardinc^r 
advanced  to  the  rich  see  of  Winchester,  and  was  there 
consecrated  the  November^  following.  Gardiner  was 
not,  at  the  time,  apprized  of  the  king'ii  design  of  confer* 
ring  on  him  this  rich  bishopric ;  for  Henry,  in  his  caprice, 
would  sometitties  rate  him  soundly,  and  when  he  bestowed 
it  on  him  said^  ^^  I  Itave  often  squared  with  you,  Gardiher, 
but  I  love  you  never  the  worse,  as  the  bishopric  I  give  yOu 
will  convince  you.**  As  bishop  of  Winchester  he  now  as- 
sisted in  the  court  when  the  sentence,  declaring  Katharine's 
aiarriage  null  and  void,  was  passed  by  Cranmer,  May 
82,  15S3.  Tbe  same  vear  be  went  ambassadoi^  to  the 
French  kiag  at  Marseilles,  to  discover  the  designs  of  tbe 
pope  and  that  monarch  in  their  interview,  of  which  Henry 
waa  very  suspicious;  and  upon  his  return  home,  bein^ 
called,  as  other  bishops  were,  to  acknowledge  and  defend 
the  king's  supremacy,  he  readily  coniplied,  and  published 
his  deface  for  it,  with  this  title,  **  De  vera  Obedientia.'* 
His  conduct  was  very  uniform  in  this  point,  as  well  as  iii 
that  of  the  divorce  and  the  subsequent  n^rriage,  and  he 
acquired  great  reputation  by  bis  writings  in  defence  of 

•  In  1535,  Cranmer  vinting  the  see  of  Winchester,  in 
irirtde  of  bis  inetropolitan  power,  Gardiner  disputed  that 
power  with  great  warmth.  Some  time  afterwards,  he  re-^ 
kumed  his  embassy  to  France,  where  he  procured  the  re- 
moval of  Pole  (then  dean  of  Exeter,  afterwards  cardinal] 
out  of  the  French  dominions,  having  represented  him  as 
bis  master's  bitter  enemy ;  and  this  was  the  original,  root 
of  that  disagreement  between  them,  which  in  time  became 
bnblic.  Before  hjs  return  this  second  time,  being  applied 
to  by  Cromwell  for  his  opinion  about  a  religious  league 
with  tbe  protestant  princes  of  Germany,  he  declared  him«r 
self  against  it,  and  advised  a  political  alliance,  which  h<i 
judged  would  last  longer,  as  well  as  answer  the  king's  cfnds 
better,  if  strengthened  by  subsidies.  In  1538  he  was  sent 
ambassador  to  the  German  diet  at  Ratisbon,  where  he  in-!^ 
curred  tbe  suspicion  of  holding  a  secret  cori'espondence 

^^  Regiitr.  -C^otoair.  Re  had  re-  eorperated  LL.  D.  at  Oxibrd,  Octobef 
•igned  the  arnhdeaeonry  of  Leioeiter.  precediiif-  AUien.  Oxon,  Vol*  I;  coU 
ii^e  ^Dd  of  September,  and  boen  in*     158. 

G  A  ft  DIN  Eft.  281 

with  the  p6pe.    Whatever  truth  there  may  be  iti  this 
qhar^,  it  is  certain  that  Lambert  this  year  was  broiight  to 
•the  stake  by  his  instigation,  for  denying  the  resll  presence 
ID  the  sacrament.    This  instance  of  a  sanguinai^  temper 
Was  then '  shown  before  the  statute  of  the  six  artitles  was 
toacted ;  a  law  on  which  nliany  were  piit  to  death,  and 
which  he  undeniably  framed  and  promoted  in  the  bouse  of 
lords  to  the  utmost  extent  of  his  influence.    This  act  passed 
in  1540;  and  the  first  person  condemned  by  it,  add  burnt 
in  Smithfield,  the  same  year,  was  Robert  Barnes,  who  at 
his  death  declared  his  suspicion   of  Gardiner^s  having  a 
hi&nd  in  it  *.     Upon  the  death  of  Cromwell,  his  rival  long 
in  the  king*s  favour,  the  university  t>f  Cambridge,  where 
he  still  h^ld  his  mastership  of  Trinity-hall,  chose  him  their 
Tice^chancellor ;  and  in  return  he  shewed  his  sense  of  it 
by  an  assiduity  in  his  office  among  them,  tind  li  warm  zedl 
to  assist  them  on  all  occasions  with  his  interest  at  court; 
which,  as  long  as  the  sunshine  of  any  signal  service  lasted, 
was  very  good.     But  in  this,  his  case,  like  other  courtiers, 
was  subject  t6  the  sudden  vicissitudes  of  light  and  shade 
which  so  remarkably  cbecquered  the  series  of  that  reign ; 
and  this  minister  was  no  more  excepted  than  his  fellows 
from  complying  with  those  conditions  of  ministerial  great* 
ness,  which  were  indispensable  as  long  as  Henry  sat  at  th^ 
helm  :  and,  though  he  tells  us  himself  that,  after  the  king 
had  let  him  into  the  secret,  that  he  could  look  sour  and 
talk  roughly,  without  meaning  much  harm,  he  ever  after 
bore  those  sallies  with  much  less  anxiety,  and  could  stand 
a  royal  rattling  pretty  well  t ;  yet  this  was  only  sometimes^ 
iltid  oh  some  occasions.     For  upon  others,  we  find  him  sub- 
Initting  to  very  disagreeable  supplications  and  expressions 
of  deep  humility,  and  great  sense  of  hi&  failings,  directly 
eontrary  to  the  convictions  of  his  own  conscience  and  un* 

*  Hit  words  at  the  stake  wera,  that  not  baen  aaftaged  to  the  kiii^*t  iatiiU 

lie  forgave  the  world  in  general,  and  faction,  upan  which  he. treated  QarW 

the  bishop  of  Winchester  in  parttcolar,  diner  in  the  presence  of  the  earl  with 

If  he  had  any  hand  in  his  death ;  which  fudh  a  storm  of  words  as  qnite  oon- 

inptying  a  doubt,  Bayle,  preposte-  fbnnded  him ;  but  balsre  they  parted^ 

roosly  enough,  infers  Qardioer's  iooo-  the  king  tooli  him  into  his  chamber* 

4eaoe  of  this  man's  blood.    See  his  and  told  him,  that  he  was  indeed  very 

9icC.  Ml  Barnes  (Robertv)  Mgry,  yet  aoC  paciicniarly  with  him; 

4  This  secret  Heury  acquaiuted  him  though  he  bad  iisad  him  so,  because 

on  the  following  occasion  :  Our  he  could  not  take  quite  ao  mtich  liberty 

doctor  had  been  joined  with  the  earl  of  with  the  eari    See  his  letter  to  Somorir 

Wiltrtiln^   hia  relation  by  blood,  in  set  in  Fok's  Acts  aiid  MonunentSy  an4 

SOBM  aOhif'^f  eoBteqaan^,  whick  htd  in  Biog;  Brit, 


derstaDdio^,    Of  this  we  bave  the  following  remarkable 

The  bishop  bad  for  his  secretary  a  i»(ation  of  his  own 
.  name^  Garctiuer,  wbo«  in  some  conference  with  jFrytb  the 
martyr. .  had,  acquitted  himself  so  well,  that  they  were 
jud^c^<^,fiV  fpr  the.  public  view^.     This  young  clergyman 
was  much.^n  l>is  master'^  favour,  yet  he  fell  under  a  pro- 
8ecution,.u|)oi>  the  act  of  supremacy  ;  and  being  very  ob* 
stinate,  was  exey:uted,  a3  a  traitor,  March  7^  1544.    Tbw 
was  made  an  engine  against  the  bishop  by  his  enemies,  who- 
ipriiispered  the  king  that  he  was  very  likely  of  bis  secretary's 
opinion,  notwithstanding  all  he  bad  written;  and  that  if 
he  was  once  in  the  Tower,  matter  enough  would  com^  cwt 
.against  bimy/On  this  suggestion,  his  majesty  consented 
to  his  proposed  imprisonment  ,  But  the  bishop  being  in»> 
forn^ed  of  it  in  time,  repaired  immediately  to  court ;  con^ 
fessed  j^U.tbi^t  his  majesty  had  charged  him  with^  whatever 
it  w^;  &n!i  thus,  jiy, complying  with  the  king's  hamour, 
and  shewing  the  deepest  concern  for  real  or  pretended 
failings,  obtained  full  pardon,  to  the  great  mortification  of 
his  enemies.     We  have  selected  this  instance, from  many 
others  of  a  similar  natare»  all  which  are  evident  proofs  of 
Gardiner's  want  of  honest  and  sound  principle,  because  it 
ii^ay  be.  of  use  in  discovering  bis  real  principles  upon  the  • 
subject  of  the  supremacy,,  which  will  at  last  be  found  to 
be  nothing  more,  in  fact,  than  an  engine  of  his  political 
craft.  .  It  bas.i^ndeed  been  alleged  in  hiis  behalf,  that  he 
was  npt  always  so  servile  and  ready  an  instrument  of  the 
king's  will,  especially  ufM>n  the  matter  of  the  supremacy, 
and  Strype  publishe&  (Memorials,  voL  J.  p.  215)  a  letter  in 
the  Cottonian  library,  which  Gardiner  wrote  to. the  king  in 
consequence  of  his  majesty's  being  angry  with  him  for  ap« 
proving  some  sentiments  in  a  book  that  impugn 
bis  supremacy.     But  if  this  letter,  as  Strype  conjectures, 
was.  written  about  1535,  this  was  the  time  when  the  king, 
had  some  thoughts  of  a  reconciliation  with  the  see  of 
Home,  and  of  returning  the  supremacy  to  the  pope,  w;hich 
being  very  well  known  to  Gardiner,  might  encourage  him 
to  speak  with  the  more  freedom  on  that  subject    Gardiner,  - 
than  whom  no  man  seems  to  have  more  carefully  stedied 
the  king's  temper,  was  not  accustomed  to  look  upon  hinm 

•  Tbe  title  of  this  piece  if,  "  A  Let-     may  see  tb^  demeanour  and  hevetj  of 
t'er  6f  a  young  gentleman  named  mas-     Jojin  Fcyth/  lately  bufOl,  fcc.*^ 
ter  Germaa  Ganiioari  wbcreiQ   men 

G;A:  R  D  I^N  E  R«  29% 

fiolf  jkS  uoidoue  because  be  sometimes  received  $ucb  notices 
of  his  majesty's  displeasure  as  threw  some  other  courtiers 
iotp  the  roost,  dreadful  apprehensions.  This  knp\yledge 
and  bis  artful  use  of  it  taught  him  to  seek  his  own  safety, 
in  tt|king  a  share  with  others,  in  the  divorce  of  Apne  of 
CleYes,  and  that  of  queen  Catherine  Howard  ;  the  first  of 
whic^^  if  we  Consider  his  skill  in  the  law,  fnust  have  been 
against  bis  conscience,  and  the  second  as  much  against  his 
inclination,  on  account  of  his  attachment  to  that  noble 
fiamily.  The  same  regard  for  himself  might  also,  had  he 
been  in  the  kingdom  at  the  timey  have  led  him  to  take  % 
part  against  queen  Anne  Boleyn,  sir  Thomas  More,  and 
bishop  Fisher. 

..All  his  sagacity,  jstubtlety,  and  contrivance,  however, 
were  not  su6Bcient  to  save  him  from  a  cloud,  which  shewed 
itself  in  the  close  of  this  reign ;  a  change  which  might  be 
attributed  to  the  unsteadiness  of  the  master,  were  there 
jnpt  facts  sufficient  to  throw  tbe  imputation  in  some  mea- 
sure upon  the  servant.  Certain  it  is,  though  uppn  what 
particular  provocation  is  not  known,  that  he  engaged 
.deeply  in  a  plot  against  th^  life  of  Cranmec;  which,  hiding 
discovered  and  dispersed  by  th^  king,  bis  "majesty,  ^ully 
satisfied  of  the  archbishop's  innocence,  left  all  his  enemies, 
and  among  the  rest  Gardiner,  to  bis  mercy.  ,The  pialice, 
though  forgiven  by  Cranmer,  cannot  be  supposed  to  be 
forgotten  by  Henry,  But  this  did  not  hinder  him. firom 
leaking  use  of  this  willing  servant,  against  his  last  queen, 
Katharine  Parr.  That  lady,  as  well  sis  her  preceding  part* 
ners  of  the  royal  bed,  falling  under  her  consort's  distaste, 
he  presently  thought  of  a  prosecution  for  heresy;  upon 
which  occasion  be  singled  out  Gardiner,' whose  inclinations 
that,  way  were  well  known,  as  a  proper  person /or  his  pur- 
pose to  consult,  with.  Accordingly .  tbe  minister  listened 
.to  his  master's  .suspicions,  improved  his  jealousies,  and 
cast  the  whole  into  the  form  pf  articles ;  which  being  signed 
.by  the  king,  it  was  agreed  to  send Katherine  to  the  Tower. 
.But  she  had  the  address  to  divert  the  storm  from  breaking 
upon  her  head,  and  to  throw,  some  part  of  it  upon  her  per- 
secutors. The  .paper  of  tlie  articles,  being  entrusted  to 
chancellor  .Wriothesiy,  was  dropt  out  of  bis  bosom,  and 
carried  to  her ; ,  and  she,  with  the.  help  of  this  discovery  to 
her  royal  consort,  found  charms  enough  left  to  dispel  his 
suspicions:  the  result . whereof  was,  severe  reproaphes  to 
jbe  chancellor^  and  a  rooted  displeasure  to  the  bishop^  in- 

i«*  G  A  R  ri  1  M^  R. 

jtbiiitich  that  ^£  \At\^  wd'ulj  il^m  iec!  hii  (s^cii  lafterwtrdi!; 
Mis  behaviour  td  him' corresponded  with  that  resei^trni^ntJ 
Iti  the  draught'  of  'his  ihajesty^s  Will^  bef^i/re  his  departtirid 
Oh  his  last  e^p^ditidh  to  France,  the  bSsh6'p*&  name  Wa^ 
ih'sertdd  4niong  his  estecUtors  knd'  couirseRori  io  princi 
Edward.  Biit  after  this,  wheii  the  will  eam^  to  be  drawiS 
afresh,  he  was  left  but ;'  knd  though  sir  Anthony  Brdwti 
riioved  the  kin^  tWice/  to  put  his  name  as  before  into  it; 
yet  the  motion  was  rejected,  With  this  remark,  "that  '^  if 
he  (Gardiner)  waij  one,  he  would  trotible  them  all,  and 
they  should  never  "be  able  to  rule 'him.'*  Besides  this; 
when  the  king  saw  him  once  with  some  of  the  privy- cotni^ 
sellors,  he  shewed  his  dislike,  and  asked  his  business', 
which  was,  to  acquaint  his  majesty  with  a  hefievolence 
gratited  by  the  clergy  :  the  king  called  htm  immediately 
to  deliver  bis  n^essage,  and  having  received  it,  went  away, 
gurnet  assighs  Gardini^r's  known  attachment  to  the  Nor-^ 
folk  family  foi*  the  catkse  of  this  disgrace :  but,  wfaktevef 
viras  the  cause,  br  whitt^ver  usage  he  met  with  on  other  , 
occasions,  this  iastice  is  tmdenisibly.due  to  him,^  thalt  hl^ 
ever  shewed  a  high  respect  to  his  master^s  medibry,  mA 
Either  out  of  policy  ot  gif'atftude,  he  always  spoke  and 
Wrote  of  hitt?  With  tnuch  deference.  -   :    iv 

'  Ih  this  Unhinged  situation  hfe  stood  when  Edward  VE 
asceiid'ed  the  throne ;  and  his  behaviour  tmd^^  the  soh 
mote  thah  justified  thd  father^s  censure  upon  the  unnili- 
ness  of  his  temper.  Bfeing  prevented  ffom  distiivbing  the 
council  within  doOH,  he  opposed  all  their  teeasures  with- 
out. The  ^eforriaation  was  the  great  object  of  this  teign'; 
knd  that,  as  planned  b}^  Cranmer,  he  c6u1d  not  by  any 
condescension  of  the  archbishop  be  brought  to  approtj^ 
or  ^ven  to  acquiesce  in.  He  condemned  the  diligence  hi 
bringing  it  bu  as  too  hasty,  which  #ould  cause  a  miscar- 
riage; observing,  that  under  i  minority,  all  shonlA  bb 
lept  quiet,  and  for  that  reason  no  alterations  attetnpted,; 
knd  this  served  him  also  for  ia,  ground  to  oppose  the  wajr 
v^ith  Scotland,  as  too  hazardous  and  <bxpensi\re.  Froni  the 
same  principle,  he  ho  sooner  heard  of  the  intehd^^  rOyii 
visitsCtioh,  than  he  iraised  objections  to' it:  hie  both  quesT- 
ti'oned  its  legality,  atid  censured  its  imprudence;  as  an  in- 
novation ;  alletlgJhg  that  it  wotild  tettd  td  weakeW  thiS  prcJ- 
Vogative  as  assumed  by*  Henry,  in  the  eyes  of  tfa'e  taei^neii, 
when  they  saw  all  dion^'  by  die  kind's  powbr  al  suiilreiife 
Heiad  <i{  the  chnrch  (on  the  due  nsfe  Of  which  all.  reiormac-^ 

G  A  R  DI  N  £  R.  HM. 

tion  mast  depend)  while  he  was  a  chil(}>  and  CQuld  know 
n/Gatiingat aI^  andih^  pro^ector,^  being  absent,. not  xn\xcl\ 
mQre.  These,  however,  were  words  only,  and  be  did  no^ 
atop  tt^ere  ^  for  when  th^  homilies  and  injunctions  for  that 
^sitatipn  w^re  published,,  he  insisted,  on  the  perusal  oC 
ibem,  that  h^  <;ould  not  con)ply  with  them,  though  at  the. 
.  escpence  of  losing  his  bishopric ;  asserting,  ^t  the  same 
ijine,  that  all  their  proceedings  were  framed  against  the 
law  both  of  God  and  the  king,  of,  tb^  danger  of  which,  he, 
faid,  he  was  well  apprised. . 

Upon  his  coming  to  London  .he  was  filled  before  the 
council,  Sept.  25^  IHl ;  and  there  refusing  to  proipise 
either  to  receive,  tlie  homilies,  or  ps^y  pbedience  to  the 
visitors,  if  .they  came  into  his  dioceses  he  was  committed 
close  prisoner  to  the  Fleet.  Some  days  after,  be  was  $e|i{: 
^r  to  the  deanery  of  St  PauVs  \>y  Cranmer,  who,  witb 
other  bishops,  discoursed  in  defence  of  the  homily  upon 
justification ;  which  he  had  censured,  a^  excluding  charity 
fiTom  any  share  in  obtaining  it.  The  archl^ishop  proceeded 
tp  apologise,  for  Erasmus*^  '^  Paraphi'ase  on  tl^e  New  Tesr^ 
tament,^'  as  the  best  extant ;  which,  being  prdere^  by  the 
injunctions  to  be  set  iip  in  ^\\  churcl^es,  bad  been  pbjcQtied- 
to  by  Gardiner.  .  His  gifac^,  seeing  no  hopes  from  argu* 
aients,  which  made  no  impression,  let  fall  some  words  of 
bringing  hiin  into  the  privy-council,,  in  case  of  his  conqur* 
rence  with  them;  but  that  too  having  no  effect,  be  was 
remanded  to  the  Fleet,  wb.ere  he  cootinqed  till  the  parliar 
n^ent  broke  up,.  Dec.  24,  and  ih^n  wa^  s^t  at  liberty  by 
the  general  act  of  amnesty,  usually  passed  on  the  accession 
of  a  prince  to  the  throne.  He  was  never  enlarged  with  aiiy 
offence  judicially^  every  thing  being  done  in  virtue  of  that 
extent  of  prerogative  which  nadi)een  assumed  by  Henry 
VIII.  which  was  thought  necessary  for  mortifying  the  pre- 
Ute^s  haughty,  temper,  as  well  as  to  vindicate  their  pror 
ceedipgs  from  the  contempt  he  had  shewn  them.  .  \ 

After  his  discharge  he  went  to  his  diocese ;  and,  thoQg]^ 
he  opposed,  as  much  as  possible,  ,the  new  establishment 
in  its  first  proposal,  yet  now  it  w^s  settled  by  act  of  par- 
liament, he  knew  how  to  conform  ;  which  fie  not  only  did 
inmself,  but  took  5:are  that  others  should  do  the  same. 
Yet  he  no  sooner  returned  to  town  than  he  received  an 
order,  which  brought  him  again  before  the  council.; 
where,  after  some  rough  treatment,  he  was  directed  nqt 
tft  stir  from  his  bouse  t^i^l  hf  w/snt  .|o,  giv^  satisfjiittion  in$^ 

^se  G  A  E  D  !  ^  E  It 

sermon,  to  be  preached  before*  the  king  and  court  in  a 
public  audience ;  for  the  matter  of  which  he  was  directed 
both  what  he  should,  and  what  h6  should  not  say,  by  sir 
William  CeciL     He  did  not  refuse  to  preach,  which  was 
don^  on  St.  Peter's  day;  but  so  contrarily  to  the  purpose 
required  *,  that  he  was  sent  to  the  Tower  the  next  day, 
June  30,  1 548,  where  he  was  kept  close  prisoner  for  a  year/ 
But  his  aflairs  soon  after  put  on  a  more  pleasing  counV 
tenance.     When  the  protector's  fall  was  projected,  Gar- 
diner was  deemed  a  necessary  inlplement  for  the  purpose  ; 
his  head  and  hand  were  both  employed  ibr  bringing  it  about, 
and  the  original  draught  of  the  articles'  was  made  by  him. 
Upon  this  change  in  the  council  he  had  such  assurances] 
of  his  liberty,  and  entertained  so  great  hopes  of  it,  that  it' 
is  said  he  provided  a  new  suit  of  clothes  in  order  to  keep 
that  festival ;  but  in  all  this  he  was  disappointed :  his  first ' 
application  for  a  discharge  wa^  treated  with  contempt  by 
the  council,  who  laughing  said,  '*  the  bishop  had  a  plea- 
sant bead  ;'*  for  rewarU  of  Whieh,  they  gave  him  leave  to 
remain  five  or  six  weeks  longer  in  prison,  without  any 
notice  taken  to  him  of  his  message.     Nor  did  the  lords 
^hew  any  regard  to  his  next  address:  and  he  had  been 
almost  two  years  in  the  Tower,  when  the  proiector,  re- 
stored to  that  high  office,  went  with  others  by  virtue  of  an 
order  of  council,  June  9,  1550,  to  confer  with  him  in  that 
place.     In  this  conference  they  proposed  to  release  him 
upon  his  submission  for  what  wa's  past,  and  promise  of 
obedience  for  the  future;  if  he  would  dlso  subscribe  the^ 
new  settlement  in  religion,^  with  the  king's  complete  power 
and  supremacy,  though  under  age ;  and  the  abrogation' of 
the  six  articles.    He  consented  to,  and  actually  subscribed,^ 
all  the  conditions  except  the  first,  which  he  refused,  in* 
sisting  on  his  innocence.     The  lords  used  him  with  gfeat' 
kindness,  and  encouraged  him  to  hope  his  troubles  should^ 
be  quickly  ended,  and  upon  this,  seeing  also  the  protector 
among  them,  he  flattered  himself  with  the  hopes  of.  being 
released  in  two  days,  and  in  that  confidence  actually  made 
his  farewell  feast.     But  the  contempt  he  had  at  Rrst  shewn' 
to  the  council,  being  still  avowed  by  his  refusing  to  make 
a  submission  now,  was  not  so  readily  overlooked.     On  the 


^.Hitjiest  vai  Mattbew  vtiL  IS.  rery  ooDtemittuoiuly.'   The  MS,  is  ex-* 

whence  he  took  occasion,  in  acknov-.  tant  in  Bene't  college  library,  at  Can«^ 

kdgihf  the  king^  tuprertacy,  to  deny  bridge.    Tanner's  Bibl.  Brit.  Hibern. 

that  of  his  ooupcil,  wbom  he  teaated  ^.-dOS* 


Qontrary,  this  first  visit  was  followed  by  sevei^ai  others  of 
the  like  tenor ;  which  meeting  with  the  same  refusal,  at 
length  the  .lords  Herbert,  Petre,  and  bishop  Ridley,- brbaght 
him  new  articles,  in  which  the  required  acknowledgement, 
being  made  more  general,  runs  thus  :  ^*  That  he  had  been 
suspected  of  not  approving  the  king*s  proceedings,  and 
being  appointed  to  preach,  had  not  done  it  as  he  ought  to 
have  done,  and  so  deserved  the  king^s  displeasure,  for 
which  he  was  sorfy  ;'*  and  the  other  articles  being  enlarged 
were,  "  besides  the  king's  supremacy,  the  suppression  of 
abbies  and  chanteries,  pilgrimages,  masses,  and  images, 
adoring  the  sacrament,  communion  in  both  kinds,  abolish- 
ing the  old  books,  and  bringing  in  the  new  book  of  service, 
with  that  for  ordaining  priests  and  bishops,  the  complete-^ 
oess  of  the  scripture,  and  the  use  of  it  in  the  vulgar  tongue, 
the  lawfulness  of  clergymen's  knarriage,  and  for  Erasmus's 
Paraphrase,  that  it  had  been  on^  good  considerations  or^ 
dered  to  be  set  up  in  churches.'^  These  being  read,  he 
insisted  first  to  be  released  from  his  imprisonment,  and 
said  that  he  would  then  freely  give  bis  answer,  such  as  he 
would  stand  by,  and  suffer  if  he  did  amiss ;  but  he  would 
trouble  hiroielf  with  no  more  articles  while  he  was  detained 
in  prison,  since  he  desired  not  to  be  delivered  out  of  his 
imprisonment  in  ^he  way  of  mercy,  but  of  justice.  .On 
July  19,  he  was  brought  before  the  council,  who  having 
told  him  that  they  sat  by  a  special  commission  to  judge 
him,  asked  whether  he  would  subscribe  these  Mast '  articles 
or  no  ?  which  he  answering  in  the  negative,  his  bishopric 
was  sequestered,  and  he  required  to  canform  in  three 
months  on  pain  of  deprivation.  Upon  this  the  liberty  he 
had  before  of  walking  in  some  open  galleries,- when  the 
duke  of  Norfolk  was  jnot  in  them,  was  taken  from  l;iim,  and 
he  was  again  shut  up  in  his  chamber.  At  the  expiration* of 
ti)e  limited  time,  the  bishop  still  keeping  his  resolution, 
was  deprived  for  disobedience  and  contempt,  by  ^  court  of  ' 
delegates,  in  which  Cranmer  presided,  after  a  trial  which 
lasted  from  Dec.  \S  to  Feb.  14  following^  in  t\feiny*four- 
sessions.  He  appealed  from  the  delegates  to  the  king  ;  but ' 
no  notice  was  taken  of  it,  the  court  being  known  to  be ' 
final  and  unappealable. 

In  the  course  of  the  proceedings,  Gardiner  always  bew  ' 
haved  himself  contemptaously'  toward  the  judges,  and  par*  ' 
ticularty  called  them   sacramentarians   and   heretics ;  on 
which  account  he  was  ordered  to  be  removed  to  a  meaner 


lodging  in  the  Tower;  to  be  attended  by  ose  servant  only^ 
of  the  lieutenant*8  appointment ;  to  have  bis  books  and 
papers  taken  from  him  ;  to  be  denied  pen,  ink^  or  paper; 
and  nobody  suffered  to  visit  bim.     Uovtrever,  as  be  con* 
tinned  a  close  prisoner  here  during  the  rest  of  Edward's 
reign,  the  severity  of  this  order  was  afterwards  mitigated ; 
as  appears  from  various  pieces  written  by  him  in  this  con- 
finement.    He  is  said  to  have  kept  up  his  spirits  and  reso- 
lution, and  it  is  not  improbable,  that  he  foresaw  the  great 
alteration  in  affairs  which  was  speedily  to  take  place.     The 
first  dawning  of  this  began  to  appear  on  the  demise  of  king 
Edward,  when  Mary  was  publicly  proclaimed  queen  July 
19,  1553.     On  Aug.  3  she  made  her  solemn  entry  into  the 
Tower,  when  Gardiner,  in  the  name  of  himself  and  his. 
fellow-prisoners,  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  duchess  of  Somerset, 
lord  Courtney,  and  others  of  high  rank,  made  a  congra- 
tulatory speech  to  her  majesty,  who  gave  them  all  their 
liberty^    The  spokesman  took  his  seat  in  council  the  san^e 
day,  and  on  the  8th  performed  the  obsequies  for  the  late 
king  in  the  queen^s  presence.     On  the  9th  he  went  to 
Winchester-house  in  ^outhwark,  after  a  confinement  of 
somewhat  more  than  five  years ;  and  was  declared  chan- 
cellor of  England  on  the  23d.     He  had  the  honour  of 
crowning  the  queen  Oct.  I,  and  on  the  5th  opened  the 
first  parliament  in  her  reign.     By  these  hasty  steps  Gar- 
diner rose  to  the  prime  ministry ;  and  was  possessed  at 
this  time  of  more  power,  civil  and  ecclesiastical,  than  any 
English  minister  ever  enjoyed,  except  his  old  roaster  car- 
dinal Wolsey.     He  was  also  re-chusen  chancellor  of  Cam- 
bridge,  and  restored   to  the  mastership  of  Trinity-hall 
there,  of  which,  among  his  other  preferments,  he  had 
been  deprived  in  the  former  reign. 

The  great  and  important  affairs  transacted  under  his  ad- 
ministration, in  bringing  about  the  change  in  the  consti- 
tution by  queen  Mary,  are  too  much  the  subject  of  general 
history  to  be  related  here.    The  part  that  Gardiner  acted 
is  very  well  known ;  and  although  from  the  arrival  of  car- 
dinal Pole  in  England,  he  held  only  the  second  place  in 
affairs  relating  to  the  church,  in  patters  of  civil  govern- 
ment, his  influence  was  as  great  as  before,  and  continued 
without  the  least  diminution  to  the  last     By  his  advice  a 
parliament  was  summoned  to  meet  in  Qct.  1555.     As  he 
was  always  a  guardiaii  of  the  revenues  of  the  ecclesiastics, 
bothi  regular  and  aecular^^  be  bad  at  this  time  projected 


some  additional  security  for  church  and  abbey  lands,     tie 
opened  the  session  with  a  well-judged  speech^  Oct.  21^ 
and  was  there  again  on  the  23d,  which  was  the  last  time 
of  bis  appearing  in  that  assembly.     He  fell  ill  soon  dfter^ 
and  died  Nov.  12,  aged  seventy-two.     His  death  was  occa- 
sioned probably  by  the  gout ;  the  lower  parts  df  his  body^ 
however,  being  mortified,  and  smelling  offensively,  occa-i 
sion  was  hence  taken  to  consider  the  manner  of  his  death 
as  a  judgment.    The  report  that  he  was  seized  with  the 
disury  in  consequence  of  the  joy  with  which  he  was  trans- 
ported on  hearing  of  the  martyrdom  of  Latimer  and  Ridley^ 
has  been  disproved  by  the  dates  of  that  event,  and  of  his 
illness,  in  this  way.     Fox  says  that  when  seized  with  the 
disorder  he  was  put  to  bed,  and  died  in  great  torments  a 
fortnight  afterwards.     But,  says  Collier,  Latimer  and  Rid- 
ley suffered  Oct.  16,  and  Gardiner  openc^d  the  parliament 
on  the  21st^  and  was  there  again  on  the  23d,  and  lastly^ 
died  Nov.  12,  not  of  the  disury,  but  the  gout.    The  readet 
will  determine  whether  the  disorder  might  not  have  been 
contracted  on  the  16th,  and  increased  by  his  subsequent 
exertions;  and  whether  upon  the  whole,  Collier,  with  all 
his  prejudices  in  favour  of  popery,  which  are  often  very 
thinly  disguised,  was  likely  to  know  more  of  the  matter 
than  the  contemporaries  of  Gardiner.     Godwin  and  Parkeif 
say  that  he  died  repeating  these  words,  ^^Erravi  cum  Petro, 
at  iion  flevi  cum  Petro  ;**  i.  e.  **  I  have  sinned  with  Peter, 
but!  have  not  wept  with  Peter.'* 

He  died  at  York  place,  Whitehall,  whence  his  body  wasi 
removed  to  a  vault  in  St.  Mary  Overy's  church,  South- 
wark  ;  and  after  great  preparations  for  the  solemnity,  was 
carried  for  fink\  interment  to  Winchester  cathedral. 

Gardiner,  says  an  excellent  modern  biographer,  was 
one  of  those  motley  ministers,  half  statesman  and  half 
ecclesiastic,  which  were  common  in  those  needy  times, 
when  the  revenues  of  the  church  were  necessary  to  support 
the  servants  of  the  crown.  It  was  an  inviduous  support ; 
and  ofiten  fastened  the  odium  of  an  indecorum  on  the 
king^a  ministers;  who  had,  as  ministers  always  have,  op- 
position enough  to  parry  4n  the  common  course  of  business ; 
and  it  is  viery  probable  that  Gardiner,  on  this  very  ground, 
lias  .met ;  with  hardar  measure  in  history,  than,  he  might 
otherwise  have  done.  He  is  represented  as  having  nothing 
of  a  churchman  about  him  biit  the  name  of  a  bishop.  He 
bad  been  bred  to  business  from  his  earliest  youth ;  and  wa» 
;,yoL,  XV.  V  U  ••'  "i      ' 

290  ifc  A  ll  D  I  N  E  k 

thoroughly  vcrsQcl  in  all  the;  wil^s  of  men,  con^idefeJ 
either  as  individuals,  or  emboii^ed  in  parties.  He  krieW 
all  the  modes  of  access  to  every  foible  of  the  human  heart; 
Bis  own  in  the  mean  time  was  dark,  and  impenetrable. 
He  was  a  man,  **  who,'*  as  Lloyd  quaiudy  says,  ^  ^as  to 
le  traced  like  the  fox  ; ,  and^  like  the  Hebrew,  wfi»  to  be 
read  backwards ;''  and  though  the  insidious  cast  0f  his  eye 
indicateclf  that  he  was  always  lying  in  wait,  yet  his  iltrong 
sense,  and  persuasive  manner,  inclined  men  to  believe  ht 
was  always  sincere ;  as  better  reasons  could  hardly  be 
l^tven,  than  he  h^d  ready  on  every  occasion.  He  wets  aa 
littlQ  troubled  with  scruples  as  any  man,  who.  th;oiight  it 
not  proper  entirely  to  throw  off  decency.  Wba^  moral 
firtues.  and  what  natural  feelings  he  had,  were  all  under 
the  influence  of  ambition ;  and  were  accompanied  by  a 
happy  lubricity  of  conscience,  which  ran  glibly  over  ev6ry 
obstacle.  JSiich  is  the  portrait,  which  historians  have  give^ 
ns  of  this  man ;  and  though  the  colouring  may  be  mbi^ 
heighteued  in  some  than  in  others ;  yet  the  same  turn  of 
feature  is  found  in  all. 

^ .  In  opposition  to  this  character^  so  ably  epitomized  by 
|if  r.  Gilpin,  in  his  Life  of  Crantper^  we  are  riot  siirprized 
at  the  labours  of  Roman  ipathblic  writers  to  palliate  the 
vices  of  Gardiner;  our  only  surprise^  not  unmixed  with 
^bame,  is  that  such  writers  as  Heylin  and  Collier,  and  Dr. 
Campbell  in  the  *^  Biographia  Britannica,''  should  bav^ 
engaged  in  the  sam^  cause,  and  with  such  effect  as  to  be 
quoted  as  authorities  by  the  enemies  of  the  reformation; 
Alter  all,  however,  Gardiner's  actions  sufficiehtly  attest 
the  badness  of  bis  character.  Nor  ca^i  he  even  be  screened 
tinder  the  pretext  that  he  acted  under  mistaken  princijples^ 
of  conscience,  unless  at  the  same  tin>e  we  deprive  him  of 
that  knowledge  and  those  talents  which  have  been  justly 
Ascribed  to  him.  In  the  first  edition  6f  this  Dictionary^  it 
was  said  that  ^'  no  maxim  w^s  more  cooktdnlly  professed; 
nor  more  uniformly  observed  by  him»  jA>an  thiit  of  ihaUng 
the  law  the  rule  of  his  conduct.'*  But  this  is  oioC  justified 
by  fact.  Many  of  the  protettants  were  thrown  into  furisoft 
l^y  him,  while  the  laws  of  Edward  VL  Were  yet  iii  forces 
ind  they  were  kept  there  until  he  could  prOcAre  a  law  by 
which  they  might  be  brousht  to  the  stake.  And  that  aah- 
guinary  measures  were  delightful  to  htm,  appears  frbm  the 
gross  8<^urrihtv  with  which  he  treated  the  pvoteiftauts  vi^ 
were  tried  before  him.    Auoiter  curious  apology  has  been 


^Adyaiicedj.  tl^jt  fltb,ough  be  w^s  the  author  pi  those;Cru^ 
.  tiesi  jf  t  he  very  sopn  grew  weary  of  them,  and  refused  t0 
have  apy  hand  in  tbem,  leaving  the  whol^  to  Bonner.  Bu(^ 
pven  tius  was,  without  any  alteration  .^  bi3  di8pQ8itio% 
jnerely  a  change  of  policy*  U^.^^yf  tj^?t,4hQ  end  wa^xioi: 
prqmot^  by  tbe.^eansy  md,  t|^at  tbe  courage  of  the.  maVf 
l^r^jip  their  sufferings  ,qould  not  .be icoipcealed  from.thf 
p^opie^  ofi  whQOQ  it  produced,  ap  effect  ^het^  very  reverse  of 
|vbat  he  pprpo^ ; . and  he  seem^  to  bc^VQ. discovered  tb» 
tr^tb  pf  the  loaxim  that  '^  the  blood  of  tbe  martyrs  was  thm 
•e^d  of  the  cburoh.**  .     x 

f  Ip,  bis  private  character,  Gardiner  is  entitled  to  somft 
'  i^peqV  not  from  its. morali^y^  f^r  he  is, said  to  have  been 
licentious ;  b^t  b0vw^  a  man  of  learnings  and  in  some  ra-r 
inarkablei.instanpeS{  a  patron  of^  Thomaa 
Smith,  who  .bad  be^n  se^rc^y  to  Edward  VL  was  pec* 
|ni|ted  by<bim  to,  live  ip  Itfaiy's. days,  in  a  state,  of  privacy 
unipol^ste4»  aud  with  a  pensiop  of  IQOL  a  ypar.forhis  bettev 
fiippor^  though  b^  bad  .a  good  estate  of  his  own.  Rogec 
AschaiHyt  another  secretary  to  tbe  same  prinoe^  oC  th^ 
I«atin  jtpDgi)^  waitcoptinu^  bis  pfiice,  and  bisisalarf  iq'* 
pjri^a^d  by  thill  prelsjte's  fayoufi ;  which  he  fully  repaid,  by 
those  elegant,  epistle^^  to  bim>^..tbi^t.arje  extant  in  Jus  wcarksi 
Stryp^,  who  nqtipes  this  cirprnpstanee,  adds  :  ^^Thus  lived 
two  ei^cellent  proteatants,  Muder  -the  wings,  at  it  were,  of 
thp  sworn  enemy  and  destroyer  of  protestajats,^*  ;Heis  said 
^SQ.  to  .haVie  been  of  a  liberal  and  gCMUirous  dispositiooi  $ 
k^pt  a  good  bo\|se»  and  bnought  .up  seiwral  young  gende** 
me^,  aome  of  whom  became  afterwards  men  of  the  first; 
rank  in.  the  state. 

..  He  MfCote>a^veral  books^  of  which  die  principal,  aie^i  li 
V  JDq  vfera  Obediential  1594.'\  ^.  ^Palinodia  diotllibri  ;'1 
wbei^  UUs.  wa$  published  is  not  known.  .  3.  ^,iA  necessaiy 
-doatrine  of .  a  .Christian  man,  set  forth  bvthe  kingVma? 
jestie.of.  Englfmd^  .1543«V.  .4..  M> An. Explanation  andAs-i 
sertion  of  die  true  Catholic  Faith,  touching  the  most 
b}a9i^8^craniwt  of  the  Altar,  &c.  l$5i:\  L  fVConfu- 
to(i9.  C^vUlatjiQnum  quibns  jaccosanctum  £ucharisti».sa^ 
cramentum  ah  impiis  Capernaitis  impeti  solet^  1551." 
This  he  composed  while  i^  prisoner  in  the  Tow^r :  he  m%-. 
9«l0ed  this  .cpnttgyer^yagaiiist  Peter  Mactyc  ^nd  others^ 
«^p  espoused  Cranmer.  After  the,  accession  of  queen 
Mary,  be  wrote  replies  in  his^owjn.dpfpnce,  against  Tur;^^ 
oerj  Bofietj  and  other  pvolostant  exiles.    • 

or  2 



•  •  ^  ' 

Some  of  his  letters  to  Smith  and  Cheke,  on  the  pronun* 
ciatton  of  the  Greek  tongpe,  are  still  extant'  in  Betie't- 
coflege  library  at  Cambridge.  The  controversy  made  a^ 
great  noise  in  its  time,  but  was  not  niuch  known  after- 
wards ;  till  that  elegant  account  of  it  appeared  in  public, 
which  is  given  by  Baker  in  his  "  Reflections  on  Learning," 
p.  28,  29,  who  observes^  that  our  chancellor  assumed  a 
power,  that  Consar  never  exercised,  of  giving  laws  to  wot ds. 
nowever,  he  allows  that,  though  the  controversy  was  ma- 
naged '  with  much  warmth  on  each  side,  yet  a  man  would 
ivonder  to  see  so  much  learning  shewn  on  so  dry  a  subject 
Du  Fresne  was  at  a  loss  where  the  victory  lay  ;  but  Roger 
Aschand,  with  a  courtly  address,  declares,  that  though  the 
knights  shew  themselves  better  critics,  yet  Gardiner's  let-^ 
ters  manifest  a  superior  genius ;  and  were  only  liable  to 
censure,  from  his  entering  furUier  into  a  dispute  of  this 
kind,  than*  was  necessary  fpr  a  person  of  his  dignity.  ^ 

GARENCIERES  (Theophilus),  a  physician  at  Caen, 
but  a  native  of  Paris,  received  his  degree  before  the  age 
of  twenty,  and  came  over  to  England,  where  he  abjured 
the  Roman  catholic  religion.  He  was  incorporated  m 
the  university  of  Oxford  on  the  10th  of  March,  1657,  and 
having  settled  in  London,  was  appointed  physician  to  the 
French  ambassador ;  but  fortune  was  altogether  adverse  to 
him,'  and  he  died  overwhelmed  with  poverty  and  distress, 
in  some  part  of  Westminster,  occasioned,  as  Wood<  says, 
^'  by  the  ill  usage  of  a  certain  knight,"  whose  name,  bow* 
ever,  he  does  not  mention,  nor  the  time  of  our  aulhor's 
death.  *  He  was  a  man  of  some  science,  as  his  works  evince. 
They  consist  of  a  treatise,  in  English,  on  the  nature  and 
properties  of  the  tincture  of  coral,  printed  in  1676,  ia 
12mo;  and  another  in  Latin,  entitled  ^'Anglise'Flagellum, 
seu.  Tabes  Anglica- nUm^ris' omnibus  absoTuta,''  1647,  in 
18 mo.  He. also  translated  into  English,  **The  true  Pro* 
phecies  or  Prognostics  olf  Michael  Nostradamus,  physician 
to  Henry  II.  Francis  U.  and  Charles  IX.  kings  of  France,^' 
167.2,  folio.«  .   •        -  ... 

.  GARENi&EOT  ,{R£NB  James  Croisstant  0£),'  an  ^i« 
nent  French  surgeon,  was  born  at  Vitre,  a  small  town  in 

}  Bii)^'  B^ii. — StiypQ^g  Cranmer  passim.— -Strype's  Annals  and  Memorialfl. 
<^-^urnet's  llist.  of  the  Reformation. — Lloyd's  State  Worthies. — Gilpin's  Life 
•f  Craamer,  pp.  6*7^  95,  119,  178.— For  his  leaming,  see  a  note  on  Warton's 
Life  of  Sir  T.  Pope,  p.  238.— Of  bis  conduct  as  a  persecutor,  Foit's  Acts  sm^ 
Monuments,  and  in  defence  Collier's  Chnrch  History.— Hey Un*8  Hist,  of  the 
Iteformation,— «iid  Dodd's  Church  Hist. 

s  Wood's  Fasti,  ?oL  lI«-*ReM'0  Cyd«p«duu 

G  A  R  E  N  G  E  6  T.  293 

"       •    •      ■    .' 

JBrittany,  on  the  13th  of  July,  1688,  where  hisfBther  pr$ic- 
Used  surgery.  .  In  order  to  improve  himself,  he  spent  five 
years  in  the  hospital  of  Angers,  and  in  the^great  naval  bps-* 
pitals  of  Brittany ;  and  afterwards  made  two  voyages  ii?  the 
rfavy.  In  1711  he  went  to  Paris,  and  studied  under  Win- 
slow,  Tbibaut,  Meri,  &c.  and  afterwards  gave  a  course  of 
lectures  on  anatomy  in  the  medical  schools ;  and  hence- 
forth his  reputation  extended  even  to  foreign  countries; 
for  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  royal  society  oV  Lon- 
don. He  was  also  apppinted  demonstrator  royal  in  the 
schools  of  medicine.  On  the  establishment  of  the  society 
of  academicians,  under  the  patronage  of  the  king,  in  1731, 
Garengeot  was  chosen  ^'  Commissaire  pour  ies  extraits,'' 
which  office  he  retained  until  1742.  He  then  succeeded 
Terryer  in  the  place  of  surgeon-major  of  the  king's  regi- 
ment of  infantry.  He  died  at  Cologne,  in  consequence  of 
an  attack  of  apoplexy,  Dec.  10,  1759. 

The  first  of  the  works  of  Garengeot,  entitled  **  Trait6 
des  Operations  de  Chirurgie,"  was  published  at  Paris  in 
1720,  and  translated  into  the  English  and  German  lan- 
guages. 2.  *'  Traits  des  Instrumens  de  Chirurgie,''  print* 
ed  at  Paris  and  the  Hague,  1723,  and  at  Paris  again  in 
1727,  in  two  volumes,  with  plates.  3.  "  Myotomie  hu- 
maine,"  Paris,  1724,  1728,  1750,  two  volumes,  12i|ao. 
The  last  of  these  editions  is  much  more  correct  than  the 
two  former.  4.  **  Splanchnologie,  ou,  Trait6  d*  Anatomie 
<;oncernant  Ies  visceres,"  Paris,  1728,  1729,  in  12mo;  ibid. 
1742,  in  two  volumes,  12mo.  A  German  edition  was 
printed  at  Berlin,  in  8vo,  in  1733,  which  is  said  to  con- 
tain some  valuable  matter,  but  chiefly  belonging  to  Win- 
slow  and  Morgagni.  5.  "  His  last  work  was  "  L' Operation 
de  la  T^ille  par  Tappareil  lateral  corrig6e  de  tons  ses  de- 
fauts,"  Paris,  1730,  in  12mo.  \ 

GARISSOLES  (Anthony),  a  French  protestant  divine, 
was  born  in  1587,  at  Montauban.  During  his  academical 
studiejs,  he  made  so  rapid  a  progress  in  divinity,  that  he 
was  appointed  minister  at  Pujlaurens,  when  only  twenty •^ 
four  years  of  age,  by  the  synod  of  Castres.  He  was  after- 
wards minister  and  professor  of  divinity  at  Montauban,  and 
died  there  in  1650.  His  principal  works  are,  an  epic  poem, 
in  12  books,  entitled  ^^  Adolphidos,''  in  which  he  cele- 
brates the  great  exploits  of  Gustavus  Adolphus,  in  elegant 

)  Diet.  Hist.'— K^ees's  Cyclo/»diiH 

f  94  G  A  R  I  S  S  O  L  Ig;  S. 

Latia  verse ;  another  Latin  poem  in  praise  of  the  protes- 
tatfit  S#iss  'Carildtis  V  several  thisologieal  theses ;  a  treatis^ 
«^D(B  Imputatione  primi^peecaiti  Adae,*'  8vo ;  another,  •*  D^ 
Christo  Mediatdrfe/*  4to ;  and  an  explanation  in  Latin  of 
Cdvin*s  Catechism,  f^hlch  he  wrote  with  his  colleague  M. 
Charles,  8vo,  &c.  *  ' 
GARLAND   (John),  or  Joannes  de  Garlandia,    a 

Srammafian,  is  said  to  have  been  a  native  6f  Garlande  en 
ri'e  in  Normandy;  bdt  aSbe  came  into  England  soon  after 
the  Conquest,  '  Bale^  Pitt^,  Tatiber,  hav^  supposed  him 
tfn  Englishihan,  and  Prince  has  efrroU'ed  him  among  the 
*»  Worthies  of  Devon.**  He  wis  not  dead  in  1081.  Hii 
works  have  not  all  been  printed ;  but  among  those  that 
have,  are,  1.  *'  A  Poem  oh  the  fcontetapt  of  the  World,*^ 
ibiproperly  attributed  io  St/Bernard,  Lyotis,  1489,  4to^ 
2.  Anbther  poem,  entitled  **  Floretus,  or  Liber  Floreti  ;*' 
on  the  Doctrines  of  T'aitb,  aiid  almost  the  whole  circle  oi^ 
Christian  morality.  &.  A  treatise  on  "Synohlmes,"  and 
toother'bn  Equivoques,'*  or  ambiguous  terms;  Paris,  1490. 
4tb,  and  reprinted  at  London  by'Pyntoh' in  1496,  ana 
again  in  1500.  4.  A  poem  'in  irhymed  versJes,  entitled 
^Facetus,**  on  the  duties  of  maA  towards*  God,  his  neigh-^ 
Bbur,  and  himself,  Cologne,  1 520, 4to ;  tUe  three  poems  are' 
often  printed  together. '  5.  '<  Dictionarium  irtis'Alchymiaej^ 
eum  ejusdem  artis' compehdio,**^  Ba^le,  1571,  9vo. ' 
•  GARNET  (Henry),  a  person  memorable  in  English 
history  for  having  be^ti  privy'to  the  celebrated  conspiracy 
called  **  The  Gunpowder  Plot,**  was  borii  in  Nottingham- 
Aire  in  1555,  and  bred  at  Winchester  school ;  whence  he 
went  to  Rome,  and  took  the  Jesuit*s  habit  in  1575.  Afteif 
studying  under  Bellarmin,  Saurezj  and  Christopher  Cla- 
fius,  he  was  for  some  time  professor  6f  philosophy  and 
Hebrew  in  the  Italian  college  at  Rome ;  and  when  Clavius, 
professor  of  mathematics,  was  disabled  by  old  age^  he  sup- 
plied his  place  in  the  schools.  He  returned  to  England  in 
1586,  as  provincial  of  his  order;  although  it  was  inade 
treason  the  year  before,  for  any  Romish  priest  to  come 
into  the  queen's  dominions.  Here,  under  pretenc^  of 
establishing  the  cathoUe  iaith;  he  laboured  incessantly  to 
raise  some  disturbance,  in  order  to  bring  about  *a  revolu- 
tion; and  with  thts  view  held  a  secret  correspbridehce 

1  Gen.  Diet,  hy  Bayle. — Moreri.  * 

9  Taaner. — Moreri.— *Priace's  Worthies  of  DeTon,"-»Dibdiii'8  Typograp]|ica| 

Antiquities,  vol.  II.  ,  o   -.  .     *    '  i     • 

0  A  B.  N  E  '^.      ,  -j^SfeSf' 


wit^  the  kiipjp  of,  Spajp,  ^hon^i  lie  solicited|  to  pff^^i  vfi 
expedition   a^ga/nst  uh  cguntr)^.      This    pgt  profjepding 
so   fast  as  be  would  iiave  it,    he  availed  hicuself  pf  the 
z^al  of  some  papists,  wbp  applied  to  him,  as  hea^d.  of  their 
or^d^r^  to  resofv^  this  case  of  conscience^  namely,  "  Whj^ 
ther,  for  the  sake  of  promoting  the  catholic  religion,  it 
Oiigbt;  be  paroiitt^d,  should  necessity  so  require,  to  in- 
volve the  innocent  in  the  same  destruction  with  t/ie  guilty  ?*' 
to  which  this  casuist  replied  without  hesitating,  th^t^  **  if 
tb^  guilty  should  constitute  the  greater  number,  it  might/' 
This  impious  determination  gave  the  first  motion  to  thsvt 
horrible  conspiracy,  which  was  to  have  destroyed  at  onp 
stroke  the  king,  the  royal  fiimily,  and  both  houses  of  par- 
liament)   but  the  plot  being  providentially   discover^d^ 
Garnet  was  sent  to  the.  Tower,  and  was  afterwards  tried, 
qondejpfkn^  tp  be,  hange4  for  high-treason,  anfl  Q^ecut^d  of, 
the  wes);  end  of  §^.  I^ajul^s,  ^zy  3,  1606.     ^e  declare^ 
just  before  w  ^i^qi^UPQi  tl^at  he  was  privy  to.  the  gqpr 
pqwder  plot;  but^  as  it  was  ri^ves^lpd  to  bixn  in  qqpfession, 
tt^QJigfit  it  his  duty  to  conceaFit^     But  besicjes  tbis.misera^ 
ble  sifbferfuge^  it  ws(s  proved  that  hp  knew  s9XD^tl^ing  of 
it,  put  of.  confession.    Ete  has  be^n  pjs^qed  by  tl)e/Jesui(f 
among^  theijr  noble  army  of  martyrs.     He  was.  p;pbat))y  ^i| 
eptl^usiast,  and  qertainly  behaved  at  his  exequtioj).  in  ^ 
mannf^r  .tbat.  would  hav^  4^ne  credit  to  a  better  caus|e.    I^ 
is  said,  hpw^y^,  upon  other,  authority,  tb^t  he.declinbe4 
the  honour  of  martyrdom,  eiccl^mi^g,  '^  Me  i^a,rtj(r^J 
<)  quale  o^artyrem !" — "  I  a  martyr !  O  what  a^  n^^tyr  V^ 
J^bcuTs  account  of*  his  execution  is  ratlier  inter^sjting.     H(^ 
published  some,  works,  among  which  ar^  ^nuq^rajec),^  l« 
^^  A  tre^atise  of  Christian  nepovation  or  iBirth^'*  LonfJpo«, 
1616,  8jvo.     2.  ^^.  Canisius's  Catectiisn^,  translated  from  th^ 
Latir^"  ibid.  1590,  8vo^  and  St.  Omers,  1622.     Sever^ 
>vorks  were  published  in  d^fetoce  of  tl^e  measures  takei) 
agai^ist  bim. ' 

OARNET  (Thomas),  an  Jng^nioi^s  pngUsb  physiyiaiij,  w^ 
born  a^  Carterton,  n^af.  Kirjtby  Lo^nsdale;,  We^tmorelaiiidt 
April  21, 1766.  Abput  tb^  ag^  qf  fpurte^n,;  after  haying,  r^- 
ce^Y/e4  ^^^1  fy^^  ruqiments  of  education  at  his  natiye  village,, 
b^,.  vyas  place^d.a$  an^  apprentice  undej:  the  tuition  of  Mr., 
JDawsoo,  ajt,Se(lbe;:glV  in.  Yorkshire,  a  celebrated  ma^lb^np^* 
tician^  wbp,  was  at.  tha^  tii?^  a  surgeon  and  apothecarjT^ 

1  HiBt.  of  Eii^laDd.-TDodd*s  and  CQ\\s^f»  Church  Hii^ries^ 

«f«  GARNET. 

Here  he  laid  the  fotindation  of  bis  medical  and  philosopbi- 
eal  knowledge.  After  this  he  proceeded  to  Edinburgh, 
and  took  his  degree  about  1788.  During  his  residence 
there,  he  became  the  pupil  of  Dr,  Brown,  whose  new  sys- 
tem of  medicine  Dr.  Garnet,  from  this  time,  held  *in  the 
highest  estimation.  Soon  after  he  visited  London,  and  at- 
tended the  practice  of  the  hospitals.  He  had  now  arrived 
at  an  age  which  made  it  necessary  for  him  to  think  of  some 
permanent  establishment.  With  this  view  he  left  London, 
and  settled  at  Bradford  in  Yorkshire,  where  he  gave  pri-^ 
vate  lectures  on  philosophy  and  chemistry,  and  wrote  a 
treatise  on  the  Horley  Green  Spa.  In.  1791  he  removed  to 
Knaresborough,  and  in  summer  to  Harrogate,  and  was 
soon  engaged  in  an  extensive  practice.  As  this,  however, 
was  necessarily  limited  to  the  length  of.  the  season,  which 
lasted  only  three  or  four  months.  Dr.  G.  soon  after  his 
marriage,  which  took  place  in  1795,  formed  the  design  of 
emigrating  to  America.  At  Liverpool,  whete  he  was  wait- 
ing to  embark,  he  was  strongly  solicited  to  give  a  chemical 
course  of  lectures,  which  met  with  a  most  welcome  recep- 
tion, as  did  also  another  course  on  experimental  philoso- 
phy. He  then  received  a  pressing  invitation  frpm  Man- 
chester, where  be  delivered  the  same  lectures  with  eqiiat 
success.  These  circumstances  happily  operated  to  pre- 
vent his  departure  to  America,  and  be  )3ecame  a  success- 
ful candidate  for  the .  vacant  professorship  of  Anderson's 
institution  at  Glasgow,  in  1796.  In  Scotland,  bis  leisure 
hours  were  employed  in  collecting  materials  for  his  **  Tour* 
through  the  Highlands  ;^'  which  work  was  in  som^  degree  . 
impeded  by  the  sudden. death  of  his  wife  in  child-birth  ;  an 
event  which  so  strongly  affected  his  feelings,  that  be  never 
thought  of  it  but  with  agony.  Dr.  G.  was  induced  to  re- 
linquish the  institution  at  Glasgow,  by  favourable  offers 
from  the  new  Royal  Institution  in  London,  where,  for  one 
season,  ^e  wa^  professor  of  natural  philosophy  and  che- 
mistrv.  and  delivered  the  whole  of  tbc?^  lectures.  On 
retiring  from  this  situa^tion,  which  was  far  too  laborious 
for  the  state  of  his  health,  at  the  close  of  1801,  he  devoted 
himself  to  his  professional  practice,  and  took  a  house  in 
Great  Marlborough-street,  where  he  built  a  new  and  con- 
venient apartment,  completed  an  expensive  f^pparatus,  and 
during  the  winter  of  1801  and  1802,  he  gave  regular 
courses  on  experimental  philosophy  and  chemistry,  and 
jiIsq'^  new  course  on  «  ^oonoipia,"  pr^  «  the  l-aw^  of  Ani« 

GARNET.  '991 

inal  Life,  arranged  according  to  the  Brunonian  theory.'* 
These  were  interrupted  in  February,  for  some  weeks,  by 
a  dangerous  illness,  which  left  him  in  a  languid  istate; 
though  he  not  only  resumed  and  finished  the  lectures  he 
had  begun,  but  aJso  commenced  two  courses  on  botahy, 
one  at  his  own  bouse,  and  the  other  at  Brompton.  lo  the 
midst  of  these,  he  received,  by  infection,  from  a  patient 
whom  he  had  attended,  the  fever  which  terminated  his  life, 
June  28,  1802.  His  "  Zoonojnia"  was  afterwards  ^pubr 
lished  for  the  benefit  of  his  family.  **  Thus,"  says  his  bio- 
grapher, *'  was  lost  to  society  a  man,  the  ornament  of  his 
country,  and  the  general  friend  of  humanity.  In  his  per- 
sonal attachments,  he  was  warm  and  zealous.  In  his  reli- 
gion he  was  sincere,  yet  liberal  to  the  professors  of  con- 
trary doctrines.  In  his  political  principles  he  saw  no  ^nd, 
but  the  general  good  of  mankind ;  and,  conscious  of  the 
infirmity  of  human  judgment,  he  never  fai^led  to  make  al- 
lowances for  error.  As  a  philosopher  and  a  man  of  science, 
he  was  candid,  ingenuous,  and  open  to  conviction ;  he 
never  dealt  in  mystery,  or  pretended  to  any  secret  in  art; 
he  was  always  ready  in  explanation,  and  desirous  of  assist-* 
ing  every  person  willing  to  acquire  knowledge."  Besides 
his  **Tour  in  Scotland,"  and  the  other  works  mentioned 
before.  Dr.  Garnet  contributed  many  papers  to  the  Me- 
moirs of  the  Medical  Society  of  London,  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy,  and  Other  scientific  societies.  * 

GARNHAM  (Rev.  Robert  Edward),  an  English  divine, 
was  born  at  Bury  St.  Edmund's,  May  1,  1753,  and  wa« 
the  only  surviving  child  of  the  rev.  Robert  G.  many  years 
master  of  the  free  grammar-school  at  Bury,  and  rector  of 
Nowton  and  Hargrave,  in  Suffolk  ♦.  '  His  mother  was 
JVfary,  daughter  of  Mr.  Benton,  and  sister  of  the  late  Ed- 
ward Benton,  esq.  secondary  in  the  court  of  king's-bench. 
He  was  educated  partly  by  his  father,  who  supported  a 
considerable  reputation  for  classical  learning,  i^nd  partly 
at  Bury  school,  whence  he  Was  admitted  of  Trinity-college, 
Cambridge,  in  1770,  and  the  following  year  was  elected 
scholar.     In  1774  he  was  admitted  to  his  degree  of  B.  A. 

'  ♦  He  wM  formerly  feHoi^r  of  Triilky  n98»  aged  82.    His  wid«w  survived 

eoliege,  Cambridge,  and  took  t^e  de-  him  iitUe  more  tbaa  twelve  months, 

gree  of  B.  A.  1737,  and  M.  A:  1747.  dying  at  Bury>  Dec.  6,  1799,  aged  79, 

After  having  retired  tome  years  from  They  were  buried  in  the  cbaneel  of  Um. 

IMS  school,  he  died  at  Bury,  Nov.  8,  parish*cbarch  of  Nowton* 

I  Preface  to  his  **  Zoo&onia.''— -Qeot.  «od  Baropeaq  Al«g«  <^r  XfQfiL 

298  G  A  R  N  H  A  M. 

;^bich  be  obtained  with  credit  to  his  college  and  himself^ 
and  was  elected  fellow  in  1775,  and  proceeded  M.  A.  m 
1^77.'    In  17^3  he  Was  elected  college  preacher,  and  in 
Kovemb^r  1797.  was  advanced  into  tbe    seniority.     He 
was  ordalnea  deacon  March  3,  1776,  and  afterwards  entered 
on  tbe  curacies  of  Nowton  and  Great  Welnatham,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Biiry.     pn  June  15,  1777,  he  was  or* 
dained  priest,  but  having  imbibed  some  scruples  as  to  the 
articles  of  tlie  church,  of  the  Socinian  cast,  he  determined 
never  to  repeat  his  subscription  to  tbe  articles  for  any  pre- 
feirmtot  which  he  mieht  become  entitled  to  from  the  col- 
lege  patronage,  or  which  might  be  offered  to  him  from  any 
biher  quarter.     Agreeably  to,  and  consistently  with,  this 
statebf  mind,  he  resigned,  at  Midsummer,  1789,  the  cu- 
racies ib  which  he  was  then  eneaged,  and  resolved  thence- 
forward  to  aectine  officiating  in  the  ministry.     Mr.  Garn-* 
nam*s  health  was  never  robust,  and,  during  the  last  five  or 
aix  years  of  his  life,'  suffered  much  from  sickness^  whic^ 
prevented  his  residing  at 'Cambridge  after  tbe  death  of  his 
lather^  in  1798^  and  indisposed  and  disqualified  him  froiu 
|>iirsuing  his  former  application  to  his  studies.     His  indis- 
position and'  ibfirmities  continued  to  increase  j  and,  in  the 
summer  of  IBOl,  he  evidently  appeared  to  be  much  broken^ 
For  some  short  time  he  had.  complained  of  an  astl^ma;  and^ 
on  the  Saturd^ay  preceding  bis  death,  was  at^icked  with  an 
inflammation  oh  tjie  lungs  arid  breast.     He  continued  till 
the  morning  of  the  following  Thursday,  June  24.  18p2,^ 
iyben;he  expired  in  the  50th  year  of  his  age,  and  wa^  I^Ur 
ried  in  tne  chancel  of  Nowton  church.     His  writinc^s  were 
nunierous^  but  all . anonymous.     1.  "Examination  of  Mr. 
Harrison'*8  Sermon,  preached  in  the  cathedral  church  or 
St.  Paul,  London^  before  the  lord   mavqr^  on   May  25, 
1788,  1^89.'*     2."  Letter  to  the  right  rev.  tbe  bishop  of 
Norwich  (Dr.  Bagot),  requesting  him  to  name  the  prelate 
to  whoin  he  referred  as  *'contendino:  strenuously  for  the 
general  excellence  of  our  present  authorized  translation  oi 
the  Bibley  i789.''*'   3.  "Letter  to  the  right  rev. the  bishop 
of  Chester  (0r.  Cleaver^,  on  the  subject  of.  two  sermons 
addressed  by  him  to  the  clergy  of  his  diocese ;  cbmpre* 
bending  also  a  vindication  of  ;the  late  bishop  Hoadly,.  1 790.'* 
4,  *•  R^tieW .  of ^  Dr.  Hay*s  sermon,  entitled^  ♦  Thoughts 
on.t|ie  Ath^ni^i^i)  Creed,*  preached  ApriJ  12^  17.90,  at  the 
visitation  of  the  archdeacon  of  .Bucks,**  1790.     5.  <^  Out- 
liiHe  cfa  Commentary  on  Revelations  xi.  If— 14,**  1.794. 

G  A  R  N  B  A  M.  299 

6.  *'  A  Sermon  preached  in  the  chapel  of  Trinity-coUegey 
Cambridge,  on  Thursday,  Dec.  Ifi  itdS,  the  day'ap* 
pointed  for  the  commemoration  of  the  benefactors  to' that 
society,'*  1794.  He  wrote  also  the  papers  in  ^'Commen- 
taries and  Essays**  signed  Synergus :  and  some  iii  '^The 
Theological  Repository,'*  signed  Ereunetes,  and  Idiota.'  *, ' 

GARNIER  (John),  a  Jiesuit,  professor  of  classical 
learning,  philosophy,  and  rhetoric,  was  b6rn  at  Paris  in 
)612,  and  died  at  Bologna  in  1681,  in  a  deputation  to 
Rome  from  his  order.  His  principal  works  are,  I.Anedt^ 
rion  of  **  Mercator,**  folio,  1673.  2.  An  edition  of  th? 
•*  Liberat,**'in  8vo,  Paris,  1675,  with  learned  notes.  3.  Ad 
edition  of  the  "  Liber  diurnus,**  or  Journal  of  the  Popes; 
with  historical  notes,  and  very  curious  dissertations,  l^Sb^ 
4 to.  4:  "The  supplement  to  the  works  of  Theodoriet,*^ 
1 68^5,  4to.  5.  ^'  Systema  Bibliotbecee  Collegii  Parisiehsis, 
societatis  Jesn,'*  Paris,  1678,  4to;  a  very  usefnl' book  to 
those  who  are  employed  in  arranging  large  libraries.  * 

GARNIER  (John  Jam£s),  ian  ingenious  FVench  writer^ 
was  bom  at  Goron  in  the  Maine,  March  18,  172d^.  'Afte^ 
being* educated,  probably  in  hi^  own  country,  hi  came  t6 
Paris,  without  money  or  intei^est,  dnd  dependitig  bhlj^oh 
his- learning.  This  soon  recommehded  him,  however,  to 
a  place  in  the  college  ^f  Harcodi*t,  and  in  1760  he  was 
appointed  coadjutor  to  the  abb^  SelKei^  in  the  rbya!  cdllege^ 
and  was  made  before  1764  Hebrew  professor,  and  diosefl 
a  member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles  lettresl 
His  useful  studies  Were  interrupted  by  the  revolution^ 
and  in  1793  be  was  compelled  to  fly,  for  refusing  the  re- 
publican oaths.  He  thetl  went  to  B6Ugival,^bere  he  di^d 
in  1795.  AH  he  could  save  frontf  confisoatlbn  \i'as  hti 
libranr ;  but  his  friend  Lalande,  the  celebrated  astronbmer, 
so  effectually  repre'sebted  to  the  government^  the  dts'gr&ce 
of  suffering  a  man  of  so  much  merit  to  want  bread,  tbat  i, 
pension  was  granted  him.  He  wrote,  1.  "  L*Homnlfe'de 
lettres,*'  Paris,  1764,  2  vols,  12mo,  in  which  the  niethod 
he  lays  down  to  form  a  man  of  letters  is  highly  liberal  ati^ 
ingenious.  "^  2.  "Traitfi'de  Torigine  dn  gouvernemettt 
Frtmgoise,**  1765,  ib.  12nial  S.  ^«  De  Peducation  dvile,** 
1765,  l^mo.  4.  "  De  cbiftmerce  remis  asa  piacei***  *  In 
r77a  he  published  the  9th  Vol.  4t6  df  Velly  and  yillaret*tf 
History  of  Franfce;  begiflning  *lth  the  yeaf^469,  and 
continuing  his  labours  in  this  work,  produced  the  15th  vol. 

I  Qent  Mas*  ^^^^  ^  Morej(i.*<'Niceroi|«  roll.  XL«— Sawi  OoGmust 

SOO  G  A  R  N  I  E  R. 

in  1786,  displaying  throughout  the  whole  more  erudition 
than  his  predecessors.  He  wrote  several  papers  in  the 
memoirs  of  the  ^academy  of  inscriptions,  relative,  among 
other  subjects,  to  the  philosophy  of  the  ancients,  and 
especially  to  that  of  Piato,  of  which  he  was  perhaps  ratber 
too  fond,  though  less  fanciful  than  some  modern  Platonists.* 
GARNIER  (Robert),  a  French  tragic  poet,  was  born 
at  Fert6  Bernard  in  the  province  of  Maine,  in  1534.  He 
was  designed  for  the  law,  which  he  studied  some  time  at 
Toulouse;  but  afterwards  quitted  it  for  poetry,. in  which 
he  succeeded  so  well,  that  he  was  deemed  by  his  contem- 
poraries not  inferior  to  Sophocles  or  Euripides.  Thuapus 
says,  that  Ronsard  himself  placed  nobody  above  Garnier 
in  this  respect :  what  Ronsard  says,  however,  is  no  more 
than  that  he  greatly  improved  the  French  drama. 

P^toix  Garnier,  la  scene  des  Francis, 
Se  change  en  or>  qui  n'etoit  que  de  bois. 

But  although  his  tragedies  were  read  with  great  pleasure 
by  all  sorts  of  persons,  and  held  in  the  highest  estimation, 
when  they  had  no  better  to  read,  upon  the. introduction  of 
a  more  refined  taste,  they  gradually  felt  into  disesteem^ 
and  now  only  serve  to  shew,  that  France,  like  other  na- 
tions, has  been  capable  of  admiring  very  indifferent  poets. 
Besides  tragedies,  he  wrote  songs,  elegies,  epistles,  eclogues, 
&c.  of  no  better  stamp.  He  died  in  1590,  after  having 
obtained  several  considerable  posts.  Seneca  the  tragedian^ 
was  Garnier^s  model,  which  'single  circumstance  may  easily 
give  the  learned  reader  an  idea  of  his  taste  and  manner. 
His  dramatic  works  were  printed  collectively  at  Lyons,  in 
one  vol.  12moi^  1597,  and  reprinted  at  Paris  in  1607.* 


GARRARD  (Marc),  or  Gerards,  a  Flemish  painter, 
was  born  at  Bruges  in  1561,  and  practised  history,  land-* 
scape,  architecture,  and  portrait:  He  also  engraved,  illu- 
minated, and  designed  for  glass-painters.  His  etchings 
for  Esop^s  fables,  and  view  of  Bruges  were  much  esteemed. 
He  came  to  England  not  long  after  the  year  1580,  and  re^ 
mained  here  until  his  death  in  1635,  having  been  painter 
to  queen  Elizabeth  and  Anne  of  Denmark.  His  works  are 
numerous,  Uiough  not  easily  known,  as  he  never  used  any 
peculiar  mark,     in  general  they  are  neat,  the  ruffs  and 

*  Diet.  Hist.— Month.  Rev.  vol.  XXX. 

'  >{oreri.—Niceroo,  vol  XXVI  a— Diet.  Hist. 

GARRARD.  30l 


habits  stiff,  and  rich  with  pearls  and  other  jewels.  His 
flesh-colours  are  thin  and  light,  tending  to  a  blueish  tinc- 
ture. His  procession  of  queen  Elizabeth  to  Hunsdon- 
house  has  been  engraved  by  Vertue,  who  thought  that 
part  of  the  picture  of  sir  Thomas  More's  family  at  Burford 
might  have  been  completed  by  this  painter.* 

GARRICK  (David),  an  unrivalled  actor,  was  grandson 
of  Mr.  Garrick,  a  merchant  in  France,  who,  being  a  pro- 
testant,  fled  to  England  as  an  asylum,  Opon  the  revocation 
of  the  edict  of  Nantes  in  1685  ;  and  son  of  Peter  Garrick, 
who  obtained  a  captain^s  commission  in  the  army,  and 
generally  resided  at  Lichfield.  Peter  Garrick  was  on  a 
recruiting  party  in  Hereford,  when  his  son  David  was  born  ; 
and,  as  appears  by  the  register  of  All-saints  in  that  city, 
*  baptized  Feb.  28,  1716.  His  mother  was  Arabella,  daugh- 
ter of  Mr.  Clough,  one  of  the  vicars  in  Lichfield  cathedral. 
At  ten  years  of  age,  he  was  sent  to  the  grammar-school  at 
Lichfield;  but,  though  remarkable  for  declining  puerile 
diversions,  did  not  apply  himself  with  any  assiduity  to  his 
books.  He  had  conceived  an  early  passion  for  theatrical 
representation  ;  and,  at  little  more  than  eleven  years  of  age, 
procured  "The  Recruiting  Officer"  to  be  acted  by  young 
gentlemen  and  ladies,  himself  performing  the  part  of  ser- 
jeat  Kite.  From  school  be  went  on  invitation  to  an  uncle^ 
a  wine-merchant,  at  Lisbon;  but  returning  shortly  to 
Lichfield,  he  was  sent  once  more  to  the  grammar-school, 
where,  however,  he  did  not  make  any  considerable  pro- 
gress in  learning. 

About  the  beginning  of  1735,  Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.) 
8amuel  Johnson,  undertook  to  instruct  some  young  gen- 
tlemen of  Lichfield  in  the  belles  lettres ;  and  David  Gar- 
rick, then  turned  eighteen,  became  one  of  his  scholars,  or 
(to  speak  more  properly)  bis  friend  and  companion.  But 
the  master,'  however  qualified,  was  not  more  disposed  to 
teach,  than  Garrick  was  to  learn;  and,  therefore,  both 
growing  weary,  after  a  trial  of  six  months,  agreed  to  try 
their  fortunes  in  the  metropolis.  Mr.  Walmsley,  register 
of  the  ecclesiastical  court  at  Lichfield,  a  gentleman  much 
respected,  and  of  considerable  fortune,  was  Garrick's 
friend  upon  this  occasion,  recommended  him  to  Mr.  Col- 
son,  an  eminent  mathematician,  to  be  boarded  and  in- 
structed by  him   in  mathematics,  philosophy,  and   polite 

1  Walpole's  Aoecdotes^.  wbore  are  a  f«w  other  partitfttUr*  of  tfai»>art»st. 

io^  G  A  R  R  I  C  K. 

learning  J  with  a  view  of.  being  sent  within  tw^  or  tfhxe^ 
years  to  the  Templ^,  and  bred  to  the  law.  B^t  wjien 
Garrick  arrived  in  Xoqdon^  he.  ifound  that  ,bv^  finai^^e^i 
>6uld  not  suffice  to  put  him  under  Mr. .  Colson,  ^yi  th? 
death  of  his  ijncleji  who,  about  1737^, left  Portugal,,  auj^ 
died  in  London  soon  after*  He  bequeathed  his,  nephew 
lOOO/.  witb  the  interest  of  whic}),  Ke  pr^jdently  epibr^iced 
the  means  of  acquiring, useful  knowledge  uQder  Mr.  Col* 
son.  His  proficiency,,  nowqvcr,  in  mathematiqs  aiidphir 
)osophy  was  pot  extensive  ;  his  mind  was  sti^L  tbeat;rically 
disposed^  and,  ^t>9tb  faUier  s^nd  .mother  living .bi|t  a  short 
iime  after,  he  ^ave  hlpisejjp  up  to.  iiis  darling  passjion  fof 
acting;.  |^rom.wyiichj^,says  His  historian,  ^*  nothing  hpt  hi$ 
tenderness  for  so  dej^r,^  gelation  as  a  mother  had  }4ther|i) 
restrained  him^",;  I)uring  the  short  interval,  hqw^yer^  bq- 
tween  his  moth<?r's  ,de^t)^  and  his^  cqmmenci,ng  con^ediap, 
he  engagea  Jp.  the  wiiie  tr^d^  with  his  brother  Peter  Car- 
rick  ;  and  th^y  tiir^d  vaults  ii)  JDurh^in-yard.  ^,,..  ,„ 
Wneh  he  had  at  lep^tt^  formed  his  final  resolution^  I^ 
prepared  himself  in  ear^^st,  for  that  ^ploymeo^t,  he  ,s^ 
ardently  loved,  and  in  which  be  so. eminently  e^c^UQd| 
tie  was  frequently  ih  tne  cfmpany  of,  the  i^o^t^dpiir^a 
actors;  he  obtained  intifqductions  to  the  piaqager^  9/  t^q 
theatres;  Jbe^^fiejinj^  talent,  in  renting  pajrjipular  a^d  f^s 
vourite  portions  of  plays ;  and  spmetimes  wrote  criti$;ispa3 
upon  the  actipn  ancl  elpcution  of  the  players.  His,d\^de^9^ 
however,  withheld  him  from  trying  his  strength, a);  Qr^  uppo 
a  Lpndpn  theatr^ :  be  thought  jhe  hazard  too  grqat  ;.AP$ 
therefoire  cqmfuen,ced,  his  noviciate  in  actiag,  with  a^  'Cfiqy? 
pany  of  players  then  ready  tp  set  out  for  Ips>yich>  .'aj^^x 
the  direction  of  JVir.  ^IHa^d  s^d JV^r.  Dunsitall,  in.  ^e  sjom^ 

fiiejr  of  nil[    T^jfe  lirst  e%f^  of  his  th^s^uri^f^l  ^al^p|;s  was 
exerted  in  Abpan,^,  in . "  Orponpto  ;",  jind  met ,  i^id^  ap^ 

^Jaupe .  equs^l  to  ^is  most  sanguine  desires,  iLTpde]:  .th^ 
assuinei^  n^i^e  of  l^yddal,  )ie  not  piijy  %ct^4  ajyariety.oiF 
characters  ill  plays,  particulars  .Chamont  in  the  **  Qxpim^] 
captain  Brazen  in  the  *^  Recruiting  OUScer,^'  .and  sir  Han^c 
tVildair;.  but  be  likewise  attempted  the  act^v^.fe^ts  of  the 
harlequin.  In  every  essay  .he  was  gratified  witb/.pPQstant 
and  loud  applause,  and  Ipswich  has  alw^3  boailted  of 
Kaving  first  seen  and  encouraged  this  mi^mpc^l^MCtor* ..  .. 
Having  thus  tried  his  powers  before  a  provincial  an- 
dienpe,..  and  taken  all  the  necessary  steps  for  a  l^on^on 
stage,  he  made  his  appearance  at  Goodman^s-fieldsj  Oct^ 

G  A  R  R  I  C  K.  303 

L9>  1741^  when  hfe  acted  Richard  HI.  for  th^^nt  time^ 
His  ac^ting  was  attended  with  the  loudest  acclamatipns  of 
applause ;  and  his  fame  was  sq  quickiy  propagated  through 
the  town,  that  the  more  established  theatres  of  Druryrlape 
and  Covent* garden  were  deserted,  The  innabitants  of  the 
ipost  polite  parts  of  the  town  wer^  drawn  afte^  him  ;  and 
Gooamah'8-6eIds  were  full  of  the  splendor  of  St  James*^  and 
Grosvenor-s^uare,  We  must  not  wonder,  that  the  playera 
were  the  last  to  admire  this  rising  genius ;  who,  accprdin^ 
to  his  biographer  (and  surely  he  must  know),  ^^  are  more 
Kable  to  envy  and  jealousy  tha^n  persons  of  most  other  prp* 
fessions,'*  and  Qiiin  and  Gibber  could  not  .conceal  their 
uneasioeas  and  disgust  at  hU  great  success.  The  patentees 
a'^o  of  Druiy*lane  and  Covent«garden  were,  seriously 
alarmed  at  the  great  deficiency  in  the  repeipts  of  theiir 
'bouses^  and  at  the  crouds  which  coostantly  fillec)  the  thefi^ 
tre  of  Goodman^S'^fields ;  for  Gii&rd,  the  manager  tbere^ 
having  found  his  advantage  from  Garrick^s  itcting,  had  ad- 
mitted hkn  to  a  full  moiety  of  the  profits ;  and  Garrick^ 
in  consequen(^e  of  bia  being  perpetually  {tdmired,  acted 
almost  every  night.  Nay^  to  a  long  and  fatiguip^  charac- 
ter  in  the  play,  be  would  frequently  add  another  in  the 
farce.  Those  patentees^  therefore,  united  their  efforts,  to 
destroy  the  new-raised  seat  of  theatrical  empire,  and  for 
this  pur{>ose  inteiided  to  have  recourse  to  law..  An  acit  of 
parliament,  the  1 1th  of  (j^eorge  IL  co-operated  with  their 
endeavours ;  which  were  further  aided  by  sir  John  Barnard^ 
who,  for  some  reasons,  was  incensed  against  the.  comediana 
of  Goodman's-fields ;  in  consequence  of  which,  Garrick 
entered  into  an  agreement  with  Fleetwood,  patentee  of 
Drury->lahe^  fbr  500/.  a-year;  and  GifFard  and  his  wife^ 
soon  after,  niad^  the  best  terms  they  could  with  the  sam^ 
proprietor.  During  the  time  of  Garrick's  acting  in  Good^ 
man's-fields,  he  brought  on  the  stage  two  dramatic  pieces^ 
'^  The  Lying  Valet,  a  Farce  ;**  and  a  dramatic  satire, 
called  *^  Lethe  ;*'  vi^hich  are  still  acted  with  applause.  The 
laiteir  was  written  before  he  commenced  actx>r. 

GarricVs  fame  was  now  s6  extended,  that  an  invitation^ 
vpon  very  profitable  conditions,  was  sent  hini  .to  act  iti 
Dublin,  during  the  months  of  June,  July,  and  Augixst, 
1742;  i^hich  invitation  he  accepted,  and  went,  accom^ 
paoied  by  Mrs.  Woffington.  His  success  there  exceeded 
all  imagination ;  be  was  caressed  by  all  ranks  as  a  prodigjt 
of  theatrical  accomplishment ;  and  the  playhouse  was  so 

30«  6  A  R  ft  1  C  K. 


crouded  during  this  hot  season,  tbat  a  very  mortal  fever 
was  produced,  which  was  called  Garrick*s  fever.  He  r^-' 
turned  to  London  before  the  winter,  and  attended  closely 
to  his  theatrical  profession,  in  which  he  was  now  irrevoca- 
bly fised.  To  pursue  the  particulars  of  his  life  through 
this  would  be  to  give  an  history  of  the  stage ;  for  which, 
we  rather  choose,  and  it  is  more  consistent  with  our  plan, 
to  refer  to  Davies's  very  minute  account. 

In  April  1747  he  became  joint-patentee  of  Drury-lane 
theatre  with  Mr.  Lacy.  July  1749,  he  was  married  to 
mademoiselle  Viletti ;  and,  as  if  he  apprehended  that  this 
change  of  condition  would  expose  him  to  some  sarcastical 
wit,  be  endeavoured  to  anticipate  it,  by  procuring  his 
friend  Mr.  Edward  Moore,  to  write  a  diverting  poem  upon 
bis  marriage.  In  truth  this  guarding  against  distant  ridi- 
cule, and  warding  off  apprehended  censure,  was  a  favourite 
peculiarity  with  him  through  life.  When  he  first  acted' 
Macbeth,  he  was  so  alarmed  with  the  fears  of  critical  exa- 
mination upon  his  new  manner,  that  during  his  preparation 
for  the  character,  he  devoted  some  part  of  his  time  to  write 
an  humourous  pamphlet  upon  the  subject.  It  was  called, 
*^  An  Essay  on  Acting ;  in  which  will  be  considered,  the 
mimical  behaviour  of  a  certain  fashionable  faulty  actor, 
&c.  To  which  will  be  added,  a  short  criticism  on  his  act- 
ing Macbeth." 

in  1763,  he  undertook  a  journey  into  Italy,  and  set  out 
for  Dover,  in  his  way  to  Calais,  Sept.  17.  His  historian 
assigns  several  causes  of  this  excursion,  and  among  the 
chief,  the  prevalence  of  Covent-garden  theatre  under  the 
management  of  Mr.  Beard,  the  singer ;  but  the  real  cause 
probably  was,  the  indifferent  health  of  himself  and  Mrs. 
Garrick,  to  the  latter  of  whom  the  baths  of  Padua  were 
afterwards  of  service.  During  his  travels,  he  gave  fre-* 
quent  proofs  of  his  theatrical  talents ;  and  he  readily  com« 
plied  with  requests  of  that  kind,  because  indeed  nothing 
was  more  easy  to  him.  He  could^  without  the  least  pre-  . 
paration,  transform  himself  into  any  character,  tragic  or 
comic,  and  seize  instantaneously  upon  any  passion  of  tb& 
human  mind.  He  exhibited  before  the  duke  of  Parma, 
by  reciting  a  soliloquy  of  Macbeth;  and  haid  friendly  con-' 
tests  with  the  celebrated  mademoiselle  Clairon  at  Paris; 
He  saw  this  actress  when  he  paid  his  fifst  visit  to  Pariis  th  ' 
1752';  and  though  mademoiselle  Dumesnil  was  then  the 
favourite  actress  of  the  French  theatre^  he  ventured  to 

G  A  R  R  I  C  K.  305 

tmmottnce  that  Clairon  would  excel  all  competitors ;  which 
prediction  was  fulfilled. 

After  he  had  been  abroad  about  a  year  and  a  half,  he 
turned  his  thoughts  homewards ;  and  arrived  in  London  in 
April  1765.  But,  before  he  set  out  from  Calais,  be  put 
in  practice  his  usual  method  of  preventing  censure,  and 
blunting  the  edge  of  ridicule,  by  anticipation,  in  a  poem 
called  ^<  The  Sick  Monkey,"  which  he  got  a  friend  to 
print  in  London,  to  prepare  bis  reception  there.  The 
plan  of  it  was,  the  talk  and  censure  of  other  animals  and 
reptiles  on  him  and  his  travels.  Wretched,  surely,  must 
be  the  life  of  a  man  exposed  continually  to  public  inspect* 
tion,  if  thus  afraid  of  censure  and  ridicule,  and  afraid  with 
so  little  reason.  In  the  mean  time  the  piece  died  still- 
born ;  and  bis  historian  says,  **  is  among  the  few  things 
he  wrote,  which  one  would  wish  not  to  remember.*'  After 
his  return,  he  was  not  so  constantly  employed  as  formerly 
in  the  fatigues  of  acting;  he  had  now  more  leisure  to 
apply  himself  in  writing;  and  in  a  few  months  he  produced 
two  dramatic  pieces. 

'    In  1769  he  projected  and  conducted  the  memorable  Jur 
bilee  at  Stratford,  in  honour  of  Shakspeare ;  so  much  ad« 
mired  by  some,  and  so  much  and  so  justly  ridiculed  by 
others.     The  account  of  it,  by  bis  biographer,  is  curious, 
under  more  points  of  view  than  one.     On  the  death  of  Mr. 
Lacy,  in  1773,  the  whole  management  of  the  theatre  de- 
volved on  him.     He  was  now  advanced  in  years ;  he  had 
been  much  afflicted  with  chronical  disorders;  sometimes 
with  the  gout,  oftener  with  the  stone :  for  relief  from  the 
latter  of  which,  he  had  used  lixiviums  and  other  soap  me- 
dicines,   which  in   reality  hurt  him.      Yet    his    friends 
thought  that  a  retirement  from  the  stage,  while  he  pre- 
served a  moderate  share  of.  health  and  spirits,  would  b^ 
more  unfriendly  to  him,  than  the  prosecution  of  a  business, 
which  he  could  make  rather  a  matter  of  amusement,  than 
a  toilsome  imposition.     Accordingly,  he  continued  upon 
^he  stage  some  time  after ;  but  finally  left  it  in  June  1776, 
and  disposed  of  his  moiety  of  the  patent  to  messieurs  She- 
ridan, Linley,  and  Ford,  for  35,000/.     In  Christmas,  1778, 
when  upon  a  visit  at  eavl  Spencer^s  in  the  country,  he  was 
aeized  with  a  (it  of  his  old  disorder ;  but  recovered  so  far, 
as  to  venture  upon  his  journey  home,  where  he  arrived,  at 
his  house  in  the  AdeJphi,  Jan.  15,   1779.     The  next  day, 
he  sent  for  his  apothecary,  who  found  him  dressing  hixii* 
Vol.  XV.  X 

c  Sp6  G  A  R  R  I  C  K 

.  self,  and  seemingly  in  good  health ;  but  somewhat  alaraiedy 
that  he  had  not  for  many  hours  discharged  any  urine^  cen^ 
4trary  to  his  usual  habit.    The  disorder  was*  incessantly 
gaining  ground,  and  brought  on  a  stupor,  which  increased 
'gradually  to'  the  time  of  his  death.     This  happened  JalL 
:20,  without  a  groan*     The  celebrated  suigeon  Mn  Pett 
-pronounced  his  disease  to  be  a  palsy  of  the  kidneys.     His 
body  was  interred  with  great  magnificence  in  Westminster- 
abbey,  and  in  1797  a  monument  was  erected  to  his  me^ 
;mory,  at  the  expence  of  a  private  friend.     Garrick  is-sup- 
:po$ed  to  have  died  worth  140,000/. 

Mr.  Garrick  in  his  person  was  low,  yet  welUshaped  and 
.neatly  proportioned,  and,  having  added  the  qualifications 
.of  dancing  and  fencing  to  his  natural  gentility  of  manner, 
bis  deportment  was  constantly  easy  and  engaging.     His 
complexion  was  dark,  and  the  features  of  bis  mce,  wbtcb 
irere  pleasingly  regular,  were  animated  by  a  full  black  eye, 
brilliant  and  penetrating.     His  voice  was  clear,  raelodidiMi, 
land  commanding-,  with  a  great  compass  of  variety;  and, 
from  Mr.  Garrick's  judicious  manner  of  conducting  it,  en* 
joyed  that  articulation  and  piercing  distinctness,  which 
Tendered  it  equally  intelligible,  even  to  the  most  distant 
parts  of  an  audience,  in  the  gentle  whispers  of  murmuring 
love,  the  half-smothered  accents  of  infelt  passion,  or  tte 
professed  and  sometimes  aukward  concealments    of  an 
aside  speech  in  comedy^  as  in  the  rants  of  rage,  the  darings 
^f  despair,  or  all  the  open  violence  of  tragical  enthusiasm. 
.  As  to  his  particular  fort  or  superior  cast  in  acting,  it 
.would  be  perhaps  as  difficult  to  determine  it,  as  ic  w6uld 
be  minutely  to  describe  his  several  excellencies  in  the  very 
difFerent  casts  in  which  he  at  different  times  thought  prCK 
-per-  to  appear.     Particular  superiority  was  swallowed  v^ 
in  bis  nniversality ;  and  although  it, was  someiimes  cod- 
tended,  that  there  were  performers  equal  to  bim  in  their 
jowu  respective  forts  of  pbying,  yet  even  their  partizans 
'^ould  not  deny  that  there  never  existed  any  one  perforiner 
tbat  came  near  bis  excellence  in  so  great  a  variety  of  parts. 
rTragedy,  comedy^  and  farce,  the  lover  and  the  hero,  the 
jealous  husband   who  suspects  his  wife's  virtue  withoiijt 
^ause,  and  the  thoughtless  lively  rake  who  attaqks  it  withotAt 
design,  were  all  alike  open  to  lijs  imitation,  and  all  alike 
did  honour  to  his  execution.     Every  passion  of  the  buniaii 
breast  seemed  subjected  to  his  powers  of  expression^;  'nsi]^, 
:even  time  itself  appeared  to  stand  still  or  advance  ai^  be 

G  A  R  R  I  C  K.  SOr 

urottld  have  it     Rage  and  ridiculey  doubt  and  'despair^ 
iraosport  and  tenderneM,  compassion  and  oontempt,  love^ 
jealousy^  fear,  fury,  and  simplicity,  all  took  in  turn  posr 
•ession  of  bis  features,  while  each  of  them  ir^  turn  appeared 
|o  be  the  sole  possessor  of  those  features.     One  night  old 
«ge  sat  on  his  countenance,  as  if  the  wrinjklet  she  had 
stampt  there  were  indelible ;  the  next  the  gaiety  and  blopia 
of  youth  seemed  to  overspread  his  face,  and  smooth  eveo 
those  marks  which  time  and  muscular  conformation  migb^ 
have  really  made  there.     I'hese  truths  were  acknowledged 
by  all  who  saw  him  in  the  several  characters  of  Lear  or 
, Hamlet,  Richard,  Doril^s,  Romeo,  or  Lusignan;    in  his 
Ranger,  Bays, .  Drug^er,  Kitely,  Brute,  or  Benedict.     In 
short,  nature,  the  mistress  from  whom  alone  this  great  per- 
former borrowed  all  bis  lessons,  being  in  herself  ioexhausti- 
ble,  aad  her  variations  not  to  be  numbered,  it  is  by  no 
means  surprizing,  that  this,  her  darling  son,  should  find 
an  unlimited  scope  for  change  and  diversity  in  bis  manner 
of  copying  from  her  various  productions ;  and,  as  if  she 
had  from  !his  cradle  marked  him  out  for  her  truest  repre- 
sentative, she  bestowed  on  him  such  powers  of  expjressipii 
in  the  muscles  of  his  face,  as  no  performer,  ever  yet  pos* 
sessed  ;  not  only  for  the  display  of  a  single  passion,  but  also 
for  the  combination  of  those  various  canSicts  with  which 
the  human  breast  at  tiroes  is  fraught;  so  that  in  bis  coun« 
tenance,  even  when  his  lips  were  silent,  bis  meaning  stoo^ 
pourtrayed  in  characters  too  legible  for  any  to  mistake  it. 

His  conduct  as  a  manager,  and  his  private  character,  have 

jbeen  variously   estimated.     No  .man  perhaps  had   more 

friends,  or  more  admirers,  but  he  could  not  fail  to  create 

enemies  by  a  superiority  which  so  frequently  bid  defiance 

to  rivalsbip.     On  the  other  baud  it  is  allowed  that  as  he 

excelled  all  other  performers  in  dramatic  merit,  so  he  also 

excelled  them  in  jealousy  of  fame.     This  seems  to  have 

l^ceompanied  him  through  the  whole  course  of  his  life,  and 

foprmea  a  perp^uitl  source  of  uneasiness  to  himself,  fnd 

:ridicule  tQ  his  enemies.     As  by  his  vast  riches  he  |iad  the. 

-power  of  doing  good,  his  liberality  has  been  asserted  by 

one  party,  and  denied  by  another.     But  it  is  impossible  to 

refuse  credit  to  the  many  instances  of  generosity  which  his 

ji^iograpbers  have  produced,  and  as  impossible  to  reQOQcila, 

Ihem  with  the  common  notions  of  avarice.     This,  however^ 

•aftd  other  questk)ns  respecting  the  public  and  private  eha* 

rapter  of  GarVick,  will  be  found  amply  discussed  lu  91^ 

X  2 

808  O  A  R  R  I  C  K. 

references.  As  a  performer  it  has  been  again  and  agaift 
^aid)  that  we  ^  shall  ne^er  look  on  his  like  again/*  |l  sen* 
terice  sufficiently  mortifying  to  the  lovers  of  the  draoia^ 
but  which  perhaps  may  be  confirmed  without  any  positive 
deflect  in  the  merit  of  his  successors.  If  another  Gsirrick 
in  all  respects  equal  to  the  former  should  appear,  and  we 
may  form  the  supposition,  there  would  always  be  an  tn- 
disiinct,  traditumaty  idea  of  the  original  English  Rosciut, 
which  would  obstruct  the  fame  of  a  new  candidate.  The 
idea  of  Garrick  must  soon  become  of  this  description,  a^ 
the  generations  who  admired  him  are  fast  decaying,  and  iu 
a  few  years  criticism  will  be  able  to  do  no  more  than  strike 
a  balance  between  the  contending  opinions  of  his  firiends 
and  foes. 

As  a  writer,  Garrick  claims  but  a  second  place.  There 
is  in  the  Biog.  Dramatica  a  list  of  about  forty  drainatie 
pieces,  some  original,  but  chiefly  alterations  of  old  plays, 
or  light  temporary  pieces.  Besides  these  he  wrote  some 
minor  poems,  and  a  vast  number  of  prologues  and  epi- 
logues. The  general  character  of  all  these  is  vivacity, 
neatness,  and  a  happy  adaptation  to  the  occasion. ' 

GARSAULT  (Francis  Alexakdek  de),  was  grandson 
of  M.  de  Garsault,  groom  of  the  king*s  grand  stable,  whom 
M.  de  Colbert  made  inspector  general  of  the  studs 
throughout  the  kingdom  in  1663.  His  uncle  was  captain 
of  the  ktng^s  studs,  and  he  was  appointed  captain  in  rever- 
sion, but  did  not  succeed  to  the  place;  he  nevertheless 
paid  much  attention  to  horses,  and  was  by  that  means  qua- 
lified to  publish  his  *'  Nouveau  parfait  Marechal,^'  the 
fourth  edition  of  which  is,  1 770,  4to.  It  is  the  best  Frencli 
work  on  that  subject;  nor  has  it  been  exceeded  by  any 
that  have  since  appeared.  M.  de  Garsault  had  before 
translated  Snape*s  "  Anatomy  of  a  Horse**  from  the  Eng- 
lish, which  translation  appeared  in  1737,  4to.  In  1756  he 
pobiished  his  treatise  on  carriages,  including  a  description 
of  a  coach  that  cannot  be  overturned  ;  which  he  made  use 
6f  a  long  time.  "  Le  Guide  du  Cavalier,**  1769,  12mo, 
is  the  last  work  published  on  horses  by  this  author;  he 
afterwards  employed  his  leisure  hours  in  painting,  engrsv- 
rng,  and  several  other  works ;  as  ''  les  Faits  des  Causes 
celebres,^'  12mo;  "  le  Notionaire  de  ce  qu*il  y  a  de  plus 

>  Davies  and  Murphy's  Lives    of  Q^rrick.— Biog.  Dramat40a.-«*Nicboify 

JBowyer.-T-Cumberlaml's   lAta. — Dr.  Johnson's  Work'— -Qod   Life  bjr.Boswe^.-f 
Msron'a  life  of  Whitehead,  p.  63,  &4,  &c.  &c. 

'      GAR  SAUL  T.  30© 


^liie  dans  lea  Connoissances  acqaifes/*  8vo.  He  wrote 
alsQ  in  the  coUectioQ  of  the  academy  of  the  sciences,  the 
arta  of  the  tennis-racket  •  oiaker^  the  peruke-maker^  tbq 
^ylor,  the  sempstresSt  the  sheemakeri  the  harness-maker, 
the  ^ler«  and  ^  eollection  of  plants  engraved,  in  4  vols,  8vo. 
A  palsy  brought  him  insensibly  to  his  grave,  November 
1778,  at  the  age  of  86.' 

GARTH  (Sir  Samuel),  a  celebrated  poet  and  physician, 
%aa  born  of  a  good  family  in  Yorkshire,  and  sent  from 
school  to  Peter-house-coUege  in  Cambridge;  where .mak-* 
ing  choice  of  physic  for  bis  profession,  be  acquainted  him- 
ftelf  with  the  fundamental  principles  and  preparatory  re-* 
quitttes  of  that  i^Mful  science^  At  the  same  time  he  bad 
an  admirable  genius  and  taste  for  polite  literature ;  andr 
being'  much  delighted  with  those  studies,  he  continjued  at 
college, .  employing  bis  leisure  hours  in  that  waj^,  till  ha 
took  the  degree  of  M.  D.  July  7,  1691.  Soon  after  this, 
resolving  to  undertake  tbe  practice  of  bis  profession  in* 
London,  he  offered  liimself  a  candidate  to  the  college  of 
physicians.;  and,  being  examined  March  12,  1691-2,  was 
admitted  fellow  June.  26th  following. 
, .  The  college  at  this  time  was  engaged  in*  tha(  cbaritafale 
prcgect,  of  prescribing  to  the  .sick  poor  ^  gratis,  and  fur« 
^i^ing  them  also  with  medicines  at  prime  cost.  The 
foundation  of  this  charity  was  first  begun  by  an  unanimous 
YQte  passed  Jul^r  2^i  1687,  ordering  all  their  members  to 
gire  their,  advjoe  gratis,  te  aJl  their  sick  neighbouring 
poor^ .  when  desired,  within  the  city  of  London,  or  seven 
miles. round*  Wit^  the  view  of  rendering  this  tote  mord 
<^&pt«ial,  fmother  was  passed  August  13,  1688,  that  the 
Ubotatory  of  ihe  college,  should  be  fitted  up  for  preparing 
medicines  for  tbe.poort  and  also  the  room  adjoining,  for 
airepofitory^  But  due  apothecaries  found  means  to  raise 
a.  party  afterwards  in  the  college  against  it ;  so  that  the 
design  could  nol^  be  carried  into  execution.  The  college 
was  in  this .  embipiled  slater  when  our  author  became  a 
&llow;  and  eoii$^rci9^  heartily  with  those  members  who 
jreffolredt .  notwithstafidM^  tbe  disoouragemenDs.  tbey  met 
nJnhf .  tp  pftHtoete  Ihe  enerity^  an  order  was  made  by  the 
iinanimous  consent  of  the  society  in  16S4,  requiring  strict 

*< '  ♦  By  flift  pftof  Hi«re  iflitf ersliMd  tudh  «r  tHe  pcf ish  #li«te' th«y  dw^tt,  to  wl^icA 
aibrou^t€erUi6ate«of  tbftif  beln^fso,  \tett  added  tl;«  tihtirclmardeni  and 
'•igotd  by-tlw  rtdor,  Ticsr,  mt  cumM    tfteilteera. 

'  Diet  Hii^t.  de  L»ATOc»t. 


obedience  ftom  all  their  members  to  the  order  of  ISH/ 
This  new  order  was  presented  to  the  City  on  June  IS^* 
1695,  for  their  assistaince ;  but  this  too  being  defeated  hj 
the  dissolution  of  the  common-council  at  the  end  of  the 
year,  a  proposition  was  made  to  the  college,  Dec.  22,  1696, 
for  a  subscription  by  the  fellows,  candidates,*  and  Ucen* 
tiates,  for  carrying  on  the  charity,  by  preparing  medicines 
in  a  proper  dispensatory  for  that  purpose. 
'  In  the  same  year.  Dr.  Garth,  detesting  the  behaviour  of 
the  apothecaries,  as  weii  as  of  some  members  of  the  faculty 
in  this  afiuir,  resolved  to  expose  them,  which  he  accord- 
ingly  exectited,  with  peculiar  spirit  and  vivacity,  in  his 
admirable  poem  entitled  <<  The  Dispensary?*  The  first 
edition  came  out  in  1699,^  and  it  went  through,  three  im- 
pressions in  a  few  niionths.  This  extraordinary  encourage- 
ment induced  him  to  make  several  improvements  in  it; 
and,  in  1 706,  be  published  the  sixth  edition,  with  several 
descriptions  and  episodes  never  before^  printed  *.  In  1697 
he  spoke  the  annual  speech  in  Latin  before  the  college,  on 
8t.  Luke^s  day ;  which  being  soon  after  published,  left  it 
doubtful,  whether  the  poet  or  the  orator-  was  most  to  be 
admired.  In  his  poem  he  exposed,  in  good  satire,  the 
false  and  mean-spirited  brethren  of  the  foculty;  In  the' 
oration,  he  ridiculed  the  multiforious  classes  of  the  quacks, 
with  spirit,  and  not  without  huri^our. 

So  much  literary  merit  did  not  fail  to  gain  him  great 
reputation  as  a  polite  scholar,  and  procured  him  ftdteit<» 
tance  into  the  company  and  friendship  of  most  of  the  no- 
bility and  gentry  of  both  sexes ;  who  being  inclined  hf 
his  agreeable  conversation  to  try  bis  skill  in  his  profession, 
were  still  more  pleased  to  find  him  answer  their  wishes 
tad  expectations.  By  ^uch  m^nis^  he  came  into  vast  prac- 
tice, and  endeared  himself  to  his  patients  by  his  polite- 
ness, agreeable  conversation,  generosity,  and  grMt  good^ 
nature.'  It  was  these  last  qualities  that*  prompted  him  in 
170rto  provide  a  suitable  interment  for  the  sbamefnUy 
abandoned  corpse  of  Dryden ;  wbkb  ha  caused  to  be 
brought  to  the  ccrflege  of  physiciai»i  proposed  and  encoa« 
raged  by  his  own  example  a  subscription  for  defraying  the 
^  •  •  ■   ' 

^  Pope  obsertretl  that  th«  Disptni aiy  8om«thiiigof  poetical  ardour;  and  boios 

Had  been  corrected  in-eTery  edition,  no  longer  •upnortedbyaooideat^i and 

and  tbat  wwery  chang^e  was  an  iinf»iv>ve.  extrinsic  popalariiy»  hst  icaroely  bsca 

inent.    Dr.  Johnson,  boweTer,  ,addft  nble  to  ioppor(it8el£. . 
not  witboot  FtasoBy  tbat  it  «tiU  wants 

G  A-  R  T  H.*  ^* 


Mpence^of  II  funeral,  pronounced  8  suitable  ofalioH'  ovei^' 
Ule  fetnains  of  the  great  poet,  and  afterwards  attended  the: 
aolemeity  from  Warwick-lane  to  Westminster-abbey r  1 1  is^ 
commonly  deserved,  that  the  making  of  a  man*s  foi  tuaeis  ^e^ 
nerally  owing  to  some  one  lucky  incident ;  and  nothing  was' 
perhaps  of  more  service  in  that  respect  to  Dr.  Garth,  tbanP 
ibe.  opportunity  he  had  of  shewing  his  true  character  by- 
this  memorable  act  of  generosity. 

'  .  Inhis  Harveian  speech  he  had  stepped  a  little  aside 
^rom  the  principal  subject,  to  introduce  a  panegyric  on* 
king  William,,  and  to  record  the  blessings  of  the  revotution« 
The  address  is  warm  and  glowing ;  and  to  shew  that  his^ 
iiaod  and  heart  went  together,  be  entered  with  the  first 
members  who  formed  the  famous  Kit-Kat  club,  which* 
consisted  of  above  thirty  noblemen  and  gentlemen^  and 
was  erected  in  1703^  purely  with  the  design  of  distinr 
guisbing  themselves  by  an  active  zeal  for  the  protestaiu 
succession  in  the  house  of  Hanover^.  TJie  design  of 
these  gentlemen  to  recommend  and  encqurage  Joyalty,  by 
the  powerful  influence  of  pleasantry,  wit,  and  humour, 

-  furnished  Dr.  Garth  with  an  opportunity  of  distingaishvng 
'bimiself  among  the  most  eminent  in  those  quahties,  by  the 

extempore  epigrams  he  made  upon  the*  toasts  of  the  club, 
,  yfhi^h:  were  inscribed  on  their  drinking-glasses. 

In  politics,    Dr.  Garth  ^ras    prompted    not   more   by 

*  S^^  sense  than  by  good  disposition,  to  make  bis  muse 
-fufeeervient  to  bis  interest,  only  by  proceeding  uniformly 

•  itt  'titt :  same,  road,    without   any   malignant  deviations. 
Thus,   as   he   had   enjoyed  the    sunshine   of  the  court 

.  tiiifilig  k»rd:Godolphin's  administration  in  queen  Anne's 
inig^f\timt  .minister  bad  the  pleasure  to  find  him  among 
-lfcd&Sil.t>£  those  who  paid  the  muse's  tribute  on  the 
^S^yeyse  .of  his  fortune  in  1710^  and  in  the  same  un* 
-llbangeaUle  spirit^  when  both  the  sense  and  poetry  of 
.  tbfts  jiddress  i'^re^ttad^ed  by  Prior  with  all  the  outrage 
'  ^ifMoly  .vmileocef '  be  took  no  notice  of  it ;  but  had  the 
'  nafcisfaptton  to  see  .an  .unanswerable  defence  made  for  him 

-  byJ^ddisDO^  -  The/t^sk,  indeed,  was  easy,  and  that  elegant 
writer  in  yMi  ccmclttuoaof  it  c^serves^  that  the^ame  person 

";•    .                           .     .  '        •' 

-  '•  *  Bayer'i  Life  of  qaeen  Anii«.   The  with  tarts»  and  other  articlee  fer  the 

-  iiame  of  kit-Kat  w«s  taken  from  oiie  table.     Jacob  Tooson  was  their  secre- 
'   €3iYistepfaer*  Kat,  a  pa8try-«oook,  -near  -  taiy,-  and  in  virtue  of  that  offiee,  be- 

^le  MTeWiiy  Kinf -etraet,)VeiUiiinster»    came  poasf  $ie4.  of  the  pieturea  of.  aii 
where  they  met,  who  often  served  thein    the  original  memberi  of  iM  club^ 

ax*  GARTH. 

wbb  has  endeavoured  to  prove  that  be  i^bo  wmte  die  <<  Dhh^ 
peasarj"  was  no  poet^i  will  very  suddenly  undertake  to^ 
§he^  that  he  who  gained  the  battle  of  Blenheim,  was  wr 
general.  Thexe  was,  indeed,  no  fieed  of  a  ptopbetie 
apirit  to  inspire  the  prediction.  It  was  written  in  Sept. 
1710;  and  tiie  following  year,  in  Deoember,  tbe^dukeof 
Marlborough  was  removed  from  all  his  places,  and  having^ 
obtained  leave  to  go  abroad,  embarked  at  Dover  for  Od** 
tend,  Nov.  30,  1712.  Dr.  Gai^th  had  lived  in  the  partica* 
lar  favour  and  esteem  of  this  g^reat  man  while  in  power, 
and  when  he  was  out  of  power  be  lamented  in  elegant  verse, 
bis  disgrace  and  voluntary  exile. 

In  the  mean  time,  with  the  same  feelings,  he  had  writ^' 
ten  a  dedication  for  an  intended  edition  of  Lucretius^  in 
17 1 J ,  to  his  late  majesty  king  George  L  then  elector  of 
Brunswick;  and  on  the  accession  of  that  prince  to  the 
&rone,  had  the  honour  of  being  knighted  with  the  duk^ 
of  Marlborough's  sword,  was  appointed  king^s  physioiati 
in  ordinary,  and  physician  general  to  the  army*  These 
were  no  more  than  just  rewards  even  of  his  medical  merit; 
He  bad  gone  through  the  office  of  censor  'of  the  college  in 
1702,  and  had  practised  always  with  great  reputation,  aad 
a  strict  regard  to  the  honour  and  interest  of  the  faculty  ; 
never  stooping  to  prostitute  the  dignity  of  his  prefession, 
through  mean  and  sordid  views  of  self-interest,  by  courting 
even  the  most  popular  and  wealthy  apothecaries.  In  a 
steady  adherence  to  this  noble  principle,  he  concurred 
with  the  much  celebrated  Dr.  RadclifFe,  with  whom  lie  waa 
also  often  joined  in  physical  consultations. 

Garth  had  a  very  extensive  practice,  but  was  extremely 
moderate  in  bis  ^ws  of  advancing  his  own  fortune ;  bii 
humanity  and  good-nature  inelining  him  more  to  make  use 
of  the  great  interest  he  had  with  persons  in  powev,  fcv  the 
support ^and  encouragement  of  other  men  of  letters.     He 
chose  ^o  live  with  the  geeat  in  that  degree  of  indqseudeney ' 
and  freedom,  which  became  a  man  possessed  of  a  tuperier  ' 
geniu%  ef  ishidi  he  was  daily  ffnag  fresh  proofs  to  the  ' 
public^    One  of  these  was  addressed  to  the  late  duke  of 
Newcastle,  in  1715,  entitled  *<  Claremoot ;''  being  wite^* 
ten  on  the  occasion  of  giving  that  name  to  a  villa  belon^n^i 
tor  tbat  nobleman,  who  was  then  only  earl  of  Clare,  wnici 
he  had  adorned  with  a  beautiful  and  sumptuous  structures 
Among  the  Latia  writersi  Ovid  appears  to  heve  been  the 

GARTH.  a^l5f 

doctor'ft  favottrile ;  and  it  has  been  thought  tbat  there 
aome  raaciQiblance  in  their  dispositionsi  mannerfy  and 
poetry*  One  of  his  last  performanceSi  was  an  edition  of 
0?id*s  Metamorphosesy  translated  by  various  hands^  ia 
which  he  rendered  the  whole  14tb  book»  and  the  story  oC 
€!i(^iii  in  the  1 5th.  It  was  published  in  1 7 1 7p  and  h^ 
pie&xed  m  pre£sce|  wherein  he  not  only  gives  an  idea  p£ 
the  work,  and  points  out  its  principal  beautieSf  but  ahewa 
the  uses  of  the  poeoi^  and  bow  it  may  be  read  to  most  ad- 

The  distemper  which  seised  hiln  tbe  ensuing  year,  ^nd 
ended  not  but  with  his  life,  caused,  a  general  concerui  and 
was  particularly  testified  by  lord  Lansdown,  a  brother 
poet,  Uu>Bgh  of  a  different  party,  in  a  copy  of  versus 
written  on  the  occasion^  He  died  after  a  short  illnesSf 
which  he  bor«  with  great  patience,  January  .18,  17 1 8-) 9* 
His  loss  was  lamented  by  Pope,  in  a  letter  to  a  fdend^  w 
foUows :  <<  The  best«-oatnred  of  men,"  says  tbi?  isiaoh* 
admijred  poet^  *<  Sir  Samuel  Garth,  has  left  me  in  the 
truest  conoern  for  his  loss4  His  death  was  veiy  heroiQal# 
and  yet  unalEected  enough  to  have  made  a  saint  or  a  pbi^ 
loaopher  fismoiuu  But  ill  tongues  and  worse  hearts  bav^ 
branded  even  his  last  moments,  as  wrongfully  as  they  did 
bis  life,  with  icreligbn.  You  must  have  heard  many  tal^ 
on  this  subject;  I ImiI  if  ever  tberft  was  a  good  ehrialiaii^ 
wsthotti  kaMKMig  himself  lo  be  so»  it  was  Dr.  Garth."  ThtSi 
however,  is  nothing  against  positive  evidence,  that  Dr« 
Garth  was  a  free-thinker,  and  a  sensoalisi ;  and  the  latter 
part  of  it,  his  bemg  a  good  Christian  without  knowing 
Uoiaelf  to  he  ao^  if  it  be  not  aonaense^  is  a  proof  tbat  Pope 
cannot  deny  what  he  is  angry  to  hear,  anld  lol^b  tocoallsast 
Ur*  Johnson  observes^  tbat  !^  Pcpe  afterwards  declared 
Idmself.  convinced  that  Garth  died  in  the  cMsm^nion  irf 
the  church  of  Borne/'  and  adds  a  sentiment  of  Lowth'i^ 
*^  that  there  is  less  distance  than  is  thought  beiwieen  scep^ 
lieism  and  pq>enr;  and  that  a  mind,  wearied,  with  per^ 
petual  doufa^  willingly  seeks  repose  in  tbe  bosom  .pf  aa 
iafalUUe  chnrch."  If  Dc.  JxJmaou  took  this  decWilation  of 
Pope's  from  Spence's  '*  MS  Anecdotei^"  to  which,  it  ia 
known  he-  bad  aocess,  he  did  not  transcribe  tbe  whole* 
What  Pope  said  is  thus  given  bv  Spenee :  <<  Garth  talked 
in  « less  Ubertine  manner  than  be  bad  been  used  about  thil 
three  last  years  of  his  life.    He  was  rather  doubtful  and 

514  GARTH. 

fearful  than  irretigioiis.  It  was  usual  for  hioi  to  say,  tluil^ 
if  there  was  any  such  thing  as  religion,  it  was  aiaoiig  th»^ 
Boman  catholics.  He  died  a  papist,  (as  I  was  assured  by 
Mr.  Blount,  who  called  the  father  to  him  in  bis  last  mo* 
ments)  probably  from  the  greater  efficacy,  in  which  we 
give  the  sacrameots.  He  did  not  take  any  care  of  bimaelf 
in  his  last  illness,  and  had  talked  for  three  or  four  years  a» 
dne  tired  of  living.''  The  same  MS.  insinuates  that  thia 
impatience  of  life  had  nearly  at  one  time  pErompted  him  to 
suicide.  -  ■    ' 

*  Dr.  Garth  was  interred  Jan.  29,  in  the  -dtarob  of  Qar- 
fow*on-tbe*hill>  near  London,  where  he  bad  caused  <« 
vault  to  be  built  for  himself  and  his  family ;  being  .^ur^ 
vived  by  an  only  daughter,  married  to  the  faonoorabie  eo^ 
lonel  William  Boyle,  a  younger  son  -nf  due-honourable  eor 
lonel  Henry  Bpyle,  nncie  to  the  last  earl  of  Burltngtfui  of 
that  name.' 

GAilTHSHORE  (Maxwell),  an  eminent  physician, 
and>  very  .amiable  man,  was  born  at  Kircudbrigbt,  the 
prineipal  town  of  the  county  of  that  name  in  Scotland, 
Oct  S8,  1730.  'He  was  the  son  of  the  rev.  Greorge  Gavtb»* 
•bore,'  the  minister  of  Kircudbright,  and  received  hi^ 
early  education  at  home.  At  the  age  of  fourteen  *  he  waa 
placed  with  a  surgeon-^apothecary  in  Edinburgh,  wheae 
be  attended  the  medical  classes'of  the  university,  and; the 
infirmary.  In  his  twenty-second  year,  wlmi  he  had 
finished  bis  medical  studies,  he  entered  the  army,  aa  nmte 
to  surgeon  Huck  (afterwards  Dr«  fiuck.  Sanndors)  m  ioefl 
Charles  Hay's  regiment.  In.lTi&he  bad  a»Qpportnm^ 
of  reiinquisbiiig  this  service  for  the  more  advaiatageeua  sin 
tuation  of'sncceeding'to  the  practice  of  Dr.  John  FcMtyce, 
«  pbysidanat  Uppingham,  in  Budandsbite,  who  was 
about  to  remove  to  London.  In  this  place,  Dr.  Garth* 
shore  Tc^hled  *  until  1763^  giving  much  satisfaiction  by  *hls 
activity,.,  asaicluity,  and  successful  practice  ip  physic  ispd 
inidwifeiy,  in  a  very  extensive  range  of  covntry*  Hero 
also  he  formed  some  valuable  connections,  and  in  1^5B 
married  a  young  lady  heiress  to  a  small  estate.  Thia:  laat 
advantage  encouraged  him  to  remove  to  London  in  tt^S, 
and  after  a  short  residence  in  Bedlbrd*street^  Covenir 
garden,'  he  settled  ina  hcmse  in  St.  Martinis  lane,  where 
he  continued  :nearly  fifty  years.    .His  professional  vi^ws  m 

'  Bioff.  Brit« — JobasoB's  Lires.— >Cibber's  Lives.— Spence's  Anecdotes,  MS:; 

*  • 

G  >  R  T  H  S  H  O  R  £.  SIJ 

doming  to  London  were  amply  gratified*;  but  here  h^ 
was  soon  assailed  by  a  heavy  domestic  affliction,  the  loss 
of  his  wife,  which  took  place  the  8th  of  March,  1765. 
From  this  calamity  Dr.  G.  sought  relief  in  the  practice  of 
bis  public  duties.  His  natural  susceptibility,  the  instruc- 
tion of  his  father,  the  correspondence  of  Mr.  Maitland,  an 
Mrly  friend  arid  patron,  had  deeply  impressed  him  with 
devotion  to  his  Maker,  and  taught  him  to  consider  it  a» 
inseparable  from  good-will  and  beneficence  to  men.  Vo- 
lumes of  his  Diary,  kept  for  the  whole  of  his  life  in  I^n« 
don,  and  amounting  to  many  thousands  of  close- written 
pages,  in  contractions  very  difficult  to  decypher,  consist 
of  medical,  miscellaneous,  and  eminently  pious  remarks, 
meditations,  Mid  daily  <^abillations  of  praise  and  thanks- 
giving, with  fervent  prayers  to  be  kept  steady  m  that  course 
of  well-doing  essential  to  happineiss  in  the  pvesent  life  and 
in  that  which  is  to  come.  The  tone  and  teniper, 'elevation 
and  energy,  acquired  by  thi^.  sublime  heavenly .  inter- 
course, appeared  indispensable  to  this  good  man,  not  only 
as  the  consolation  of  sorrow,  and  the  disposer  to  patience 
and  resignation  under  the  ills  of  life,  bat  as  ttie  sprifig  and 
principle  of  unwearied  perseverance  in  active  virtue  i  the 
liberal,  charitable  exercise  of  the  profeaion  t^ 
he  was  devoted*  From  this  time  forward  he  <»n« 
for  nearly  half  a  century  cultivating  nfedtcine  in  all 
its  bnmches,  most  attentive  to  every  new  improvement  in 
tbemf,  physician  to  the  British  lying-in  hospiul,  feU 
low  of  the  rojral  and  antiquarian  societies,  renderings  his 
bowie  an  asylum  for  the  poor,  as  well  a^  a  centre  of  cooT- 
■ranication  for  the  learned  i  for  Ins  connection  witb  the 
kigfaer  orders  of  men  never  prevented  his  habitual  atten- 
tions and  services  to  the  less  fortunate:  in  geneml,  to  ^nd 

^  Am  ma  aciBoadMury  be  wag  ac-  f  In  1769  he  read  befcre  th&jocifCy 

BQOirledged  by  the  best  judi^i  to  hare  of  physiciani  a  cate  of  fatal  tleas, 

had  tbe  followiof  very  admirable  qua-  wfaich  was  publiihed  in  tiM  foorth  ysI. 

ktifM:  <<  He  wafestremelypatieat,  as  ofMed-Obt.  and  Boqairiei.    Andia 

loQf  as  patience  was  a  virtue ;  and  in  the  same  year  two  cases  of  retrovert^ 

I  of  difficulty  or  of  extreme  danger.  Uterus,  which  were  published  in  the 

hi  deeided  with  qsiekaess  and  great  fifth  volmne.    la  17S9  he  pablishedin 

Mgment  |  and  he  bad  always  a  mind  the  I^oadoo  Medical  Journal,  ObBer«> 

sufficiently  firni  to  enable  his  hands  to  Tations    on    Extra-uterine  cases  and 

•a#ea*e  that  vhieh  hid  head  had  die-  ruptmnes  of  the  Tubes  and  Uterus;  and ' 

fated."    Sir  O.  Baker  made  him  ae*  In  the  same  year  sent  to  the  royal  so^ 

quainted  with  the  celebrated  Dr.  Wil-  cieiy.a  remarkable  case  of  numerous 

Mara  Hunter,  through  whose  recom*  Births/  with  obserrations ;  printed  in 

■Mndation  and  interest  Dr.  Oarthshora  the  17th  Toloma  of  the  Philosophical 

«as4:hosett  physiciai^- to.  the  hospitiil  Toma^Qiiy* 
In  Browolow-strcet. 

S16  G  A  R  T  H  S  H  OR  £*• 

in  need  of  his  asustonce  was  the  surest  recoQamendaliaOn 
to  his  partiality. 

To  the  last  he  maintaiDed  bis  gaiety  and  briskaesf ;  and, 
in  company  with  bis  friends,  was  always  ready  to  give  wayr 
to  those  innocent  sallies  of  pleasantry*  that  facetiousnea» 
and  hilarity  which  are  the  natural  fruity  of  an  unblemished, 
lifei  and  of  a  benevolent  disposition.  In  1795  be  married' 
a  second  wife  9  but  she  died  long  before  him*  The  day. 
previous  to  his  death  he.  said  to  a  foend*  in  the  wonls  of: 
Grotius,  ^^  Hen  vitam  perdidi .  Qperose  nihil  agendo  t\ 
adding,^  that  be  b^d  firm  reliance  on  God's  goodpeas, 
througb  Christ  H^  died  ne^it  dayi  the  1st  MarcE*  i&l2>, 
and  was  interred  in  BunbUUfields  burying^gmund.  .  > 

.  In  person  he  bore  fo  striking  a  resemblance  to  the  iirsti 
earl  of  Chatham,  that  he  was  sometimes  mistaken  for  bim^ 
This  likeni^ss  once  produced  considerable  ^nsation  in  tb.f^ 
house  of  commons.  Lord  Chatham  was  poioted  to  in  the 
gallery  ;  all  believed  him  to  be  (here ;  the  person  really, 
present  was  Dr.  Garthsbore.  He  died  worth  about  5$,Q00L 
and  by  his.  will,  made  only  a  few  day9  before  hit  deaths 
after  the  payment  of  a  considerable  number  of